The Use of Baking Soda, Common Salt, and Vinegar as Fire Extinguisher

In: Science

Submitted By kairu
Words 1617
Pages 7
THE USE OF BAKING SODA, COMMON SALT, AND VINEGAR AS FIRE EXTINGUISHER

In Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements in Research II

Researchers

Verchiel B. Cubelo
Ma. Rena N. Catoltol
Nathaniel L. Perol

S.Y. 2014-2015

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Nature and Importance of the Study Fire is a reaction involving fuel and oxygen that produces heat and light. Humans use fire to warm themselves and to cook food, and to start a fire, we commonly use lighters and matches, unlike the early humans who rub sticks or rocks. Today, people naturally focus not on starting fire but on using it productively and on preventing or extinguishing unwanted fires using fire extinguishers. These are portable devices used to put out fires of limited size. Such fires are limited into four classes, according to the type of material that is burning. Class A fires include those in which ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper are burning. Class B fires are those in which flammable liquids, oils, and grease are burning. Class C fires are those involving live electrical equipment. Class D fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium and sodium. Each class of fire requires its own type of fire extinguisher. This study focuses on the use of common salt (sodium chloride), baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and vinegar (acetic acid) as fire extinguisher. Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water (H2O). The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Baking soda, a base, is an amphoteric compound. It is also known as sodium hydrogen bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). It is a white solid crystalline but often appears as a white powder and has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda. It can extinguish fire (grease or electrical) by being…...

Similar Documents

Baking Terms , Baking Equipment's and Basic Baking Ingredients

...Baking Terms Allumette: Any of various puff pastry items made in thin sticks or strips (French word for "matchstick"). Almond Paste; A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar. Angel Food Cake: A type of cake made of meringue (egg whites and sugar) and flour. Angel Food Method: A cake mixing method involving folding a mixture of flour and sugar into a meringue. Baba: A type of yeast bread or cake that is soaked in syrup. Babka: A type of sweet yeast bread or coffee cake. Baked Alaska: A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge-cake base, covered with meringue and browned in the oven. Baking Ammonia: A leavening ingredient that releases ammonia gas and carbon dioxide. Baklava: A Greek or Middle Eastern dessert made of nuts and phyllo dough and soaked with syrup. Batter: A semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch, used for the production of such products as cakes and breads and for coating products to be deep-fried. Bavarian Cream: A light, cold dessert made of gelatin, whipped cream, and custard sauce or fruit. Beignet Soufflé (ben yay soo flay): A type of fritter made with éclair paste, which puffs up greatly when fried. Blanc Mange (bla mahnge): (1) An English pudding made of milk, sugar, and cornstarch. (2) A French dessert made of milk, cream, almonds, and gelatin. Bloom: A whitish coating on chocolate, caused by separated cocoa butter. Blown Sugar: Pulled sugar that is made into thin-walled, hollow shapes by being blown up like a......

Words: 7672 - Pages: 31

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

...HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER What would happen if a fire broke out in your home or business? Would you know what to do or where the fire extinguisher was located? Over the past couple of months, there have been a high number of fires in homes and businesses. Were there any fire extinguishers and did the personnel know how to use them? Knowing how to use a fire extinguisher could save your home, business or more importantly your life. Every home should have at least one fire extinguisher and all businesses in the Hampton Roads area are required to have them. Knowing where they are located is just as important as knowing how to use them. In homes they should be located in the kitchen under the cabinets or mounted on the wall. In businesses they are located at all exit doors that are at least 75 feet apart. The size and type of extinguishers will vary depending on the type of business and the size of the space covered. The most common type of extinguishers used is an “ABC” extinguisher. It is used on A, B and C classes of fires. Fires are classified by the materials they burn; for example: Class A or alpha fires are any material that will leave an ash. Class B or bravo fires would be fuel, grease or flammable liquid fires. Class C or Charlie fires are electrical or electronic fires. There is also a Class D or delta fire which consist of special hazards such as; titanium, magnesium or any material that will produce its own oxygen. The way......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Fire Prevention

