Free Essay

What Is the ‘Georgian Worldview’ and How Has This Concept Influenced the Archaeology of Eighteenth-Century North America?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By imogencox
Words 3625
Pages 15
What is the ‘Georgian worldview’ and how has this concept influenced the archaeology of eighteenth-century North America?

The ‘Georgian worldview’ is a theory that uses a study of cultural development to determine the thoughts of the eighteenth-century North Americans. It was initiated by James Deetz in his first edition of In Small Things Forgotten (1977). The term encapsulates Deetz’s structuralism-based idea that the evident alteration within English material culture and landscape design was more than a change in style, but a universal change in human consciousness—from medieval to modern—and this extended across the Atlantic despite the colony’s increasing political distance from the homeland (Deetz, 1996: 62-63; 2003: 221). Deetz believed that shared artefact form reflected shared thought (2003: 220). The theory has enabled historical archaeologists to recognise a distinctive shift in many areas of material culture which subsequently encouraged a succession of scholars to further this idea by posing key questions: why did the worldview develop, where else was a Georgian worldview visible, how did it present itself in areas outside New England? In the quest for answers to these questions, archaeologists have developed the concept which accordingly shaped interpretations of the material discoveries of eighteenth-century North America. Deetz’s model for the cultural development of New England illustrates that following an interval (1660-1760) of limited English influence on North American material culture, the contemporary homeland culture—which had recently been influenced by the rationality of the Enlightenment—became influential once again in the colony’s artefacts and landscapes (Deetz, 1996: 59-61). In proving his culturalist theory, Deetz focused on the development of academically styled houses (see figure 1) from the original vernacular design (see figure 2), the transition from the sharing of plates and chamber pots to the individualised usage of such technomic objects, and the whitening of small and large artefacts (ibid.: 126, 85; 2003: 222). The intrusion of the Georgian worldview is reflected in New England’s eighteenth-century architecture by its progression from asymmetrical, organic buildings to the planned, balanced and permanent expressions of Renaissance Palladian architecture; this style, often used by Inigo Jones, had been popular in England since the seventeenth-century (Deetz, 1996: 62, 66; Gable, 2004). Deetz based his interpretations of Georgian architecture on Glassie’s analysis of folk material culture (1972) in which the latter highlighted the floor plan’s bilateral symmetry as an imperative feature of the increasingly popular style (see figure 3) (1996: 66; Glassie, 1999: 314). Deetz viewed the desire for the North Americans’ distinctive designs as more than simply a stylistic preference; he instead drew upon the alterations in the smaller colonial objects to support his theory that the New Englanders’ minds had been affected (2003: 221; 1996: 174). Georgian New England’s rejection of corporate tendencies, and a taste for order and balance, manifested itself in the proportionately larger quantities of plates, chamber pots and other utensils in the post-1760 rubbish disposal pits and probate inventories (ibid.: 85-86). Likewise, a plea for control can be detected in the whitening of ceramics, gravestones and even houses as the designers pushed for distance from the natural, uncontrolled form (2003: 222). Deetz extends his theory as far as the butchering methods used by the colonisers of North America, registering new precision as a means of “portion control” (ibid.: 228); this example also corroborates his individualism opinion. Deetz’s innovative belief that the Enlightenment stimulated a novel reflection on the world—characterised by control and rationality—was the unquestioned undercurrent to consider when examining New England’s material culture from the eighteenth-century. His emphasis on deliberate order to subvert natural chaos reflects the alternative outlook of the Georgian worldview, but the author leaves the next question unanswered: why did the change occur? Deetz’s colleagues were grateful for his contribution to North American Georgian archaeology in suggesting a way to understand the minds of the eighteenth-century colonisers (Orser, 1998: 310). Annapolis’s school of archaeologists were not eager to question the validity of Deetz’s finds; instead they quickly strove to document the areas outside New England that demonstrated similar changes. The renaming of the Georgian worldview to the ‘Georgian Order’ (ibid.: 310) suggests that archaeologists began to view the change as an imposing structure, rather than an innocent outlook. Using the model for New England as a “convenient metaphor” (ibid.: 310), Leone searched for evidence of the Georgian Order in Annapolis, Maryland. He developed Deetz’s ideas of the Georgian worldview by using a Marxist stance to explain the cause of the altered mentality. Leone noted that the infiltration of the Georgian Order coincided with the rise of merchant capitalism (Leone, 2003: 237). In the debut of The Recovery of Meaning (1988), Leone provided the probate inventory data that encouraged him to interpret the new order to be a result of capitalism. The distribution of wealth had altered dramatically; in 1690, the poor people contributed 28% to the wealth of the colony, whereas they held only 3% in 1730. When this information is compared to the economic holdings of the wealthy settlers, who in 1730 equalled 18% of the population and held 78% of the wealth, Leone’s reading is justified (ibid.: 239-240). He understood the new order not to be a physical representation of worldviews, but of the social elite’s dominant ideologies (Leone, 1984: 26). These were artefacts that expressed attempts to mask the realities of the social order; to create a false consciousness to disguise the contradictions of the slave-owning, freedom-fighting society, to justify the wealth disparity, and ensure their position at the top of the social ladder (ibid.: 26). This idea built on Deetz’s perception that the Georgian worldview was originally echoed in social elite material culture and landscapes before being “passed slowly to their rural neighbors” (Deetz, 1996; 164). Although seemingly sensible, there