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The Role of Ict in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics

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TITLE PAGE
THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (FCE), ZARIA KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

BY NAME | REG NUMBER | USMAN HAUWA | EZ/11/MACO/008 | MICHAEL GOTOM HELEN | EZ/11/MACO/036 | AKUBO OMERA ISAIAH | EZ/11/MACO/043 | SARKI DORATHY BELLO | EZ/11/MACO/089 |

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION (NCE), DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ZARIA

JULY, 2014

APROVAL PAGE
This project has been read and approved as meeting the requirement for the Award of Nigeria Certificate in Education in the School of Science, Mathematics Department, Federal College of Education, Zaria.

____________________________ _____________________
MAL. UMAR ISAH OHIMEGE DATE
PROJECT SUPERVISOR

_________________________ _______________________
MAL. SANI SAIDU DATE
PROJECT COORDINATOR

_________________________ _______________________
SHETTIMA MUSTAPHA DATE
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
DEDICATION
We whole-heartedly dedicate this research study to God Almighty for His guidance, protection, care and infinite mercy that He bestrode upon us throughout the period of our study, who is the sources of wisdom and knowledge.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We whole-heartedly thank God Almighty for the opportunity He has granted to us to complete this piece of work successfully and for his infinite love, care and mercy upon our lives.
We will never forget the efforts of our project supervisor Mal. Umar Isah Ohimege and also our honorable Head of Department Mal. Shettima Mustapha whosefatherly advice and contribution made this project successful. Also our thank goes to our lecturers in Mathematics and Computer Science Department, for their wonderful advice and for impacting on us a good knowledge.
Our deepest gratitude to our parent for holding the faith on all fronts during the period when our course was in progress and for their moral and financial support.
A great thanks to all our friends, well-wishers and colleagues for their maximum cooperationand encouragement, may God help them abundantly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE 1 APROVAL PAGE ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLE ix ABSTRACT x CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 8 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 8 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 11 1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 11 1.7 ASSUMPTIONS 12 1.8 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 12 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13 2.1 INTRODUCTION 13 2.2 MATHEMATICS AND IT NATURE 18 2.2.1 ICT and Education in Nigeria 19 2.2.2 Effectiveness of ICT in Education 22 2.2.3 Impact of ICT on Curriculum Planner 24 2.2.4 ICT and Mathematics 25 2.2.5 Computer Raising Standards 28 2.3 Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) 29 2.3.1 Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) 30 2.3.2 Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) 30 2.3.3 Benefits of ICT in Education 30 2.3.4 Information Technologies and Teaching Learning Process 33 2.3.5 The Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning 37 2.3.6 Limitations of ICT use in Education 38 2.4 ICT TOOLS USE FOR TEACHING AND PLANNING 41 2.5 OBSTACLES TO THE USE OF ICT IN SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA 43 2.6 IMPLICATIONS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEWED TO PRESENT STUDY 49 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 50 3.0 INTRODUCTION 50 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 50 3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 51 3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 52 3.4 INSTRUMENTATION 53 3.5 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT 54 3.6 ADMINISTRATION AND DATA COLLECTION 54 3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 54 CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 55 4.0 INTRODUCTION 55 4.1 SEX OF RESPONDENTS 55 4.2 AGE OF RESPONDENTS 56 4.3 PERCEPTION ON ICT 56 4.4 USE OF COMPUTER AND TECHNOLOGY RELATED 57 4.5 RESPONDENT ACCESS TO COMPUTER 58 4.6 ICT ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS 58 4.7 TEST OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 59 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 69 5.0 Introduction 69 5.1 Summary 69 5.2 Conclusion 70 5.3 Recommendation 71 References 73 APPENDIX 62

LIST OF TABLE Table 3:1: Population of the Study: NCE I, NCE II, NCE II students in Mathematics Department for 2012/2013 Session 52 Table 3:2: Sample of the Research: NCE II Students in Mathematics Department for 2012/2013 Session 54 Table 4.1: Distribution of respondents by sex 56
Table 4.2: Distribution of respondents by age……………………………….57 Table 4.3: Distribution by Perception 57
Table 4.4: Distribution by the Use of Computer …………………………..58
Table 4.5: Distribution by access to computer………………………………59
Table 4.6: ICT enhance teaching and learning mathematics………………….59 Table 4.7: ICT Resources Available and Accessible to Mathematics Lecturers for Use in Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria 61 Table 4.8: Research Hypothesis 1 62 Table 4.8: Perceptions of Mathematics Lecturers on the ICT Resources in Mathematics Teaching and Learning in FCE, Zaria 63 Table 4.9: Research Hypothesis 2 64 Table 4.10: Lecturers and Students Preparedness for the use of ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics 66 Table 4.11: Research Hypothesis 3 67

Abstract
This study is an inquiry into the role of information communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria. The study seeks to examine whether the students and lecturers in mathematics department in FCE, Zaria prefer ICT resources in teaching and learning of mathematics. The instrument used was questionnaires. The (190) questionnaires were administered to students and lecturers from the department. The instrument was made up of some items to elicit response from the students and lecturers on their opinion on the perception of use of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics. Their responses were analyzed using Chi-Square statistical calculations and percentage. From the data analysis, it was found out that the students and lecturers prefer the use of ICT resources in teaching and learning of mathematics. Some problems and prospects of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics were highlighted. Recommendations such as regular workshop, conferences, seminars and relevant programmes should be organized for lecturers and students periodically to enhance effective teaching and learning of mathematics in FCE, Zaria.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of mathematics is of great paramount and essential. ICT role in teaching and learning of mathematics cannot be ignore but identify to be the core. A descriptive study is to be carried out to establish the perception and awareness of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria Kaduna State.
The history of information storage and dissemination indicates that human being used different things for information storage, its display and transmission. In different ages people used different materials and methods for communication such as rocks and stones, papyrus, palm leaves, animal leather and handcrafted manuscripts for storing and transmitting the information from one place to another and to the next generation. These means of information were limited and confined to the elites but “the advent of printing enabled information to be truly widespread throughout the world to move to a more equitable level in terms of access to knowledge” (Menon, B., 2000). At present, knowledge may be regarded as power and it comes from having information. Information encompasses and relies upon the use of different communication channels or technologies –called information technologies, for its effectiveness and equal access. Information technologies may extend knowledge beyond the geographical boundaries of a state or country providing relevant information to the relevant people round the clock.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a combination of three important terms (Information, Communication and Technology) which meanings are of great importance that need to be stressed and detailed.
Information in its general sense is "Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance." Information in its most restricted technical sense is a sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as a message. Information can be recorded as signs, or transmitted as signals.The term information encompasses a wide range and variety of things ranging from oral and printed words, figures, statements, file and document to such intangible elements as sound, signal rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys a message (UNESCO, 1979). Conceptually, information is the message (utterance or expression) being conveyed.
Communication (from Latin "communis", meaning to share) is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication is defined by de Valenzuela as “any act by which one person gives to or receives from person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.” Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver doesn't have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.
The word technology refers to the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge while information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro base combination of computing and telecommunication. Telecommunication is a special form of communication in which information is conveyed over long distance. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes any communication devices or application encompassing; radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network, hardware and software, satellite systems and so on as well as the various services and applications associated with them such as video conferencing and distance learning etc. Information and Communications Technology (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Information and communication technology (ICT) influences and affects everyone’s private and cooperate work life. Information technology is an advantage in every career, especially as a teacher. ICT revolution seems to have created a new body of knowledge that has affected all mankind. In recent years, several studies and reports have highlighted the opportunities and the potential benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT) for improving the quality of education. ICT is viewed as a major tool for building knowledge societies and, particularly, as a mechanism at the school education level that could provide a way to rethink and redesign the educational systems and processes, thus leading to quality education for all. * The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in inculcating in them the required capacity for the world of worth. In educational management, the relevance of ICT equipment has been highly recognized especially in the teaching and learning of mathematics (Kauchak and Eggen, 2008). ICT provides one way to teach students how to solve problems. Federal College of Education is still yet to recognize the roles ICT play in teaching and learning of mathematics. * As a teacher/lecturer, one needs to improve learning instruction as well as to communicate effectively. The more effective a teacher is at work life and resourceful management of content, the better and less cumbersome his or her task becomes. * The use of ICT assists the teacher in keeping students’ record, computing examination results, preparation of lesson notes and making statutory records to be kept and handled easily. Basically, the utilization of ICT as a teaching aid for teachers makes the art of teaching more creative and dynamic, making learning more concrete, real, immediate and retentive. Subsequently, it makes the dual process of teaching and learning more pleasurable without reducing from its level of efficacy and effectiveness.
Therefore, this study intends to investigate the level of awareness, perception, preparedness of teacher/lecturers and student in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria and the availability of ICT resources and it uses in the institution.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today, as the educational sector is faced with series of changes and reforms, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with mathematics and the dissemination of mathematical knowledge and lessons. Numerous teaching strategies have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of students' need and diverse learning methods. One of such strategy involves the use of information and communication technology (ICT). The use of ICT in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in imbibing in them the required capacity for the worth of work. Investigations reveal that many learners at the department of mathematics inFederal College of Education, Zaria, Kaduna State strongly detest the manners in which the mathematics teachers/lecturers handle and deliver mathematical knowledge and lessons without the use of ICT facilities.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is the use of technology in managing and processing information with the use of electronic computer system and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.Mathematics on its own requires observation and knowledge to solve natural problems. Oshodi (1999) states that awareness towards the use of information and communication technology is increasing in the classroom in the developing world such that mere verbalization or over verbalization of words alone in the room to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educate learners is futile. Busari (2006) is of the view that poor reading skills of science and technology students, the state of laboratory facilities, and inadequate availability of correct mathematics textbooks affect effective teaching and learning of science subjects.
The followings problems give raise to this research work; i. The impact of ICT is not well recognized by Lecturers and students in the department of mathematics, Federal College of Education, Zaria. ii. Inadequate ICT resources in the teaching and learning of mathematics. iii. Inadequate electric power supply for the use of ICT resources iv. Inappropriate delivery of lecture due to low level of preparedness of lecturers/students. v. Low comprehensiveness of student due to the misuse of instructional materials for ICT. vi. The perception of lecturers and students on the use of ICT is low.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find; * The extent of ICT resources that is available in teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education, (FCE) Zaria. * The level of preparedness of F.C.E Zaria for the use of ICT resources in teaching and learning mathematics. * The extent of the use of ICT resources in teaching and learning of mathematics in F.C.E, Zaria.
1.4 Significance of the Study
As technology advances continue to evolve and proliferate, educators and administrators have sought to integrate technological innovations into the classroom. The raise implementation and demand comes an increased need to evaluate the effectiveness of technology in education (Owston, R.D., & Wideman, H.H. 1998). A proper evaluation of ICT use in teaching and learning of mathematics in general and it will particularly help us to learn from past experiences, improve service delivery, plan and allocate resources to teach and learn mathematics.
The following are the significance of the study identify by the researchers; * Motivating Students
Videos, television and multimedia software can be excellent instructional aides to engage students in learning process. These technologies can provide students with examples of real-life situations which specifics knowledge is required. In addition, sound, colour and movements simulate the students’ sensorial apparatus and bring a sense of enjoyment to the learning process. Technology can also expand students’ reality. * Introducing and Demonstrating a Concept
Research suggest that the acquisition of scientific and mathematical concepts is similar to the acquisition of new language when confronted with verbal or written material that has unfamiliar vocabulary, most people tend to stay away or openly reject the material. A similar reaction occurs when students are confronted with strange concepts and symbols images (text, graphics, icons, etc.) have the ability to decode the unfamiliar language into known representation, thus making the material more enjoyable and easier to apprehend.