...Fire Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process that affects ecological systems across the globe. The positive effects of fire include stimulating growth and maintaining various ecological systems. Fire has been used by humans for cooking, generating heat, signaling, and propulsion purposes. The negative effects of fire include water contamination, soil erosion, atmospheric pollution and hazard to human and animal life. PHASES OF A FIRE First Phase – Incipient Oxygen content 20% - 21% with ceiling temperatures of approximately 37˚ C°. At this stage the produces of combustion are water vapour, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxiode, and hot gases rising. Smoldering fires my last for a few seconds to several hours before breaking into flames. A large volume of smoke will be present until flaming starts and then progress is rapid. Second Phase – free burning, flame producing or steady state At this stage the oxygen content is 15% - 19% and the ceiling temperatures are above 537°C and the products of combustion are water vapour, carbon dixiode, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. There large quantities of dark grey smoke and rapid destruction of combustible materials. It is at this point that flash over occurs. Flash...

Words: 3488 - Pages: 14

Baking

...HISTORY OF BAKING On today’s market there is a never ending variety of the most delicious sweets and pastries to please both the palate and the eyes. We have become so used to this diverse range of bread, mouth watering pastries and cakes that seldom we ask just how they come into existence. I guess my initial interest in the origin of the baking industry was not aroused by accident; rather I suspect it was kindled by a chain of events occurring earlier in my life... My Grandfather owned a small hotel and bakery in Switzerland and when he retired my father who was an excellent pastry cook continued the business. As a small child I spent many hours watching my dad at work and later followed in his footsteps almost as a matter of course. Then again, I have a suspicion that it may have been “fate-by-design” that made me take up pastry-cooking. The question still remains, was my career pre-determined by the fact that my grandfather had thousands of letterheads printed for his bakery which included his name? The prospect of a hefty quantity discount would no doubt have made perfect sense to my frugal fore bearer; it must have been so much cheaper getting all this printing done in a big way. Grandfather should have realised (and I suspect that he might have) that there was not the slightest chance that any one generation could ever use up this huge mountain of stationery. Granddad’s first name “Fritz” was also my father’s first name and when I was born there was never any question...

Words: 19791 - Pages: 80

Reliance Baking Soda

.... Quick Case summary discussing strengths and weaknesses of the RBS brand. Anna Regnante has been promoted to Domestic Brand Director’s position for Reliance Baking Soda (RBS), a market leader in the baking soda category. Reganante has to develop a 2008 budget that would result in a 10 percent increase in profit over 2007 estimates. Before she makes any decisions about her future strategies and budget, she has to study RBS’s previous marketing and promotional strategies and evaluate their positive and negative impacts on the company up to date. Stewart was founded by James Stewart Augusta who had discovered the compound of Baking soda and branded it as RBS. Baking soda was a leavening agent and had 70 percent of the market share. The introduction of new substitutes such as self-rising flour and instant cake-mixes, however, had reduced the company’s market’s importance. Apart from the baking soda market, RBS competed with many products and became well-known for its different uses as cleansers, air fresheners, and laundry detergents. In order to understand consumer’s attitude toward RBS, One survey was conducted and its result showed that the brand had high loyalty among consumers but low advertising brand recall. There are five key RBS marketing mix considerations that Regnante has to study before she makes her decision regarding the company’s future strategies. These marketing considerations are distribution, pricing, adverting, consumer promotion, and trade......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Baking Soda Analysis