was a serious disjunction in Leone’s analysis. Orser detected a significant reluctance of archaeologists using Deetz’s model to approach the concept of the Georgian Order in any manner other than as a culturalist would (1998: 311). The outcome of this hesitation was that Leone attempted to bring capitalism under the cultural banner and in doing this, he confined the Georgian Order again by cultural constraints. Although in direct opposition to some archaeologists, for example Yentsch (ibid.: 312), Leone culturalist position encouraged him to surmise that the capitalist culture dictated Georgian thought (Leone, 2003, 241). Had Leone accepted capitalism as a social phenomenon, Deetz’s concept would have progressed and developed far quicker. Leone legitimises his notion that capitalism is a culture by investigating the degree of functionalism within eighteenth-century Annapolis’s material culture and landscapes. He registers the rise and scope of capitalism in Annapolis as a three stage process (ibid.: 240). The first phase dates between 1710 and 1730 when the wealth disparity became evident. Leone argues that in this timeframe scientific measuring equipment, clocks and musical instruments accumulated within the middle and upper classes; they were used for measuring purposes, to provide precision and control, with the intent to demonstrate that the hierarchical quality of society and the measurements of nature itself favoured the wealthy, thus legitimising the inequality within the capitalist society (ibid.: 241). The redefining of the natural order carried out by those who could access the equipment reflects Leone’s dominant ideology theory and comforts Deetz’s structuralism approach. Leone used and adapted Deetz’s idea of individualism, apparent in sets of crockery and cutlery, to suggest the presence and acceptance of capitalism within eighteenth-century Annapolis. With the aid of inventories, Leone argued that between 1733 and 1777, sets of plates, cups and saucers, and cutlery became more popular, to the extent that the majority of all wealth groups obtained these matching sets by the middle of the eighteenth-century (Leone, 2003: 244). He viewed the non-communal sets of tableware as part of the new etiquette and work-discipline that stressed the “autonomous individual” who should strive for “personal fulfilment”; this internalized work ethic is a core aspect of the capitalist ideology (Leone, 2008: 102). As even the poorer members of society obtained sets of tableware, the spread of capitalism appears to have penetrated deep within the society of Annapolis. In 1992 Isaac supported this view in his argument that the widespread popularity of individual tableware reflected the mass production factor of the consumer revolution; an event that corresponded with the rise of capitalism (Isaac, 1992: 419). Leone’s most compelling evidence for a capitalist culture and the subsequent dominant ideologies is his interpretation of the Annapolis social elites’ gardens, specifically William Paca’s (Leone, 1984). Leone uses Isaac’s argument from 1982 that before the American Revolution, the severe inequalities and contradictions of colonial society made it frighteningly unstable. Therefore the wealthy used, and expressed through the Georgian order, Renaissance-style architecture and carefully planned gardens as ideological tools to convince others of society’s apparent natural structure and therefore, continue to reap the capitalist rewards (Leone, 1984: 26). Little also argued that newspaper layouts and grammar developed rules of presentation and demonstrated the pursuit of control within this period (Leone and Potter, 2003: 215). The gardens were ideological as their creation using precise measurements, optical illusions and segmentation expressed power and enabled control over the natural world (see figure 4) (Leone, 1984: 29-34). This implied that the rich were not only provided with, but deserved the right to economic and political control that they, incidentally, fiercely demanded in the revolution. As Hall succinctly states, these were ‘statements of wishes, not statements of facts’ (Hall, 1992: 382); they masked the reality of inequality. Leone’s development of Deetz’s original idea is significant as it directs scholars to a potential cause for the change in thinking, evident in the archaeology of eighteenth-century colonial America. Leone himself considers his addition of capitalism as the cause to be important to archaeologists as it provides a connection to life today (Leone and Potter, 2003: 214), thereby enabling the reader to understand his argument without extensive knowledge of the context. This interpretation, however, assumes that the ideological deceptions succeeded. Leone’s contribution encouraged archaeologists to investigate further: was the archaeology of North America evidence of the submission of the poorer classes? Or was there resistance to the idea and a realisation of the subliminal messages that the social elite were trying to enforce? Equally, was the Georgian material culture dictated by a cultural theme or was it an alternative contemporaneous occurrence? Archaeologists were not wholly satisfied by Leone’s contribution to interpreting the archaeology of eighteenth-century North America. Deetz’s theory of the Georgian worldview was constructed around the time that the popularity of social history as a discipline, increased. As one could argue the inevitability of a social approach, it is unusual that one did not transpire until approximately fifteen years after the birth of the Georgian worldview concept. Hall’s contribution to Georgian North American archaeology considers social relations; this facilitated a bottom-up approach to eighteenth-century material culture and landscapes, as opposed to the saturated top-down perspective. Hall’s developments of the Georgian order—specifically his connection between the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) and Virginia—highlighted that Deetz’s culturalist conclusion of an Enlightenment influenced worldview and Leone’s Marxist readings into the influences of capitalism may not be quite as accurate as they once appeared. To eliminate the Enlightenment as a factor, Hall examined the extent of its influence in South Africa - another region where symmetry and balance was a prominent feature in similar forms of material culture and landscapes. Hall argued that in contrast to England, the design of the houses did not fit with the typical Georgian style (classically inspired features and floor