* Learning the Basics
Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) utilize three important characteristics of technology; speed, memory, power and capability to repeat tasks without reducing performance. This programme offers students the opportunity to practice basic skills on their own time and pace. * Applying the Knowledge
Understanding concepts and mastering basic skills are only part of the process students must be able to utilize the information acquired to solve problem, formulate new problems and explain the world around them. Computer applications have the potential to store massive amount of data, plot curves, conduct statistical tests, simulate real life experiments, build mathematical models and produce reports all this with speed and accuracy. * Inquiring and Exploration
ICT have the potential to let student explore the world in cost effective and safe way. The internet has a vast potential to offer teachers and students opportunities for real-life scientific exploration.

1.5 Research Questions
In finding solutions to the problems, the researchers answer the following questions; 1. To what extend are the ICT resources available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students for use in mathematics teaching and learning in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria? 2. What are the perceptions of mathematics lecturers and students on the ICT resources in mathematics teaching and learning in FCE, Zaria? 3. To what extent are mathematics lecturers and students prepared for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
Ho1 There is no significant difference between ICT resources available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students to uses in teaching and learning of mathematics
Ho2 There is no significant difference between lecturers’ perception on the ICT resources and students’ in teaching and learning of mathematics.
Ho3 There is no significant difference between lecturersand students preparedness for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria.
1.7 Assumptions
The following are the assumptions of this research; 1. Regular use of ICT across different curriculum subject can have a beneficial motivational influence on students’ achievement. 2. ICT help lecturers in planning and preparation of lessons and designing materials. 3. Students are generally more on task and express more positive feelings when they use ICT resources than when they are given other task to do. 4. ICT uses during lesson motivate students to continue using learning outside school hours. 5. ICT help parent increases their knowledge of children’s learning and capabilities, owing to increase in learning activity being situated in the home.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this research is “the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of mathematic and this research is delimited to the lecturers and NCE II students of mathematics department, faculty of science due to large number of students in the department. In this view, the study will discuss the perception, awareness, accessibility, availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and it resources in the department of mathematics, faculty of science, Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria, Kaduna State.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
Education is knowledge, knowledge is the possession and expression of useful and factual information. Consequently, man’s ability to generate, organize, assimilate and utilize information stands him out. Infact, it justifies his status as the most advance (intellectually) in the animal world. Thus, it is not an overstatement to say that for any country to grow socially, economically, and academically, there is need for its citizens to be ICT (computer) literate and numerate (Adeleke, I. A. 2003).
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming an integral part of Education in many parts of the globe. Nigeria is not left behind as ICT gradually finds its way onto the Educational systems despite chronic limitations brought about by economic disadvantages.Fundamentally, education is a discipline like any other; it is a branch of human knowledge which is basically concerned with getting the young in the society prepared when they come of age. According to Gbamanja, (1989), education is a process, which seeks to change the behavior of a learner. Overall, behaviorist view education as the process of changing the behavioral pattern of people. Behavior in This sense refers to the way we change the learner, his or her thinking, his or her feelings and his other overt actions (Aladejana, F., 2007).
In another word, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its cultural heritage through schools, colleges, universities and other institution (Gbemanja 1989).In other to achieve the above- mentioned purpose in education, information and communication technology (ICT) .one could argue is an essential ingredient that could help bring these gains and benefits to the fore. Realistically, several researchers admitted that ICT have an impact in learning and teaching of science.
Globally, the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is fast gaining prominence and becoming one of the most important elements defining the basic competencies of student.In Nigeria, science teaching at that various level still retains the old conservative approach and if this situation would change, there is need for a diagnostic study.
Many researchers have carried out research on the implication of ICT for science teaching. However, the research works of Francisca Aladejana (2007). The implication of ICT and a new kind of science (NKS) will be review.The author in her work examines the attitude to the use of information and communication technologies (I.T.C.) and A New kind of science (NKS) for learning science among undergraduates from selected universities in Nigeria. She also tries to find out the impact of the use of simple computer experiments on the learning of science and also assesses the availability of resource for this new paradigm.Multiple research method was used including questionnaire, observation, discussion, and interview. Two questionnaires ARCAL to asses availability of resources was administered on 106 teachers from 25 secondary school.The result of her work shows that; none of the teachers have heard about Nks and its relevance to science teaching.9.43% of the teacher asked student to browse on the internet, 2.83% of the teachers have used over-head projectors and 1.89% makes use of CD-ROM containing educational topics. 20.0% of schools have one or two computer. While 4.0% have more than two computers. None of the schools have laptop, LCD projector, video recorder, talking books, and poor robots. 4.0% of the school has an overhead projector, 4.0% fixed line internet access. 5.67% of teachers have personal computers used for business and commercial purposes.Some students have access to computer and internet outside the school setting. Thus classroom are still very much traditional without much influence on ICT and NKS.
The role of technology in teaching and learning and is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy (Rosen and well. 1995; and Thierer. 2000). Most experts in the field of education agreed that, when properly used, information and communication technology hold great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to shaping work force opportunities.
Mcfarlane, A.&Sakellarious, S. (2002) “The role of ICT in science education” which was published in Cambridge journal of education.The paper consider two perspectives on the relationship between the science curriculum and the potential of ICT in science education; the first perspective is based on the current English Secondary Science Curriculum, while the second look at how the role of ICT might be developed if the curriculum were to emphasize scientific reasoning rather than the practice of empirical science. It focuses on the use of ICT to support or replace practical work and the use of the internet as a tool for scientists reasoning.The key findings of the research are as follows; * Using ICT either as a tool in a practical investigation or as a substitute for the laboratory-based elements of an investigation can aid theoretical understanding. * Electronic communications should be used not just to disseminate information but to create a community of learners.
The importance of ICT is quite evidence from the educational perspective. Though the chalkboard textbooks, radio/television and film have been used for educational purpose over the years, none has quite impacted on the educational process like computer. While television and film impact only on the audio visual facilities of users, the computer is capable of activating the senses of sight, hearing and touch of the users. ICT has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential for users to develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability.
Various researchers have carried out research work to show the impact of ICT in learning. Among these is Belts, S. (2003), ICT contributions to quality learning in science at key stage 3. This research was conducted in United Kingdom (U.K.).The study assesses the extent to which ICT contributes to quality in learning in science at key stage 3. The author considers the meaning of quality in the content of science education and identifies some of the indicators of quality.Data's were drawn from test, interviews and observations; the study examines how ICT affect pupils understanding, their mental engagement and the context for learning. 117Key stage 3 pupils were used as sample for the research. The researches however come out with the following findings; * ICT offers particular opportunities to enhance learning by making more time available for predicting and searching for explanations. * ICT allows pupils to work at their own speed. * Lessons need to be structured according to the possible outcomes that a specific application of ICT allows in other to take full advantage of ICT.
Betts, S. result suggested that ICT can enhance the quality of learning where its use is tailored to lesson objectives and the needs of pupils. In conclusion, the author presents a model for the possible use of ICT to increase the quality of learning in science.
Teachers like any other professional workers need essential tools to do their work most excellently.Certainly, it is true that the central figures in any learning situation are always the students and the teachers.But it is equally true that learning may be greatly enhanced by the utilization of the many resources available in the school and through various school agencies.Nevertheless, teacher's planning of effective learning activities will be easier, less time consuming and often vastly expanded in potential scope when teachers know precisely what type of ICT materials are available to them and when to draw upon them regularly to affect their teaching ability (Brown, Lewisand Harcleroad, 1959).
2.2 Mathematics and it Nature
Mathematics is not only a subject; it is related with many things in human’s daily life. Its study provides students with certain basic life skills and processes that will prepare them to be productive members of society. We do use variety of mathematics skills and processes such as, we tell time, we decide on the best product to buy, we read graphs (understanding statistical information) in the newspaper, we do financial planning and so on (Charles and Lester, 1984).
Brown (2003) reported that the mathematical body of knowledge is not static and inert but changing and expanding. As a result of this there is a shift from psychologically oriented view to a more socio-psychological interpretation of how learning takes place; there has been similar shift in philosophical issues related to mathematics education. It is recognized that mathematics, just as any other subject, grows and changes as a result of problem solving, trial and error and the interpersonal exchange of ideas.
Mathematical activity is an essential part of almost every profession, such as business, science, weather prediction, medicine, engineering, architecture, and economics (Charles and Lester, 1984). The content of mathematics curriculum must focus on ways to equip students with an ability to learn things that no one yet knows; such focus implies a different role for mathematics teachers. As well known, in a traditional way of teaching, mathematics teachers have concentrated their efforts on helping their students acquire computational skills, instead of emphasizing concept constructions.
2.2.1 ICT and Education in Nigeria
Technological Education has been a kind of education that requires the use of equipment and machine and the presence of a well package ICT policy should enhance the delivery of knowledge in that realm.
Importance of ICT in the management of technological education in Nigeria is in the double of advantage of learners and teachers in technological education as far as ICT are concerned. ICT related tools can make institutions and economy more productive, enhance skills and learning, improves government at all levels.
In recent years studies and reports has highlighted the opportunities and the potential benefits of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for improving the quality of education. ICT is viewed as a major tool for building knowledge societies and particularly, as a mechanism at the school education level that could provide a way to rethink and redesign the educational systems and processes, thus leading to quality education for all.
ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication devices or application encompassing radio, television, cellular, computer and network hardware and software, satellites systems and so on as well as the various services and applications associated with them such as conferencing. The development of ICT brought about online and real life systems in learning system, global wireless communication and various application software that are connected to the internet and communication functions (Uwadiegu, 2009).
The world is moving at an unimaginable speed in the area of information use and dissemination. According to Olaniyi (2006), the use of Information technology, knowledge and information can be transferred and cross-fertilized in real time. Hence, the need to pay attention to the way information technology has changed the educational sector through the internet. Economist Intelligence Unit in (2008) ranked Nigeria 62 among the nations in terms of the ability of a nation’s institutions to use ICT to achieve their mission and vision. Nigeria ranks below South Africa and Egypt – which rank 39 and 57 respectively. Nigeria’s e-readiness ranking highlights the need to seek innovative solutions to improve in teaching and learning. Currently, in Nigeria there is increasing awareness on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in teaching and learning.
The field of education has been affected by information and communication Technology which have undoubted affected teaching, learning and research (Yusuf, 2005). ICTs have the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change. (Daves and Tearle, 1999, edited by Yusuf, 2005)