...Reliance Baking Soda: Best Promotion Problem Anna Regnante, the new Domestic Brand Director for Reliance Baking Soda must determine the effectiveness of past promotional strategies in order to select a promotional strategy which will contribute towards a 10% increase in profits for 2008 before SGA, overhead, and taxes, specifically through marketing expenditures in advertising, consumer promotion, and trade promotion. Further Regnante must develop a 2008 budget P&L that will show the resulting 10% increase in profits from the marketing expenses. Situation Analysis Context Economic * Mature industry * Increasing raw material cost * Recent price increases * Low-involvement purchase * Prior to 2005, consumer promotions were not really a significant part of RBS marketing Technological * Baking soda first produced in 1846 Social/Cultural * Alternative uses for baking soda * Different types of users of baking soda * Staple product in most homes * Female heads of households generally are the purchasers * Reliance has high brand recognition (95% mentioned Reliance when asked for a baking soda brand) Competitors The main competitors for Reliance baking soda are private label brands who compromise 30% of the market and are priced 30% below RBS price. RBS had lost 5% of its market share to private label brands in the past decade. Baking soda does not have any viable substitutes or alternatives as it is a unique......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Salt Flats

...1/9/14 Create Your Own Miniature Salt Flats! | Education.com Education.com Try Brainzy Try Plus Sign in Your Account Already a member? Sign in Become a free basic member: Get 5 free worksheets per month plus activities, articles and science projects. Sign Up As an annual PLUS member, get unlimited access to: Over 15,000 Worksheets Over 260 Printable Workbooks Hundreds of Fun Activities Get Started As a Brainzy member, help your child: Review Key Skills: Teaching Videos Practice Through Play: 75 Fun Games Master Reading: Leveled Stories Get Started Games Activities Worksheets Workbooks Articles Science Fair Schools more + Next Project Idea (http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/determine-earth-rotation-affects-spin/) (http://www.education.com/science-fair/fourth-grade/) Back To Project Ideas List Create Your Own Miniature Salt Flats! Print (http://www.education.com/print/Miniature-Salt-Flats/) Collect It! (#) Pin It Email (javascript:void(0);) Twitter (http://twitter.com/intent/tweet? status=Check%20out%20%27Create%20Your%20Own%20Miniature%20Salt%20Flats%21%27%20%28http%3A%2F%2Fbit.ly%2Fnnh9Vw%29%20on%20%40Education_com) Science Fair Survival Guide Join now and get it free! (#) Author: Michelle Formoso Topics Eighth Grade (http://www.education.com/sciencefair/eighth-grade/) , Seventh Grade (http://www.education.com/science-fair/seventh-grade/) , Sixth Grade (http://www.education.com/science-fair/sixth-grade/) , Middle School......

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

Reliance Baking Soda

...Reliance Baking Soda: Best Promotion Problem Anna Regnante, the new Domestic Brand Director for Reliance Baking Soda must determine the effectiveness of past promotional strategies in order to select a promotional strategy which will contribute towards a 10% increase in profits for 2008 before SGA, overhead, and taxes, specifically through marketing expenditures in advertising, consumer promotion, and trade promotion. Further Regnante must develop a 2008 budget P&L that will show the resulting 10% increase in profits from the marketing expenses. Situation Analysis Context Economic * Mature industry * Increasing raw material cost * Recent price increases * Low-involvement purchase * Prior to 2005, consumer promotions were not really a significant part of RBS marketing Technological * Baking soda first produced in 1846 Social/Cultural * Alternative uses for baking soda * Different types of users of baking soda * Staple product in most homes * Female heads of households generally are the purchasers * Reliance has high brand recognition (95% mentioned Reliance when asked for a baking soda brand) Competitors The main competitors for Reliance baking soda are private label brands who compromise 30% of the market and are priced 30% below RBS price. RBS had lost 5% of its market share to private label brands in the past decade. Baking soda does not have any viable substitutes or alternatives as it is a unique......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Baking Soda Reliance

...Reliance Baking Soda: Best Promotion Problem Anna Regnante, the new Domestic Brand Director for Reliance Baking Soda must determine the effectiveness of past promotional strategies in order to select a promotional strategy which will contribute towards a 10% increase in profits for 2008 before SGA, overhead, and taxes, specifically through marketing expenditures in advertising, consumer promotion, and trade promotion. Further Regnante must develop a 2008 budget P&L that will show the resulting 10% increase in profits from the marketing expenses. Situation Analysis Context Economic * Mature industry * Increasing raw material cost * Recent price increases * Low-involvement purchase * Prior to 2005, consumer promotions were not really a significant part of RBS marketing Technological * Baking soda first produced in 1846 Social/Cultural * Alternative uses for baking soda * Different types of users of baking soda * Staple product in most homes * Female heads of households generally are the purchasers * Reliance has high brand recognition (95% mentioned Reliance when asked for a baking soda brand) Competitors The main competitors for Reliance baking soda are private label brands who compromise 30% of the market and are priced 30% below RBS price. RBS had lost 5% of its market share to private label brands in the past decade. Baking soda does not have any viable substitutes or alternatives as it is a unique......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Fire Safety