plans) but instead reflected ornate baroque qualities, thus suggesting the Cape of Good Hope had not been influenced by the Enlightenment (see figure 5) (Hall, 1992: 377). Likewise, the Westover house (see figure 6) in Tidewater Virginia was in keeping with the eighteenth-century stylistic ideas. By applying a discursive approach Hall uncovered the juxtaposition that the slave-keeping owner and builder of the house, William Byrd II, was not an enlightened gentleman, but a sexually promiscuous drunk. Similarly, if Georgian design was used as an ideological agent as Leone suggested, why would the Byrd family choose to decorate their privy so lavishly when no one but themselves could reflect on its representation? (ibid.: 374, 383) This point is furthered by Williamson who argues against the theory of disguise by stating these explanations have been applied to landscapes that are different in both layout and appearances. He continues to undermine Leone’s idea by questioning if gardens served the latter’s prescribed function, would the poor be permitted to enter such landscapes and then be so naïve as to accept the façade? (Williamson, 1999: 38). Taken into a different context, ideology can be a sufficient explanation as the designs functioned to convince an individuals of their personal position in the hypocritical society or, as the consumer revolution was in progress, impress others of a similar social standing (Hall, 1992: 383; 2000: 19). This notion is supported by more recent scholars such as Courtney (1996), Williamson (1999) and Hicks (2005). Hall’s research highlighted the importance of discourse and social inequalities in understanding the material culture of the eighteenth-century (Hall, 2000: 18). This comprehension enabled the comparison of public and hidden transcripts concerning slave and master relations which subsequently illustrated an atmosphere of instability as a result of both the Virginians’ and the Cape’s dependency on slaves. The Virginians and the Dutch in the Cape appear to express power and control over their environment, neither due to a new way of thinking nor dominant ideologies, but because they both owned large-scale slave systems whilst feeling threatened by the very institution that provided them with economic prosperity; the elite felt the need to reassert authority (ibid.:19, 24). Hall’s theory was validated by the confirmation of resistance in both colonies; public transcripts document slave insurrections and archaeological excavations unearth evidence of disobedience. Slave rebellions were commonplace in colonial America and one does not need to research hard to find an abundance of information. More subtle resistance, however, is more difficult to prove as in history, the slaves had no voice. Nevertheless, Hall has verified that not only were the slaves quietly disobedient, but they also understood the value and significance of certain aspects of elite material culture. Whilst excavating grainstore pits in the Dutch East India Trading Company’s Head Quarters (Cape Town), Hall identified Khoi pottery, ostrich eggs and clay tobacco smoking pipes that had been trimmed and reused, therefore implying the pit had been filled by slaves (the grainstore pits resembled the root cellars of Virginia - perhaps a similar form of resistance is yet to be discovered). The significant find in this pit was porcelain of the finest calibre (see figure 7). The African labourers certainly would not have been given or been able to purchase such a commodity. Hall proposed that the burying of this artefact was an act of resistance and as this item was so expensive, the slaves had a distinct understanding of the gravity of the disobedience they were involved with (Hall, 1992 :389-390). This goes someway to undermine Leone’s dominant ideologies perception as the porcelain was more than a utensil to the slaves, it was a triumph. Hall’s addition to the Georgian worldview concept has had major repercussions on Deetz’s original ideas. Not only has he added a social angle to the study, but he has demonstrated that the supposed ‘mind-set’ was in fact a response to the inequalities the Georgian elite had created and that the lower classes were not as ignorant as some archaeologists would believe. Georgian society was not entirely infiltrated by Enlightenment influences, or committed to producing and justifying profit. The eighteenth-century was a period of large-scale slave holdings and because of the economic transformation, society adapted accordingly presenting archaeologists with the visual transformation of a man-made world. Although scholars champion solely their own ideas, it would be too simplistic to reject all others. At the time of the revolution, North America was a highly diverse state, ripe with many areas of sectionalism; from loyalists to patriots, from embryonic abolitionist ideas to the staunchly pro-slavery republicans. Equally, where some plantation owners treated their slaves as animals, others practiced a policy of paternalism and were kinder. To claim that one cause could influence the entire Anglo-American colonies, as well as some overseas, would be naïve to the point of arrogance. This idea is supported by the fact that each scholar uses supporting evidence from different areas. In order to claim such all-encompassing ideas archaeologists need to find more examples of confirmation. The varying social, political and economic views and situations of the individual builders or owners could harbour the explanation for the stylistic change. The development of the Georgian worldview, from Deetz to Hall, demonstrates the progress in the methods and understanding of historical archaeology as a discipline. Each contribution to Deetz’s original idea has illustrated the variety of ways in which scholars can interpret our past, and has evolved our opinions of Georgian North American material culture to consider a wider range of possibilities. Leone’s idea of dominant ideologies does have some merit in the sense that the impressive houses and landscapes could serve to comfort the elite in their hypocritical position at the top of the social ladder. Leone, however, did not mention the ‘Georgian order’ in his more recent publications; this suggests that even he understands the importance of social relations in interpreting material culture and landscapes over the culturalist opposite that could be misleading. The Georgian worldview is again being redeveloped to suit the new approaches to the historical archaeology of eighteenth-century North America.