ICT in education means teaching and learning with ICT. Researches globally have proved that ICT can lead to improve students’ learning and better teaching methods. A report made by the National Institute of Multimedia Education in Japan, proved that “an increase in student exposure to educational ICT through curriculum integration has a significant and positive impact on student achievement especially in terms of knowledge comprehension”, practical skill and presentation skill” in subject areas such as mathematics, science and special study. While we recognizes that the use of instructional technology in the higher education teaching and learning process in still in its infancy in Nigeria ICT instructional use is vital to the progress and development of faculty and student alike.
Higher educations in Nigeria haveadopted ICT as a mean to impact upon student the knowledge and part demanded by 21st century educational advancement. ICT also adds value to the process of learning and to the organization and management of learning institution in higher education an important aspect of the shift in technological process has been to the acceptance and use of ICT for teaching and learning. According to the Commonwealth of Learning International (2001) “Another serious challenges facing higher education in Nigeria is the need for integration of new ICT literacy knowledge into academic causes and programs. In this regard, Professionals in Nigeria have not been able to benefit from international assistance, international networking and corporation or from courses, conferences and seminars abroad, because of lack of funding.
ICT application and use will prove beneficial in improving Nigeria’s educational system and giving students a better education. A technologically advanced workforce will lead to ICT growth in Nigeria education with the potential to improve military technology and telecommunications and skilled ICT professionals who will be well equipped to solve information and technological problem in Nigeria education and other part of the world.
2.2.2 Effectiveness of ICT in Education
ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies—scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on campus. 1. Anytime, anywhere
One defining feature of ICTs is their ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ICT-based educational delivery (e.g., educational programming broadcast over radio or television) also dispenses with the need for all learners and the instructor to be in one physical location. Additionally, certain types of ICTs, such as teleconferencing technologies, enable instruction to be received simultaneously by multiple, geographically dispersed learners (i.e., synchronous learning). 2. Access to remote learning resources
Teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at any time of the day and by an unlimited number of people. This is particularly significant for many schools in developing countries, and even some in developed countries, that have limited and outdated library resources. ICTs also facilitate access to resource persons, mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peers—all over the world. 3. ICTs help prepare individuals for the workplace
One of the most commonly cited reasons for using ICTs in the classroom has been to better prepare the current generation of students for a workplace where ICTs, particularly computers, the Internet and related technologies, are becoming more and more ubiquitous. Technological literacy, or the ability to use ICTs effectively and efficiently, is thus seen as representing a competitive edge in an increasingly globalizing job market.
2.2.3 Impact of ICT on Curriculum Planner
As the technology progress and becomes more prevalent, teachers will also need to be continually reconsidering the mathematical content of their teaching. Having software which can for example solve systems of equations at the touch of a button has strong implications for the way particular topics are approached.
The use of ICT impacts on both declarative and procedural knowledge to such an extent that clear the current curriculum and models of teaching and learning were not designed to accommodate the increasingly rapidly expanding quantity knowledge, for example, the quantity of declarative knowledge is growing rapidly, largely fuelled by the efficiency of ICT, while at the same time ICT provides tools to more readily access that knowledge.
Thus, ICT has the following impacts on curriculum planners: * Helps to manage and organize lesson materials in a more effective and efficient way. * Reduction in administrative tasks due to the use of ICT resources which lessen paper work. * Enable curriculum planner to monitor student involvement and progress and plan better curriculum that will enhance effective education. * Widen communication opportunities with other part of the world to be able to be up-to-date with current curriculum. * Help the change in curriculum planner role from knowledge planner to learning facilitator.
2.2.4 ICT and Mathematics
Mathematics lessons are associated with real life situations and increases the relevancy of the lessons to the real world. The curriculum needs to be updated continually to take account of the technology prevalent in society. Mathematics has tended to be very abstract while most students tend to operate on a concrete level. The use of concrete materials in some lessons is useful but often not convenient. The computer can provide experiences with virtual concrete materials. In approaching problems associated with remedial and extension students’ computer use can provide appropriate material and overcome classroom management problems.
In order to exploit fully the power of mathematics in life, students need a rational or principled understanding of significant mathematical concepts (Skemp, 1989). This is means that not only should they develop mathematical skills, know number facts, apply arithmetical procedure correctly, recognize and relate shapes and use statistical formulae. They should perceive the meaning and relatedness of concepts and develop connected understanding that they can apply to problems in their everyday world (Askew et al, 2000). They should be able to draw on mathematics knowledgeably in making informed decisions in life and work. Such principle knowledge ability requires understanding of nature of mathematics itself in generalization and abstraction. All this listed criteria are met with the use of ICT which prove to be the bedrock of education.
Different kinds of technologies and tools have been used for centuries in mathematics e.g. tool for measurement, calculations and mathematical notation and symbol systems. These are cognitive technologies that help the student transcend the limitations of mind (Pea, 1987). Computer software is a special powerful cognitive technology for learning mathematics. Pea and Dorfler argues that we should regard ICT tools as reorganizers which have wide implications for the objects we work on and leads to more activity in mental level with more emphasis on planning and judging methods (Pea, 1987). Tools will be a part of the cognitive system (Dorfler, 1993) and computer visualizations will extend and expand the students’ cognition and should be available at any time. This has implications for the kind of software that we choose as tools in mathematics classrooms. Software should gave opportunity develop conceptual fluency, provide an environment for exploration and investigation, integrate different representations and stimulate reflections.
Amarasinghe and Lambdin (2000) described three different varieties of technology usage: using technology as a data analysis tool, using technology as a problem-solving/ mathematical modeling tool, and using technology to integrate mathematics with a context. Meanwhile researchers (Balacheff & Kaput, 1996; Kilpatrick & Davis, 1993) have discussed the impact of technological forces on learning and teaching mathematics.
Researchers argued that with the introduction of technology, it is possible to de-emphasize algorithmic skills; the resulting void may be filled by an increased emphasis on the development of mathematical concepts. Technology saves time and gives students access to powerful new ways to explore concepts at a depth that has not been possible in the past. The power of computers leads to fundamental changes in mathematics instruction. For example, the ability to build and run complex mathematical models, and easy exploration of "what if" questions through parametric variation has opened up new avenues for mathematics (Dreyfus, 1991). Furthermore, as Munirah (1996) observes, the teaching of calculus has seen a dramatic change now that activities such as exploring data or graphical data analysis have been revolutionized by the computer technology. The new role of computers is clearly expressed by Peters, O'Brian, Briscoe and Korth (1995).It is also reported that weaker students often are better able to succeed with the help of technology, and thereby come to recognize that mathematics is not just for their more able classmates (Wimbish, 1992). Although there has been much written about the potential of technology to change how mathematics is taught, there does not seem to be much written about the how the use of technology changed students perception about mathematical problem solving. We are interested to know whether the use of technology could change students’ perceptions of problem solving. However, we are aware that students were not exposed and didn’t have the experience of using technology during their school mathematics lessons.
2.2.5 Computer Raising Standards
Recent research by Mcfarlane, A. and Sakellarious, S. (2002) also points to ICT as a significant contributory factor in the raising of standards of achievement in schools. * Schools judged by the school inspectors to have very good ICT resources achieved better results than schools with poor ICT. * Schools that made good use of ICT within a subject tended to have better achievement in that subject than other schools. * Socio-economic circumstances and prior performance of pupils were not found to be critical. * Secondary schools with very good ICT resources achieved, on average, better results in English, Mathematics and Science than those with poor ICT resources.
A range of research indicates the potential of ICT to support improvements in aspects of literacy, numeracy and science. * Improved writing skills: grammar, presentation, spelling, word recognition and volume of work. * Age-gains in mental calculations and enhanced number skills, for example the use of decimals. * Better data handling skills and increased ability to read, interpret and sketch graphs Improvements in conceptual understanding of Mathematics (particularly problem solving) and Science (particularly through use of simulations)
2.3 Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
The term computer assisted learning (CAL) covers a range of computer based packages which aim to provide interactive instruction usually in a specific subject area and many predate the internet. These CAL range from sophisticated and expensive commercial package to application developed by project in other educational institutions or national initiative to single solutions developed by individual with no finding or support to tackle very local problem.
In general, the use of computers in education through CAL has been sporadic; a great deal of effort was expected with little general effort. Many of these academics that took part in that earlier crusade are now cynical about the effectiveness of computers in teaching. Computer assisted Learning (CAL) an encompassing term which according to Coburn, 1992 et al, refers to 2 major use of computer in education and training
2.3.1 ComputerAssisted Instruction (CAI)
The first is described as learning through computer in CAI instructional sequence and questions must first be pre-programmed, and then students use the pre-programmed instructional materials in an interactive fashion. Examples of typical CAI sequences are drill and practice, gaining, simulation, Socratic questioning, testing and tutorial instruction.
2.3.2 Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
In this instructional made, the computer mainly manages students instructional activities. This is accomplished by allocating or rescheduling learning materials and physical resources for each student, providing the students access to text question grading examinations or assignment providing diagnosis of learning performance based upon test performance scores, prescribing different instructional activities according to the student’s performance and / or rate of programmes and record keeping.
2.3.3 Benefits of ICT in Education
Here are some of the benefits which ICT brings to education according to recent research findings.
Benefits for Teachers
In order to make use of technology in classroom effetely, educators should have a positive attitude toward technology and they should be trained in using the modern technologies in their respective field of education. The benefits of ICT for lecturers are as follows: * ICT facilitates sharing of resources, expertise and advice * Greater flexibility in when and where tasks are carried out * Gains in ICT literacy skills, confidence and enthusiasm. * Easier planning and preparation of lessons and designing materials * Access to up-to-date pupil and school data, anytime and anywhere. * Enhancement of professional image projected to colleagues.
Benefits for Students
ICT has very strong effects in education and it provides enormous tools for enhancing teaching and learning. There have been many studies that have highlighted the various ways that ICT may support teaching and learning processes in a range of disciplinary fields such as the construction of new opportunities for interaction between students and knowledge and accessing information. ICT enable new ways teaching and learning when used appropriately under right condition such as suitable resources, training and support. ICT also offers the potential to meet learning needs of individual students to promote interdependence of learning among learners (Leach, et al, 2005). The following are benefits of ICT for students; * Regular use of ICT across different curriculum subjects can have a beneficial motivational influence on students’ learning. * Higher quality lessons through greater collaboration between teachers in planning and preparing resources * More focused teaching, tailored to students’ strengths and weaknesses, through better analysis of attainment data * Improved pastoral care and behaviour management through better tracking of students * Gains in understanding and analytical skills, including improvements in reading * Development of writing skills (including spelling, grammar, punctuation, editing and re-drafting), also fluency, originality and elaboration. * Encouragement of independent and active learning, and self-responsibility for learning. * Flexibility of ‘anytime, anywhere’ access (Jacobsen and Kremer, 2000) * Development of higher level learning styles. * Students who used educational technology in school felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem * Students found learning in a technology-enhanced setting more stimulating and student-centered than in a traditional classroom * Opportunities to collaborate on assignments with people outside or inside school