...Fire safety: The purpose of fire safety is to prevent or reduce the likeness of a fire. Dangers from a uncontrollable fire: Death Injury Property damage If you have a grease fire: Never use water as it will only make it grow larger! To put it out use; A) Cover the flame with a damp cloth. B) Cover the flame with a lid. C) Dump baking soda over the fire. Remember at home to follow E.D.I.T.H which stands for: E = Exit D= Drills I = In T= The H = Home Safety tools at home: 1. Fire extinguisher; the three most common types are: water, Carbon Dioxide and Chemical foam. 2. Smoke detector; remember to change the batteries every 6 months. Every time you change your clocks you should change your batteries. Remember to check your smoke detector at least every month. 3. Carbon Monoxide; because carbon monoxide is odorless and transparent, it is important to have this in your home. Make sure it is connected to a wall outlet, and it should read 0. What to do if: A) Fire inside your house that is too large to put out; 1. Follow your E.D.I.T.H 2. Call 911 3. Get far away from your home and wait for the fire fighters to arrive. B) Fire is in outside your bedroom and you cannot escape safely; 1. Call 911 2. Use a blanket or something to block the smoke from coming in from under the door. You can also check the door handle with the back of your hand. 3. Get low to the ground, as smoke rises. 4. Wait until the fire fighters arrive. Methods...

Words: 309 - Pages: 2

Reliance Baking Soda: Optimizing Promotional Spending

...Northeastern University MKTG 6200 summer 1, 2015 # 41058 Case analysis: Reliance baking soda: Optimizing promotional spending Student: Jiangping Hao (Fiona) Reliance baking soda (RBS) was a clear market leader in the baking soda category, capturing 70% share. In 2006, over 85% of U.S. family households with income of $25k+ used the product. Now the main challenge for Anna Regnante is to identify the ways to optimize promotional spending for the RBS. Moreover, Anna Regnante also needs to develop the budget (Income statement) for the year 2008 that would result in a 10 % increase in the profit over the estimates of 2007. RBS’s main competitors were private label brands, priced 30% below RBS. In the last decade RBS had lost 5% of its share to private label brands. RBS also competed with products outside the baking soda category, whose price per ounce was significantly higher than that of RBS. And I gave the Alternatives below: Alternative 1: By creating out -of – the -box uses for the product, the first alternative for the Anna in optimizing the promotional spending is to modify the product specification according to the needs and wants of the customers. That means the company has needed to introduce some new or low price of the produces for the specific customers. It can include cleaning and deodorizing garage equipment etc. For the long-term planning and they can give the window cleaner low price for the every holiday that could make a slogan likes “ we are together......

Words: 459 - Pages: 2

The History and Evolution of the Fire Service

...power of fire, he has been trying to control it. From a single bucket wielding man to a complex well trained and organized team have been working on controlling and suppressing fire for millennia’s. Many simple and complex tools have been developed to help in the control and suppression of fire. Organized fire brigades can be dated back to the earliest civilizations because of the fear of fire and the damage that it can cause. Many great infrastructures have fallen to the devastation of fire and have taken large groups of dedicated members to control those fires. Over the past century, the fire service has become more than just fire suppression, now these dedicated individuals are trained to rescue people, control hazardous materials, perform fire prevention duties, and attend to the injured. Many people think that the fire service is a fairly modern idea due to the industrial revolution. Some researchers have said that firefighting was first started and organized in ancient Egypt. There is evidence of firefighting machinery was used in Ancient Egypt, including a water pump that was developed by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the third century BC which was later improved upon in a design by Hero of Alexandria in the first century BC. One of the first well documented fire brigade or suppression team was the ones of the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Augustus is credited with instituting a corps of fire-fighting "watchmen" in 24 BC. Regulations for checking and preventing fires......