Bibliography:

Courtney, P. (1996) ‘In Small Things Forgotten: The Georgian World View, Material Culture and the Consumer Revolution’, Rural History 7: 87-95

Deetz, J. (1996) In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life, New York: Anchor Books

Deetz, J. (2003) ‘Material Culture and the Worldview in Colonial Anglo-America’, in Leone, M.P. and Potter, P.B (eds.) The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern sUnited States, New York: Percheron Press: 219-233

Gable, C. (2004) Italian and Cultural History: The Secrets of Palladio's Villas, http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/analysis.html (accessed 03/05/2012)

Glassie, H. (1999) Material Culture, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press

Hall, M. (2000) Archaeology and the Modern World: Colonial Transcripts in South Africa and the Chesapeake, New York: Routledge

Hall, M. (1992) ‘Small Things and the Mobile, Conflictual Fusion of Power, Fear, and Desire’, in Yentsch A. E. and Beaudry M.C. (eds.) The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology, Essays in Honor of James Deetz, Ann Arbor: CRC Press: 373-399

Hicks, D. (2005) ‘‘Places for thinking’ from Annapolis to Bristol: situations and symmetries in world historical archaeologies’, World Archaeology 37: 373-391

Issac, R. (1992) ‘Imagination and Material Culture: The Enlightenment on a Mid- 18th-Century Virginia Plantation’, in Yentsch A. E. and Beaudry M.C. (eds.) The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology, Essays in Honor of James Deetz, Ann Arbor: CRC Press: 401-423

Kelso, W.M. (1992) ‘Big Things Remembered: Anglo-Virginian Houses, Armorial Devices and the Impact of Common Sense’, in Yentsch A. E. and Beaudry M.C. (eds.) The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology, Essays in Honor of James Deetz, Ann Arbor: CRC Press: 127-145

Leone, M.P. and Potter, P.B. (2003) ‘The Archaeology of the Georgian Worldview and the 18th-Century Beginnings of Modernity’, in Leone, M.P. and Potter, P.B (eds.) The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern United States, New York: Percheron Press: 211-216

Leone, M.P. (2008) ‘The Archaeology of liberty in an American capital: Excavations in Annapolis,’ in the Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18: 101-115.

Leone, M.P. (2003) ‘The Georgian Order as the Order of Merchant Capitalism in Annapolis, Maryland’, in Leone, M.P. and Potter, P.B (eds.) The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern United States, New York: Percheron Press: 235-259

Leone, M.P. (1984) ‘Interpreting ideology in historical archaeology: using the rules of perspective in the William Paca garden in Annapolis, Maryland’, in Miller, D and Tilley, C (eds.) Ideology, Power, and Prehistory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 25-35

Leone, M., Kryder-Reid, E., Bailey-Goldschmidt, J. (1992) ‘The Rationalization of Sound in Mid- 18th-Century Annapolis, Maryland’, in Yentsch A. E. and Beaudry M.C. (eds.) The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology, Essays in Honor of James Deetz, Ann Arbor: CRC Press: 229-245

Orser, C.E. (1998) ‘Epilogue: From Georgian Order to Social Relations at Annapolis and Beyond’ in Shackal, P.A., Mullins, P.R. and Warner M.S. (eds.) Annapolis Pasts: Historical Archaeology in in Annapolis, Maryland, Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press: 307-324.