Benefits for Parents * Easier communication with teachers * Higher quality student reports – more legible, more detailed, better presented * Greater access to more accurate attendance and attainment information * Increased involvement in education for parents and, in some cases, improved self-esteem * Increased knowledge of children’s learning and capabilities, owing to increase in learning activity being situated in the home * Parents are more likely to be engaged in the school community * You will see that ICT can have a positive impact across a very wide range of aspects of school life.
2.3.4 Information Technologies and Teaching Learning Process
Using information technologies students can decide about their studies, learning time, place and resources in a better way. Students can work in more supportive environments, seek help from teachers and fellows, and share their learning experiences and ideas in romantic and productive fashion. Dede (1996, p.4) stated that the development of high performance computing and communication is creating new media such as the Www and virtual realities. In turn these new media enable new type of messages and experiences, such as interpersonal interactions in immersive synthetic environments lead to the formation of virtual communities.
The innovative kinds of pedagogy empowered by these emerging media and experiences promoted the opportunities of distance education and at present virtual education and eliminated the barriers of distance and time. New and innovative learning experiences would be enhanced and encouraged by these technologies, as by virtual communities, which exist by interactions across the globe through global network of computers round the clock.
The global sharing of experiences would make possible the group presentation form of instruction in distance education. Distance education encompasses and relies on the use of information technologies to make learning more productive and more individualized, to give instruction a more scientific base and make it appropriate & more effective, learning more immediate and access to resources more equal. These remarkable aspects can expand the quality and quantity of instructional resources. They can serve learners at their ease in terms of time and place. Rashid (2001) stated that: * Both teachers and learners can work with others at remote sites. * The community of learners can expand to include virtually anyone who wishes to obtain information and who is not excluded by policy or cost. * They can provide real access to experts in universities, research laboratories, the business community, government agencies and political offices.
Information technologies can promote the opportunities of restructuring the teaching learning process.
These can transform teaching and learning by offering alternatives to the teacher provided information, access to virtually unlimited resources and opportunities for real world communication, collaboration and competition. The phases of this process as described by Marriam et al (1997) are, * Developing awareness – recognizing that something is wrong or different; * Exploring alternative–researching for new ideas from other institutions and acknowledging that change is needed; * Making a transition–leaving the old approaches behind (or dramatically changed); * Achieving integration-putting the pieces from the transition phase back together; * Taking action-putting new ideas into operation”.
The process can work at instructional programme or institutional level and one or more phases work simultaneously. Traditional lectures and demonstrations can become webbased multimedia learning experiences for distance learners. Web can enrich the learning resources and institutions refocus from teaching to learning, from teacher to learner. It can create learning environment throughout the world by networked learning communities. Networks may create educative environments embedded in democratic philosophy of instruction and helping learners learn. The characteristics of which are: * Respect for personality; * Participation in decision-making; * Freedom of expression and availability of information; and * Mutuality of responsibility in defining goals, planning and conducting activities and evaluating [the process]” (Knowles, 1980).
Learning may take place more effectively and dynamically in educative environments where teacher and learners are open to each other to interact and exchange information and experiences in a friendly way. Ennis, (1989) concluded in a study “Openness on the part of instructor increased their [learner’s] desire to discuss problems or topics of interest… these discussions expanded their [learner’s] understanding of the content and assisted them in planning the information within a relevant context in their own lives”. Educative environments can enhance and shape the teaching learning process to achieve the desired goals. There is a natural tendency for students to learn and learning can accelerate, in interactive and encouraging environments. Accelerating the encouraging environments may be psychological climates and students’ interactions can create them. Interactions of students can make learning environment more effective and meaningful and ‘much of learning takes place in a meaningful environment’. Learners may get immediate feedback and reinforcement through web-based learning.
The psychological fashion of such reinforcement and expectancy also influences the potential for any given behaviour and/or learning to occur. Desired learning always requires access to qualitative and latest information resources and web confirms the increased access to such resources at students’ pace. Moreover, Aggarwal, (2000) says “there is no denying that web-based courses open new educational access to the non-traditional and geographically dispersed students. The on-line setting provides a level of flexibility and convenience not provided by traditional classroom courses”.
Internet and WWW provide learners latest relevant information at their own pace and they can form a virtual community of learners at global level. Teaching organizations are adopting information and communication technologies specially the computers, World Wide Web, teleconferencing and educational television because of their cost effectiveness, access and flexibilities of choices.
2.3.5 The Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning
This is what we try to do if we are looking for the direction in which teaching has to transform to use ICT in an appropriate way in the future. We have to build learning environments with the use of ICT and think about the way we learn and teach in this environment. Then appears what learners and teachers have to know about the use of the computer. The way in which a child communicates with the computer and what child and computer talk about are essential to these learning environments. For examples when computers are used as teaching machines’ that control student interaction, assumptions are being made about the child, the content, the computers role and the role of the teacher.
2.3.6 Limitations of ICT use in Education
ICT as a modern technology that simplifies and facilitates human activities is not only advantageous in many respects, but also has many limitations. Many people from inside and outside the education system, think of ICT as “Panacea” or the most important solution to school problems and improvements. However, many conditions can be considered as limitations of ICT use in education. The limitations can be categorized as teacher related, student related, and technology related. All of them potentially limit the benefits of ICT to education.
Teachers’ attitude plays an important role in the teaching-learning process that utilizes computers and internet connections. Although teachers’ attitude towards use of these technologies is vital, many observations reveal that teachers do not have clarity about how far technology can be beneficial for the facilitation and enhancement of learning. Of course, some teachers may have positive attitudes to the technology, but refrain from using it in teaching due to low self-efficacy, tendency to consider themselves not qualified to teach with technology. In this respect, Bandura (1986) describes self-efficacy as “individual’s opinion of capabilities to organize and perform courses of actions to achieve particular types of performances.”
Moreover, as identified by Brosnan (2001), attitude, motivation, computer anxiety, and computer self-efficacy are factors affecting teachers’ use of computers in their lessons. Teacher resistance and lack of enthusiasm to use ICT in education may also be another limitation. Furthermore, many teachers may not have the required IT skills and feel uncomfortable, nor do they have trainings needed to use the technology in their teaching. Unless teachers develop some basic skills and willingness to experiment with students, ICT use in education is in a disadvantage (Brosnan, 2001).
On the other hand, the limitation of ICT use in education is related to student behaviour. Appropriate use of computer and the internet by students have significant positive effects on students’ attitude and their achievement. Nonetheless, it is very common to observe limitations related to student behaviour. Students tend to misuse the technology for leisure time activities and have less time to learn and study. Yousef and Dahmani (2008) described online gaming, use of face book, chat rooms, and other communication channels as perceived drawbacks of ICT use in education, because, students easily switch to these sites at the expense of their study. Internet access at home, for instance, may be a distraction because of chat rooms and online games, reducing the time spent in doing assignments and learning (Kulik, 1994). Therefore, the impact of availability of ICT on student learning strongly depends on its specific uses.
If ICT is not properly used, the disadvantage will overweight the advantage. For example, while students use the internet, it may confuse them by the multiplicity of information to choose from. As a result, the teacher spends much time to control students from websites unrelated to the learning content. Then, for caution, it is important to identify the major limitations of ICT use in education as related to student behaviour. The various literature in the area, identify the following limitations of ICT use in education as related to student behaviour. * Computers limit students’ imaginations, * Over-reliance on ICT limits students’ critical thinking and analytical skills, * Students often have only a superficial understanding of the information they download, * Computer-based learning has negative physical side-effects such as vision problem, * Students may be easily distracted from their learning and may visit unwanted sites, * Students tend to neglect learning resources other than the computer and internet, * Students tend to focus on superficial presentations and copying from the internet, * Students may have less opportunity to use oral skills and hand writing, * Use of ICT may be difficult for weaker students, because they may have problems with working independently and may need more support from the teacher.
The other limitation of ICT use in education is technology related. The high cost of the technology and maintenance of the facilities, high cost of spare parts, virus attack of software and the computer, interruptions of internet connections, and poor supply of electric power are among the technology related limitations of ICT use in education.
2.4 ICT Tools Use for Teaching and Learning
There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely: * Learning about computers and the Internet, in which technological literacy is the end goal; * Learning with computers and the Internet, in which the technology facilitates learning across the curriculum; and * Learning through computers and the Internet, integrating technological skills development with curriculum applications.
Learn about computers and the Internet
Learning about computers and the Internet focuses on developing technological literacy. It typically includes: * Fundamentals: basic terms, concepts and operations * Use of the keyboard and mouse * Use of productivity tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, data base and graphics programs * Use of research and collaboration tools such as search engines and email * Basic skills in using programming and authoring applications such as Logo or HyperStudio * Developing an awareness of the social impact of technological change.
Learning with computers and the Internet
Learning with the technology means focusing on how the technology can be the means to learning ends across the curriculum. It includes: * Presentation, demonstration, and the manipulation of data using productivity tools * Use of curriculum-specific applications types such as educational games, drill and practice, simulations, tutorials, virtual laboratories, visualizations and graphical representations of abstract concepts, musical composition, and expert systems * Use of information and resources on CD-ROM or online such as encyclopedia, interactive mapsand atlases, electronic journals and other references.
Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies before they can actually use them to learn.
Learning through computers and the Internet mean
Learning through computers and the Internet combines learning about them with learning with them. It involves learning the technological skills “just-in-time” or when the learner needs to learn them as he or she engages in a curriculum-related activity.
Computers and the Internet used in distance education
Many higher educational institutions offering distance education courses have started to leverage the Internet to improve their programme’s reach and quality.
2.4.1 Software tools for mathematics
General tools are applicable in a variety of situations and subject domains. The general tools we consider particularly appropriate are spreadsheets, dynamic geometry, graph plotters and computer algebra systems. However, new developments may focus on and give new interesting opportunities that we will consider.