Words: 11715 - Pages: 47

Fire Def.

...endothermic reactions. An example of an exothermic reaction is a fire burning. An example of an endothermic reaction is photosynthesis.
 
12. Concentration: the relative amount of a given substance contained within a solution or in a particular volume of space.

13. BTU: British thermal unit which is a traditional work equal to 1055 joules.

14. Joule: the SI unit of Work or Energy.

15. Fire: Combustion or burning in which substances combined chemically with oxygen in the air and typically give out bright light heat and smoke.

16. Fire Point: The lowest temperature at which a substance can continue to burn.

17. Fire Tetrahedron: A four-sided geometric representation of the four factors necessary for fire: fuel (any substance that can undergo combustion), heat (heat energy sufficient to release vapor from the fuel and cause ignition), oxidizing agent (air containing oxygen), and uninhibited chemical chain reaction (sufficient exothermic reaction energy to produce ignition).

18. Fire Triangle: A simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires. These ingredients are heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent.

19. Flame: a hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by something on fire.

20. Dry Chemical Extinguishing agent and how it works: Dry chemical extinguishers are filled with foam or powder, usually potassium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and pressurized with nitrogen. Baking soda is effective because it decomposes at 158......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Reliance Baking Soda

...Reliance Baking Soda Summary of the background and facts In August 2007, Stewart Corporation was enjoying success with its household division of products that included baking soda, laundry detergents, and other household cleaners. Stewart Corporation had built the company on the trusted brand associated with Reliance Baking Soda (RBS). (Quelch & Beckham, 2009). RBS was the market leader in its category, but the Reliance brand had experienced increased competition in recent years due to private label brands gaining more market share. Stewart promoted Anna Regnante as the Domestic Brand Director for (RBS) on August 8, 2007. Regnante was immediately tasked with the job of developing a budget for the coming year (2008) that would “result in a 10% increase in profit (before SGA, overhead and taxes) over 2007 estimates.” (Quelch & Beckham, 2009). The Stewart Corporation was founded by James Stewart Augusta in 1915. Augusta had discovered what was called the “miracle compound” (baking soda), which led to the introduction of a product that would be used in many capacities that included cooking, cleaning and deodorizing. Baking soda was initially marketed as a key leavening ingredient that caused baked items to rise in the cooking process. Following the introduction of self-rising flour and instant cake mixes, the product’s importance to bakers declined. (Quelch & Beckham, 2009) Stewart found new life for its product to be used as a cleaning agent due to compound’s......

Words: 1728 - Pages: 7

Baking

...For most of us today, baking is something we don’t usually think much about. For as long as I can remember, I have always enjoyed baking. Over the last few years, I started watching baking shows. The shows would talk about leavening agents and how they were important. My children and husband started asking me what a leavening agent was. Obviously I would know; I am Kathy Crocker to my family and friends. They thought that I always had the answers. When it came baking, the only thing I knew about leavening was it was baking soda and baking powder. This had piqued my curiosity. What is a leavening agent? Leavening is used to modify something for the better. Leavening is a key component in baking; everything from cookies to bread. Using a leavening agent helps make baked goods light and have a higher volume. The baked goods are more tender and easier to digest. There are three main leavening agents; solid, liquid, and gas. The most commonly used one is gas (air, steam, and carbon dioxide). All baked goods rely on steam and air in baking. Steam is released because of the liquids in baked goods. Air is present in the batter when we use physical means to incorporate it in; creaming, whipping, folding, sifting, and kneading. Carbon dioxide is not in all baked goods. Carbon dioxide can be found when using yeast, baking soda, and baking powder. Yeast is commonly used in breads. Baking powder can be used alone or with another leavening agent. Baking soda is often used with an......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4