Pennell, S. (2009) ‘Mundane materiality, or, should small things still be forgotten?: material culture, micro-histories and the problem of scale’, in Harvey, K. (ed.) (2009) History and Material Culture: A student’s guide to approaching alternative sources, Oxon: Routledge: 173-191

Williamson, T. (1999) ‘Gardens, Legitimation and Resistence’, International Journal of Historical Archaeology 3: 37-52

Appendix:

Figure 1: An example of a vernacular house (Deetz, 1996: 66)
[pic]

Figure 2: A Georgian house (Deetz, 1996: 66)
[pic]

Figure 3: bilaterally symmetrical floor plan arrangements (Glassie, 1999: 315)

[pic]

Figure 4: William Paca’s garden (Leone, 1984 :30)
[pic]

Figure 5: A South African house built in the eighteenth-century (Hall, 1992 :379)
[pic]

Figure 6: Westover House, Virginia
[pic]

Figure 7: Chinese porcelain from the DEITC HQ, Cape Town (Hall, 1992: 387)
[pic]…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

A Review of Swahili Archaeology

...African Archaeological Review, Vol 15, No. 3, 1998 A Review of Swahili Archaeology Felix A. Chami1 The Swahili people have been viewed as of Persian/Arabic or Cushitic-speaking origin. Scholars have used historical and archaeological data to support this hypothesis. However, linguistic and recent archaeological data suggest that the Swahili culture had its origin in the early first centuries AD. It was the early farming people who settled on the coast in the last centuries BC who first adopted iron technology and sailing techniques and founded the coastal settlements. The culture of the iron-using people spread to the rest of the coast of East Africa, its center changing from one place to another. Involvement in transoceanic trade from the early centuries AD contributed to the prosperity of the coastal communities as evidenced by coastal monuments. More than 1500 years of cultural continuity was offset by the arrival of European and Arab colonizers in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries AD. Le peuple Swahili a souvent ete considere comme un peuple dont la langue avait pour origine le Perse/Arabe ou le Cushite. Les chercheurs ont utilise des donees historiques et archeologiques afin de supporter cette hypothese. Cependant I'etude linguistique de cette langue, ainsi que de nouvelles decouvertes archeologiques suggerent que la culture Swahili trouve son origine au debut de l'ere chretienne. Ils furent les premiers fermiers a s'installer le long du littoral, fondant......

Words: 8581 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

How Judaism Has Affected America

...from the word “Apiru” from Phoenician language, meaning ‘The one who rides caravans; nomadic people. BACKGROUND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAIC THOUGH * Preceding Judaism, we have Neat Eastern Religions which comprise the Sumarian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Egyptian religions. They seem to have influenced the development of Judaic though historically. 1. The Near Eastern Religions: Polytheistic, but try to conceive one highest god (i.e Marduk in the Babylonian religion) Apsu(Sweet Waters) Ti’amat(Salty Waters) Mumy(Mist) 2. They try to conceive of heaven and hell and idea of reward and punishment. 3. We find a parallel Myth of Flood to the Hebrew Bible story of Noah. But, it is Judaism which becomes 1st monotheistic religion of mankind. Judaism becomes the foundation of prophetic religious tradition in West, thereby we have religions such as Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam. Zyandusthia- Middle Eastern God with flood myth, 7 days of rain instead of 40. THE HEBREW BIBLE * Judaism is often associated with the land of Israel, but Judaism is better understood when one studies the Hebrew Bible. * History of Jewish people * Their though * How they lived throughout history. * Written doen as early as 800 B.C.E but final form achieved in 400 B.C.E * Consists of: Torah(Teachings), Nevi’m( Early and Later prophets), Kethuwim (Miscellanous Writings or Everything else) * These three writings are as a short form called T-N-K( ot......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How This Course Has Changed Me

...In this course I have learned much about myself, as well as other people, more so than I ever thought I would, and with this knowledge comes a great responsibility. When this class first started I only expected to learn the very basics of psychology like the different approaches to psychology from behaviorism, structuralism, functionalism, humanism, psychoanalysis, and other things. Not only did I learn about the essentials of psychology, but I also learned a great deal about myself and my past life experiences. This class has forced me to look deep within myself and confront my psychological demons. Doing that has helped me become more understanding and accepting of why I am the person I am today and what I can do to change certain things. Without the help of Psychology 101 and words of wisdom from my instructor I would still have no clue as to who I am as a person, and who I want to be, as well as what my purpose in life is. I have gained more confidence in myself this semester than I've ever had in my entire life. I feel more enlightened about many aspects of life, especially when it comes to understanding other people. I feel like this class has also helped rid me of the anxiety that I faced. In this paper I will discuss how this class has changed certain aspects of my life, how I've grown to overcome certain psychological hang-ups, and how I plan to use this knowledge in my future life....