A spreadsheet, Excel, is an open software tool that can be utilized for many purposes: for example economical calculations, statistics, simulations and for exploring number patterns and other tasks. Some researchers argue that a spreadsheet is valuable for learning algebra (Sutherland & Rojano, 1993) whereas other discuss the limitations (Dettori, Garuti, Lemut, & Netchitailova, 1995). In spite of limitations, when teachers are aware of it, a spreadsheet can in many cases give a simple start for the students and act as an introductory tool before other software is used.
Dynamic geometry (DGS), like Cabri, the Geometers Sketchpad and others, seems to give new dimensions to the school geometry, as well as on higher level with a clear invitation to experiment with and explore geometrical constructions and connections. Experiences show that students very much appreciate to work with DGS systems. DGS system has raised a lot of research interest, and results reveal that DGS have a potential to stimulate not just experiments but also the need for justification and proof (Mariotti, 2001; Hölzl, 2001). A series of articles about DGS have been published recently in special issues of the journals Educational Studies in Mathematics and the International Journal of Computers for Mathematical learning. This documents that there is a lot of publications in other countries in this area.
A graph plotter is characterized as an “generic organizer” by David Tall (Tall, 1989). By utilizing the zoom tool in the software specific features of function graphs might be highlighted. Also this kind of software are natural tools for mathematics. Graph plotting can be performed also with a spreadsheet or even with a dynamic geometry package. A combination of tools may give the best support for learning, since the different tools can support different phases in the student’s conceptual development.
Computer Algebra System (CAS) represents a huge challenge for teaching in upper secondary schools and at university level. What are the appropriate uses, such that the students do not experience just pressing buttons obtaining a surface understanding, but achieve deep understanding? A lot of research is going on in different parts of the world, and there is even a journal dedicated to this area, the International Journal of Computer Algebra in Mathematics Education. In this context, symbolic calculators can now perform almost the same as computer based symbolic systems.
Another area of interest could be software dedicated to teach specific topics in mathematics. This could be in the form of simulations or interactive software that let the user experiment with certain areas. Research reveal both positive and negative gains from this. Outcome can be represented in the negative experiences from integrated learning systems by Hativa (Hativa, 1988) or positive influences from using the computer to pose problems and changing partly the role of the teachers (Fraser et al., 1988). It is important that we are open and flexible to try out methods and software of different kinds, for example for simulations, interactive applications6 on the Internet, and dynamic systems (Choate, 1993).
2.5 Obstacles to the Use of ICT in Schools in Nigeria
There are several impediments to the successful use of information and communication technology in secondary schools in Nigeria. These are: cost, weak infrastructure, lack of skills, lack of relevant software and limited access to the Internet. * Cost
The price of computer hardware and software continues to drop in most developed countries, but in developing countries, such as Nigeria, the cost of computers is several times more expensive. While a personal computer may cost less than a month’s wages in the United State, the average Nigeria worker may require more than two years’ income to buy one.
Apart from the basic computers themselves, other costs associated with peripherals such as printers, monitors, paper, modem, extra disk drives are beyond the reach of most schools in Nigeria. The schools cannot also afford the exorbitant Internet connection fees.
Weak infrastructure
In Nigeria, a formidable obstacle to the use of information and communication technology is infrastructure deficiencies. Computer equipment was made to function with other infrastructure such as electricity under “controlled conditions”. For the past fifteen years Nigeria has been having difficulty providing stable and reliable electricity supply to every nook and cranny of the country without success. Currently, there is no part of the country, which can boast of electricity supply for 24 hours a day except probably areas where government officials live.
Electronics equipment such as radio, television, video recorder and even computers has been damaged due to irregular power supply. When electricity supply is not stable and constant, it is difficult to keep high-tech equipment such as computers functioning, especially under extreme weather conditions as obtained in Nigeria. The high levels of dust during the dry season in Nigeria also make electronic equipment to have short live span. * Lack of skills
Nigeria does not only lack information infrastructure, it also lacked the human skills and knowledge to fully integrate ICT into education. To use information and communication technology (ICT) in schools in Nigeria, the need for locally trained workers to install, maintain and support these systems cannot be over emphasized. There is acute shortage of trained personnel in application software, operating systems, network administration and local technicians to service and repair computer facilities.
In Nigeria also, most school teachers lack the skills to fully utilize technology in curriculum implementation hence the traditional chalk and duster approach still dominates in school pedagogy. School teachers in Nigeria need to be trained on educational technologies and the integration of computers into classroom teaching. Teachers need effective tools, techniques, and assistance that can help them develop computer based projects and activities especially designed to raise the level of teaching in required subjects and improve student learning. * Lack of relevant software
There is no doubt that the ultimate power of technology is the content and the communication. Though, software developers and publishers in the developed countries have been trying for long to develop software and multimedia that have universal application, due to the differences in education standards and requirements, these products do not integrate into curriculum across countries. Software that is appropriate and culturally suitable to the Nigerian education system is in short supply. There is a great discrepancy between relevant software supply and demand in developing countries like Nigeria. Even if Nigeria tries to approach this software famine by producing software that would suit its educational philosophies, there are two major problems to be encountered. First, the cost of producing relevant software for the country’s educational system is enormous. Second, there is dearth of qualified computer software designers in the country. To overcome this, people need to be trained in instructional design. * Limited access to the Internet
In Nigeria there are few Internet providers that provide Internet gateway services to Nigerians. Such Internet providers are made up of Nigerians who are in partnership with foreign information and communication companies. Many of these companies provide poor services to customers who are often exploited and defrauded. The few reputable companies, which render reliable services, charged high fees thus limiting access to the use of the Internet. The greatest technological challenge in Nigeria is how to establish reliable cost effective Internet connectivity. In a country where only about 0.6% of the populace has home personal computers, the few reliable Internet providers who have invested huge sum of money in the business have a very small clientele. They have to charge high fees in order to recoup their investment in reasonable time.
Schools in Nigeria are not given adequate funds to provide furniture, requisite books, laboratories and adequate classrooms let alone being given adequate funds for high-tech equipment (computers) and Internet connectivity.
Again, due to the lack of adequate electricity supply, especially in rural areas in Nigeria, schools located in those areas have no access to the Internet and are perpetually isolated and estranged from the world’s information superhighway.
Prospects
There are numerous and good prospects for the use of ICT in teaching and learning in schools in Nigeria. The following major areas suggest the range of applications that computer can serve teachers and learners in Nigeria.
First, computer can enhance educational efficiency. The efficiency in teaching various subjects could be improved. For instance, many school teachers are already teaching large classes of students. In this situation, students no longer receive the much desired individual assistance. It is possible to use carefully prepared computer programs to ensure that learners are accurately and systematically instructed. Also, the computer can enhance problem-solving skills of the learners by focusing on thinking skills especially in subject such as mathematics.
Second, computers can serve administrative functions. They can replace the laborious exercise of filing papers in filing cabinets and shelves where records accumulate dust over a long period of time. Another administrative application of the computers is their use for budget planning, accounting for expenditure, writing correspondences and reports, assigning students to classes, reporting students’ progress and testing students and scoring tests which help to reduce paper work. It is true that many of the tasks above are not effectively and efficiently done in schools in Nigeria.
Third, computers can be used for individualized learning in schools in Nigeria. Due to large classes and differences in individual learning style and pace, microcomputers will enable the student to progress at his or her own pace and receive continual evaluation feedback and corrections for errors made. In this way, computers allow the development of partner-like interactive and individualized relations with the user. Computers play the role of the tutor and present the leaner with a variety of contents and symbolic modes.
Fourth, computers can change current pedagogical practices in schools in Nigeria, which depended heavily on the traditional lecture method. It is universally accepted that computers allow more independent exploration, more personally tailored activities, more teamwork, and more significantly, less didactic instruction. The role of the teacher, therefore, changes from information dispenser to that of information manager, from authoritative source of information to a guide of self-propelled exploration (Smith, 1989).
Fifth, computers will offer the Nigeria teacher improvement in the techniques of research. The cumbersome exercise of searching by hand through the library’s card catalog or periodical indexes can be made easier by typing few key worlds pertinent to the research topic into a computer and the researcher can receive extensive list of related sources of articles in books and journals in just a matter of minutes.
2.6 Implications of the Literature Reviewed to Present Study
The implication is that it enables a background on the subject of the study and the following points that was reviewed; * The application of ICT in education is very paramount * The role of ICT cannot be overemphasize * ICT have great advantage in education * ICT tools aid learning and teaching of mathematics * ICT serve as bedrock for education enhancement
From interactional studies, several studies and researches were carried out on ICT issues. The aspect of the Role of ICT in mathematics teaching and learning is relatively far. This study intends to study this aspect which is the Role of ICT in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This chapter specifically will discuss the general structure and design that will be utilized in the conduct of this research study under the following heading: * Research design * Population of the study * Sample and sampling techniques * Instrumentation * Validity and reliability of the instrument * Administration and data collection * Method of data analysis
3.1 Research Design
The research design for this study is survey research method. This research method adopted by the researchers is to enable them achieve the purpose of the study which is purely an investigative research into the role of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics in mathematics department, school of science, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
3.2 Population of the Study
The population of this study comprise of 25 lecturers and a total of 528 students from the department of mathematics. The students comprises of 164 students of which 108 are males and 56 are females from NCE I, 191 students of which 141 are males and 50 are females from NCE II and 173 students from NCE III of which 123 are males and 50 females from the department of mathematics, school of science, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
The table below shows the summary of the population of the study:
Table 3:1: Population of the Study: NCE I, NCE II, NCE II students in Mathematics Department for 2012/2013 Session S/N | COMBINATION | NCE I | NCE II | NCE III | TOTAL | | | MALE | FEMALE | MALE | FEMALE | MALE | FEMALE | | 1. | Mathematics/Computer | 14 | 35 | 62 | 20 | 59 | 21 | 211 | 2. | Mathematics/Physics | 63 | 10 | 39 | 3 | 30 | 15 | 160 | 3. | Chemistry/Mathematic | 7 | 3 | 18 | 4 | 15 | 5 | 52 | 4. | Mathematics/Economics | 20 | 7 | 11 | 20 | 7 | 3 | 68 | 5. | Geography/Mathematics | 3 | 1 | 10 | 3 | 12 | 6 | 35 | 6. | PHE/Mathematics | 1 | ___ | 1 | ___ | ___ | ___ | 2 | TOTAL | 108 | 56 | 141 | 50 | 123 | 50 | | | 141 | 191 | 173 | 528 |

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
Out of the total population of 25 lecturers and 528 students, 5 lecturers and 191 students were sample for this research. The sample comprise of NCE II students with 82 students of which 62 are males and 20 are females from Mathematics/Computer, 42 students of which 39 are males and 3 are females from Mathematics/Physics, 22 students of which 18 are males and 4 females from Chemistry/Mathematics, 31 students of which 11 are males and 20 females from Mathematics/Economics, 13 students of which 10 are males and 3 females from Mathematics/Geography and 1 male student from PHE/Mathematics. A total of 5 lecturers and 191 students is sample from this research study from the department of mathematics, school of science, Federal College of Education, Zaria. Both simple and stratified sampling techniques were adopted in selecting the sample for this study.
The table below shows the summary of the sample for this study.

Table 3:2: Sample of the Research: NCE II Students in Mathematics Department for 2012/2013 Session S/N | COMBINATION | NCE II | TOTAL | | | MALE | FEMALE | | 1. | Mathematics/Computer | 62 | 20 | 82 | 2. | Mathematics/Physics | 39 | 3 | 42 | 3. | Chemistry/Mathematic | 18 | 4 | 22 | 4. | Mathematics/Economics | 11 | 20 | 31 | 5. | Geography/Mathematics | 10 | 3 | 13 | 6. | PHE/Mathematics | 1 | ___ | 1 | TOTAL | 141 | 50 | 191 |