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Retelling Nineteenth-Century Latin America Through Literature

...Retelling nineteenth-century Latin America through literature The time period is the nineteenth-century, the setting: a geographic and cultural space once known as the New World. It’s not your typical account of heroes and villains, the rich against the poor, good versus evil, or princesses, castles and glass slippers. Although all of these actors play a fundamental role in the tale that is about to unfold (with perhaps, the exception of the glass slippers), the real story traces its roots to a time period plagued by significant socioeconomic changes in the way of life of an entire civilization. By no means was it a homogeneous collection of peoples, but rather a mosaic of diverse indigenous folk, African descendants, Europeans, and peoples of every possible mixed ethnic makeup. This is the story of modernization imposed by the Eurocentric elites, forever leaving its mark on the social and cultural construct of Latin America. Historian, Bradford Burns, in his work the Poverty of Progress concludes it was modernization that led to the destruction of the quality of life in the aftermath of independence movements across Latin America. The overarching themes of his book revolve around the wealthy and educated minority imposing modernization on the less educated majority: the indigenous folk, Africans and those of mixed ethnicity. As can be expected, historical accounts during the nineteenth-century also reflect this Eurocentric mentality. History of this region often......

Words: 922 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Has Media Influenced Fitness in Today’s Culture?

...MFC 5032: RESEARCHING THE MEDIA LANDSCAPE PRIMARY RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC ESSAY May, 2013 1101303 Shaunie Gwen Perry Level 5, Media shaunieperry@aol.com Research Project Proposal : How has media influenced fitness in today’s culture? Contents. Academic Essay p3 - 9 Bibliography p10-11 Appendices Secondary Sources Primary Sources: Experiment Experiment Information Sheets Participant Details Form Experiment Overview Experiment Results Experiment Results, Excel formatted. Experiment Results Correlated Graphs. Group A Fitness App Usage Academic Essay Fitness in today’s culture is affected in many different ways, one of the main in which it is influenced is through the form of media. The term fitness holds two meanings: first is the condition of the physicality of being fit and healthy and the other, the ability of being physically suited to fulfill given tasks or roles(Google Dictionary. 2013). For example fitness to a marathon runner would be determined on their stamina and the duration it takes to run a certain number of miles, whereas a body builder’s level of fitness would determine on their level of muscular strength and power. Once the term fitness has been defined, then the impact which media has on fitness must be analyzed. With an ever growing culture of viral connection dieting, where we can share our efforts with our friends and the public using the internet and other applications, as a society......

Words: 6737 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Toyota in North America

...Toyota in North America Donald L. Woolridge, Sr. Indiana Wesleyan University February 20, 2013 Course ADM537A Toyota in North America This paper will provide an overview and history of Toyota in general and the company’s operations in North America and its product lines specifically; share comments on the company’s organizational structure and senior management leadership style; discuss its nearest competitors – Ford, GM and Chrysler, known as the Detroit 3; share the weighted average cost of capital; provide insight in the company’s rationale/methodology for evaluating capital budgeting opportunities in North America; review the economic forecast for the industry; show the characteristics of common stock and bonds, share key financial ratios for three years, comparing to industry and nearest competitors; and in conclusion share a strong, fact-based summary of why or why not a person should make an investment in the common stock of Toyota. Historical Overview Toyota is a family-owned and operated company with very humble beginnings. Sakichi Toyoda, his son, Kiichiro Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno all played an important role in not only laying the foundation for what would become the automotive giant Toyota, but also in the development of the system that has revolutionized lean manufacturing; the Toyota Production System (TPS) (ToyotaGeorgetown.com, 2006-2013). Sakichi Toyoda invented the automated loom which ensured quality of product by stopping when......

Words: 4416 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

What Is the Role of Institutions According to North? How Far Does This Theory Go Towards Explaining the Contours of World Development in the Pre-Modern Growth Era?

...What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? Maddison (2006) stated that he “would characterise the whole period 1000-1820 as ‘protocapitalist’”. He believes the transition from pre-modern to modern economic growth took place at around 1820. This will set the stage for this discussion. Within that period, there were two groups of countries which were differentiated by their deviation in economic growth. They were the Group A nations, which included Western Europe, Western Offshoots and Japan, while the rest of the world made up the Group B nations. The contours of world development in this era, largely shaped by Douglass North’s theory of institutions, can be categorise into two main subsets which are Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and population demographics, for the purpose of this essay. North (1990) defines institutions as “the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human action”. Institutions exist in every economy, in the form of either formal or informal constraints, developed to define the choice sets, within which individuals and organisations make their decisions. Economic growth is heavily dependent on the productivity of an economy, which in turn is affected by the costs involved. In the neoclassical world of complete information, the gains of trade are only negated by the......