3.4 Instrumentation
ICT Achievement Test (ICTAT) is used for this study which contains structured questions with open-ended and close-ended questions. The ICT Achievement Test is constructed for both lecturers and students which consists of two sections; Section A which contain 7 questions about the personal information of the respondents and Section B which contains 8 questions and statements which emphasized the role of ICT in teaching and learning of mathematics. 15 questions all together were constructed to carry out this research study. Respondents were instructed to tick [] the key in front of each item to indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement with each statement.
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
The research instrument (ICTAT) was constructed by the researchers after which they were given to the supervisor for scrutiny and modification for validity and reliability of what it intend to measure which is the purpose of the research study.
3.6 Administration and Data Collection
For easy administration of the research instrument (ICTAT), the researchers informed the lecturers and students involved in the research before research instrument (ICTAT) is to be administered. This is necessary so as to gain their full support and cooperation for the success of the research study. The process of administration of ICTAT is monitor in order to guarantee a hundred percent validity. There are 5 questionnaires (ICTAT) for lecturers and 191 questionnaires (ICTAT) for students are to be distributed to lecturers and students involve in the research. A total of 196 questionnaires (ICTAT) were to be distributed in the department of mathematics, school of science, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
The method of data analysis would be frequency distribution, simple percentage count and chi-square to treat and analyzed the data to be collected which will make the data more meaningful and accurate.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction
This chapter deals with the presentation of data from responses and the analysis of data. The research questions are used as guide for this analysis. The information gotten from the questionnaires are treated in tabular form, result presented in single. A total number of 196 questionnaires were administered and 190 were filled and received.
4.1 Sex of Respondents
From the data collected, the following were the responses on the sex of the respondents shown in table 4.1
Table 4.1: Distribution of respondents by sex SEX | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | | LECTURERS | STUDENTS | TOTAL | | Male | 3 | 137 | 140 | 73.68 | Female | 2 | 48 | 50 | 26.32 | TOTAL | 5 | 185 | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
The above table shows that (140, 73.68%) were males and (50, 26.32%) are female. From this we can deduce that more males (140, 73.68%) than females (50, 26.32%) responded to the questionnaire.
4.2 Age of Respondents
Table 4.2: Distribution of respondents by age AGE | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | | LECTURERS | STUDENTS | TOTAL | | Less than 20 years | 0 | 30 | 30 | 15.79 | 20-30 years | 2 | 155 | 157 | 82.63 | 30years and Above | 3 | 0 | 3 | 1.58 | TOTAL | 5 | 185 | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
The table above shows that (30, 15.79%) of respondent were less than 20years of age, (157, 82.63%) respondents were 20-30years of age and (3, 1.58%) respondents were 30years and above.
This result has shown that majority of the respondents are between the ages of 20-30 years (157, 82.63%).
4.3 Perception on ICT
Have you encounter the word ICT before?
Table 4.3: Distribution by Perception ITEM | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | Yes | 179 | 94.21 | No | 11 | 5.79 | TOTAL | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
The table above shows that (179, 94.21%) of the respondents are have encounter the word ICT and (11, 5.79%) doesn’t encounter the word ICT before. From this it can be deduce that majority of the respondents have encounter the word ICT.
4.4 Use of Computer and Technology Related
Have you been using Computers and Technology related?
Table 4.4: Distribution by the Use of Computer ITEM | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | Yes | 166 | 87.37 | No | 24 | 12.63 | TOTAL | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
From the above table, (166, 87.37%) respondents has been using computer and technology related and (24, 12.63%) doesn’t not use computer and technology related. This means that majority of the respondent use computer and technology related.

4.5 Respondent Access to Computer
Where do you access have to computers and technology related?
Table 4.5: Distribution by access to computer ITEM | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | Institution | 87 | 45.79 | Home | 45 | 23.68 | Nearby cafe | 56 | 29.47 | None | 2 | 1.05 | TOTAL | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
From the above table, (87, 45.79%) respondents have access to computer in their institution, (45, 23.68%) have access to computer in their home, (56, 29.47%) access computer in a café and (2, 1.05) doesn’t have access to computer. It is clear that most of the respondents have access to computer.
4.6 ICT Enhancing Teaching and Learning of Mathematics
Can ICT use enhance teaching and learning mathematics?
Table 4.6: ICT enhance teaching and learning mathematics ITEM | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE (%) | Yes | 166 | 87.37 | No | 24 | 12.63 | TOTAL | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
The above table shows that (166, 87.37%) respondents agreed that ICT can enhance teaching and learning of mathematics while (24, 12.63%) respondents disagreed that ICT can’t enhance teaching learning of mathematics. This shows that ICT have a potential role to play in teaching and learning of mathematics.
4.7 Test of Research Hypotheses
In testing the authenticity of the various hypotheses formulated in the course of this study, chi-square (x2) was employed.
Research Question 1
To what extend are ICT resources available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students for use in mathematics teaching and learning in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria?