Words: 1855 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Meaning of Race in a 21st-Century America

...Kristy Nguyen JOUR453 Spring 2014 The Meaning of Race in a 21st-Century America As far as America has come in the battle for equality and improving civil rights, the topic of race still looms over our nation and sparks many different debates. The division of the 21st-century isn’t as obvious as it used to be in the past, there are no “Whites Only” sign to direct us and the simplistic black-white concept of race no longer exists. The issue lies much deeper than we could ever imagine and its fast-paced change is making it difficult to comprehend. The increase in the multiracial population further adds to the complexity of this topic and our ideas on race. That is why Center for American Progress located in Washington, D.C. decided to tackle this matter head-on by opening an in-depth panel discussion entitled “The Meaning of Race in a 21st-Century America” to dig into America’s history to find the origins of race, address race and ethnicity today as the nation’s demographics are shifting, and emphasize the importance of the U.S. Census to accurately represent the people of this. Featured panelists included Rinku Sen, President and Executive Director of Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation; Julie Dowling, Associate Professor, Department of Latina/Latino Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Roderick Harrison, Senior Research Fellow, Civic Engagement and Governance Institute, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies; and Hilary O. Shelton,...

Words: 2168 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Has Confucianism Influenced Modern Economic Development in East Asia

...How has Confucianism influenced modern economic development in East Asia? The rise of Asia’s so called “Tiger” economies followed by China, has given rise to the spectrum of a distinctly East Asian economic development model. The pioneering economic success of in particular, Singapore, South Korea and Japan since the 1970’s has highlighted the need to evaluate and distinguish how such economies achieved such successive growth. A variety of possible factors can explain or highlight possibilities for the successive development of East Asia. A particularly unique factor that has to be taken into account is Confucianism. The interplay between culture and development can help explain how in particular Japan and South Korea, which were relatively closed societies, have risen to attain the status of newly industrialized countries. This essay will investigate and evaluate, through the presentation of arguments and examples, the extent to which Confucianism has influenced modern economic development in East Asia. This will be achieved by firstly providing a working definition of Confucianism; then locating its positive impact within a broader debate concerning a distinctly Asian development model; investigating and analyzing the challenges presented by Confucianism in the economic development of East Asia; evaluating both the negative and positive implications of Confucianism in East Asian economies and finally assessing to what extent Confucianism has played a role in the......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Use the Concepts Described in the Course to Analyze What Sort of Innovation This Is and How It Compares to Competing Products or Processes

...(Kumar, 2006). Zara is one of the most outstanding apparel retail businesses in the world today. Although it is not the biggest, its marginal profits and rates of growth are leading the industry. The purpose of this essay is to analyze what sort of innovation Zara used on its way to success and make comparisons of competing products or processes with its competitors. By analyzing and comparing, it is obvious that the company's success depends on conducting a series of innovations at each one of the parts in the business: fashion-forward design, unique branding strategies, in-house production processes and centralized distribution system. Basically, this essay has been divided into four parts: the first part focus on describing how Zara makes its designs more innovative compare with other appeal retailers. Then, what sort of innovation used in their branding strategies will be discussed. Next, it will consider Zara’s innovation of production process and show an apparent difference of this process among Zara, H&M and the Gap. Finally, it will look at how Zara promotes innovation on their distribution process in to become more fast. It is those innovations that set challenges for rivals since Zara’s business model is extremely difficult to imitate or equal and also it is this realization that makes Zara get reliable and sustainable competitiveness. According to Ghemawat (2006), a particular distinction in Zara manufacture is the most fashion-forward products compared with......

Words: 2808 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

“How the Facebook Age Has Influenced Changes in Human Behavior.”

...“How the Facebook age has influenced changes in human behavior.” In the past, many people were limited to who they were able to interact with, and most online communication occurred through electronic mails. The amount of information exchanged was very limited because many computers were not yet capable of holding vast amounts of data and the speed in which the information was transferred was not fast enough. But with the advancement in broadband technology, also came the expansion of communication channels. The thirst for instant communication resulted in the creation of social networks such as Facebook. After its beginning in 2004, Facebook revolutionized the way people interacted with each other online, and gave users the opportunity to directly connect and communicate in a much faster way. Companies can now use the social media platform as a way to advertise their products; people can now instantly let everyone know how they feel, what they ate for breakfast, and that great show they attended the night before with even a picture, and the map of the place it was taken from. Even presidential candidates have used Facebook to promote their campaigns. By being able to connect with more people outside of one’s social circles, people can now expand their network and take their opinion to a much wider audience. Facebook has played an important role in shaping the current generations by creating a direct web of communications between its users all over the world; but with......

Words: 2107 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

How American Music Has Shaped America

...How American Music has shaped America Every culture uses music to express their beliefs or feelings. From the early days of slavery, to recent pop culture, hip hop, rock, jazz or techno, music has shaped Americans into what we are today. Music not only gives artists an avenue to express their beliefs, it also gives the listener the feeling that there are people in the world that has the same feelings that they have. Not all music has a meaning or a message. Some music is just that, music; beats of a drum, strums of a guitar, electronic collaborations to make a melody, with no real message. Whether it is political, cultural, social, or just for the sake of music, artists have the means to express what they feel, and the popular ones have an audience. The first chapter of William Roy’s book, Reds, Whites, and Blues, focuses on folk music and social movements from the 1930s-1960s. He states that the importants of music was that, “…freedom songs was less important for their mass appeal than in the activity of blacks and whites joining arms and singing together (Roy 2010). Roy goes on and explains that social movements mobilize around culture, and music is culture. Ron Eyerman and Andrew Jamison explore social movements as it relates to music and how it transforms cultures. In the beginning of the book, they state that, “…nowhere has the “role” of music been more important than in the United States, where social movements have been less ideological and more emotive......

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Freight Rates Have Remained Low and Volatile in the Various Market Segments (Container, Liquid and Dry Bulk). What Influences Freight Rates? How Has This Influenced the Demand for Port Services and the Setting of Port Charges and Tariffs?

... liquid and dry bulk). What influences freight rates? How has this influenced the demand for port services and the setting of port charges and tariffs? Huda Mohammad Nazmul Student ID: 1120130936 Major: Master’s of Business Management Dalian Maritime University Dalian, China Abstract After the economic crisis in 2007-2008 fiscal years the freight market remained volatile and freight rate remained low in various market segments. The purpose of the study to determine the factors those influence the freight rate and how those influence the demand of port services and setting charges for the port. The depression in market segments affects the supply and demand of the freight of the shipping lines which also has an effect on the demand of port services and setting of port charges and tariffs. The research paper shows the factors that influence the freight rate as well as the influence on the port services and setting charges and tariffs which lead to a change in port operation, reform and regulation. To illustrate the relation among them international trade theory and other historical data has been considered as the evaluations of the paper. In the discussion of different market segments new demands for the port operation and setting charges has been illustrated. Fundamental concepts on port pricing, freight rate and services introduced by the previous research on this topic has been considered as a......

Words: 6350 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

How Has the Greek Language Influenced the English Language?

...Introduction The research question is “How has the Greek language influenced the English language?”. We chose language as our subject because we were interested in how people developed a way in which we can communicate orally as well as express and comprehend written thoughts. We think that this topic is worth of study because we will investigate and understand how several English words have been influenced by the Greek language. Numerous words in English have Greek roots. The relevance of the question is to find out how the Greek language influenced and affected the English language. Main Ancient Greek Dialects Different variants of the early Greek alphabet suited to local dialects. There were three major dialects in ancient Greece: Aeolic, Doric and Ionic (of which Attic was a branch). Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolians lived in the islands of the Aegean, the Dorians, from the Greek coast of Peloponnese, including Crete, Sparta and other parts of West Coast Asia Minor. The Ionians settled in the West coast of Asia Minor including the Smyma. Ancient Greek Language The first Europeans to read and write with an Alphabet were the Ancient Greeks. The Ancient Greek language eventually led to all modern European languages.(In text ) The Greek language has a very long and rich history stretching all the way from the thirteenth century B.C. to the present. Linear B (13th century B.C.) is the earliest form of the language. The first surviving script...

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Has Being an Afro-Latino Influenced Their Art or Work?

...• How has being an Afro-Latino influenced their art or work? • Does this individual identify himself/herself as Black or Hispanic or both? Why or Why not? Or are they just another member of their respective culture and don’t make the distinction? • As a member of one of the various target cultures in Latin America, does/or did your person face the same stigmas or denial of basic human rights (eg voting rights, education, marriage)? • Are they similar or different from Afro-Americans? How? • Did he/she have to confront similar stereotypes or racism like Afro-Americans in U.S. traditionally have faced due to issues related to race i.e. skin color, hair texture, disenfranchisement, lack of social status/ political status within their community because of their race? • How are Afro-Latinos perceived within this individual’s culture? Is it looked down upon to be a person of color, to be of African descent or “Black”? Are they called something specifically if they are mixed race?
• What issues are unique to the Afro-Latino experience? • Which work have you chosen to present? Why? What about it is related to African heritage?
• How is their African heritage/experience seen in their work? • Which African cultures are prevalent amongst his/her Afro Latino community in Americas?
• What is their experience as Afro-Latinos coming to America?
• Are your findings unique only to your Afro-Latino person or to all people of color? • What have you learned about this individual and their......

Words: 583 - Pages: 3