Table 4.7: ICT Resources Available and Accessible to Mathematics Lecturers for Use in Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria S/N | QUESTIONs | Agreed | Disagree | Undecided | TOTAL | | | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | i. | Do you use computers to help you in mathematics subject? | 168 | 88.42 | 20 | 10.53 | 2 | 1.05 | 190 | 100 | ii. ls | Do you use computer to assist you in preparing assignment? | 99 | 52.11 | 80 | 42.11 | 11 | 5.79 | 190 | 100 | iii. | Do you use computer in Finding and accessing educational materials | 156 | 82.11 | 30 | 15.79 | 4 | 2.11 | 190 | 100 | iv. | Does using computers to learn change your attitude toward a subject? | 125 | 65.79 | 50 | 26.32 | 15 | 7.89 | 190 | 100 | v. C | Do you use the internet to share knowledge with other students/teachers? | 175 | 92.11 | 10 | 5.26 | 5 | 2.63 | 190 | 100 | vi. | Have you use computers/internet to gather and organize learning materials? | 145 | 76.32 | 37 | 19.47 | 8 | 4.21 | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
Table 1 shows that 168, 99, 156, 125, 175 and 145 respondents, representing 88.42%, 52.11%, 82.11%, 65.79%, 92.11% and 76.32% respectively of all the total respondents on each stratum agreed that they access ICT resources and it available for them to use in mathematics teaching and learning.
The table also show that 20, 80, 30, 50, 10 and 37 respondents, representing 10.53%, 42.11%, 15.79%, 26.32%, 5.26% and 19.47 on each stratum disagreed with this view. While 2, 11, 4, 15, 5 and 8 respondents, representing 1.05%, 5.79%, 2.11%, 7.89%, 2.63% and 4.21% respectively on each stratum remained undecided.
Research Hypothesis 1
Ho1: There is no significant difference between ICT resources available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students in teaching and learning of mathematics
Table 4.8: Research Hypothesis 1 ITEM | AGREED | DISAGREE | UNDECIDED | TOTAL | 1. | 175 | 10 | 5 | 190 | 2. | 168 | 20 | 2 | 190 | TOTAL | 343 | 30 | 7 | 380 |

Expected value
330 x 190380= 171.5
330 x 190380=15
330 x 190380=3.5 O | E | O-E | (O-E)2 | (O-E)2380 | 175 | 171.5 | 3.5 | 12.25 | 0.07 | 10 | 15 | -5 | 25 | 1.67 | 5 | 3.5 | 1.5 | 2.25 | 0.64 | 168 | 171.5 | -3.5 | 12.25 | 0.07 | 20 | 15 | 5 | 25 | 1.67 | | | | | X2=4.76 |

Degree of freedom = 2,
Level of significance = 0.05
X2 calculated = 4.76, x2 tabulated = 5.99
Since X2 calculated = 4.76 < x2 tabulated = 5.99.Therefore there is no significant difference between ICT resources available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students in teaching and learning of mathematics.
Research Question 2
What are the perceptions of mathematics lecturers on the ICT resources in mathematics teaching and learning in FCE, Zaria?
Table 4.8: Perceptions of Mathematics Lecturers on the ICT Resources in Mathematics Teaching and Learning in FCE, Zaria S/N | Questions | Agreed | Disagree | Undecided | TOTAL | | | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | 1. | Have you encounter the word ICT before? | 186 | 97.89 | 6 | 3.16 | 4 | 2.11 | 190 | 100 | 2. | Have you been using Computers and Technology related? | 184 | 96.84 | 16 | 8.42 | 6 | 3.16 | 190 | 100 |
Source: ICTAT 2013
Table 1 shows that 186 and 184 respondents, representing 97.89% and 96.84% respectively of all the total respondents on each stratum agreed that they have knowledge of ICT and they are also exposed to ICT.
The table also show that 6 and 16 respondents, representing 3.16%, and 8.42% on each stratum disagreed with this view. While 4 and 6 respondents, representing 2.11% and 3.16% respectively on each stratum remained undecided.

Research Hypothesis 2
Ho2 There is no significant difference between lecturers’ perception on the ICT resources and students’ in teaching and learning of mathematics.
Table 4.9: Research Hypothesis 2 ITEM | AGREED | DISAGREE | UNDECIDED | TOTAL | 1. | 186 | 6 | 4 | 190 | 2. | 184 | 16 | 6 | 190 | TOTAL | 370 | 22 | 10 | 380 |
Expected value
370 x 190380= 185
22 x 190380=11
10x 190380=5

Table 4 O | E | O-E | (O-E)2 | (O-E)2E | 186 | 185 | 1 | 1 | 0.005 | 6 | 11 | -5 | 25 | 2.27 | 4 | 5 | -1 | 1 | 0.2 | 184 | 185 | -1 | 1 | 0.005 | 16 | 11 | 5 | 25 | 2.27 | 6 | 5 | 1 | 1 | 0.2 | | X2=4.96 |
Degree of freedom = 2,
Level of significance = 0.05
X2calculated = 4.96, x2tabulated = 5.99
Since X2 calculated = 4.96 < x2 tabulated = 5.99. Therefore, there is no significant difference between lecturers’ perception on the ICT resources and students’ in teaching and learning of mathematics.
Research Question 3
To what extent are mathematics lecturers and students prepared for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics?

Table 4.10: Lecturers and Students Preparedness for the use of ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics Question
The following are some proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics. According to you, rank them in order of relevance. S/N | Items | Very Necessary | Necessary | Not Necessary | TOTAL | | | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | FREQ | % | 1. | Demonstrate sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts | 143 | 75.26 | 29 | 39.61 | 18 | 9.47 | 190 | 100 | 2. | Demonstrate interest in continual growth of technology knowledge so as to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies | 168 | 88.42 | 20 | 46.52 | 2 | 1.05 | 190 | 100 | 3. | Design learning strategies that use ICT to support the diverse needs of learners | 126 | 66.32 | 40 | 34.90 | 24 | 12.63 | 190 | 100 | 4. | Apply current research on teaching and learning with ICT when planning learning environments | 138 | 72.63 | 41 | 38.23 | 11 | 5.79 | 190 | 100 | 5. | Identify and locate technology resources suitable for meeting learning objectives | 140 | 73.68 | 26 | 38.78 | 24 | 12.63 | 190 | 100 | 6. | Plan student learning in technology enhance context comprehension | 150 | 78.94 | 30 | 41.55 | 10 | 5.26 | 190 | 100 | 7. | Apply ICT to develop students’ creativity | 128 | 67.37 | 52 | 35.46 | 10 | 5.263 | 190 | 100 | 8. | Identify and use technology resources that affirm diversity | 100 | 52.63 | 73 | 27.70 | 17 | 8.95 | 190 | 100 | 9. | Promote safe and healthy use of technology resources | 149 | 78.42 | 33 | 41.27 | 8 | 4.21 | 190 | 100 | 10. | Promote equal technology resources for all students | 174 | 91.58 | 11 | 48.20 | 5 | 2.63 | 190 | 100 | | TOTAL | 1416 | | 355 | | 129 | | | | | AVERAGE | 141.6 | | 35.5 | | 12.9 | | 190 | |
Source: ICTAT 2013
Table 6 above shows that an average of 141.6 of the respondents responded that the proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics is Very Necessary, an average of 35.5 of the respondents responded that the proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics is Necessary and an average of 12.9 of the respondents responded that the proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics is Not Necessary. From the above we can deduce that the lecturers and students of Federal College of Education, Zaria are ready and prepared for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics.
Research Hypothesis 3
Ho3 There is no significant difference between lecturers and students preparedness for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria.
Table 4.11: Research Hypothesis 3 ITEM | VERY NECESSARY | NECESSARY | NOT NECESSARY | TOTAL | 1. | 174 | 11 | 5 | 190 | 2. | 168 | 20 | 2 | 190 | TOTAL | 342 | 31 | 7 | 380 |
Expected value
342 x 190380= 171
31 x 190380= 15.5
7 x 190380=3.5

O | E | O-E | (O-E)2 | (O-E)2E | 174 | 171 | 3 | 9 | 0.05263158 | 11 | 15.5 | -4.5 | 20.25 | 1.30645161 | 5 | 3.5 | 1.5 | 2.25 | 0.64285714 | 165 | 171 | -6 | 36 | 0.21052632 | 20 | 15.5 | 4.5 | 20.25 | 1.30645161 | 2 | 3.5 | -1.5 | 2.25 | 0.64285714 | | | | X2=4.16 |
Degree of freedom = 2,
Level of significance = 0.05
, x2 tabulated = 5.99
Since X2 calculated = 4.16< x2 tabulated = 5.99. Therefore, there is no significant difference between lecturers and students preparedness for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria.
Summary of Findings
A summary of the research reveal the following results 1. ICT resources are available and accessible to mathematics lecturers and students for use in mathematics teaching and learning in Federal College of Education (FCE), Zaria. 2. Mathematics lecturers and students have perceptions on the ICT resources in mathematics teaching and learning in FCE, Zaria. 3. Mathematics lecturers and students prepared are for the use of ICT resources for teaching and learning of mathematics.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
This chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation based on the study. This is done in relationship with the established question postulated as guide with each research question serving as a key to the discussion.
5.1 Summary
The important place of ICT in all human endeavour cannot be over emphasized in the area of education particularly, JASMIC, 1987 undecided that computers can be used in a number of ways. For administrative purposes, for information retrieval, for direct distinction and for simulation, and by students as quasi-library.
Despite the fact that there are many computer installations in the country, the awareness of the huge benefits of these computers and their relevance to national development is just emerging. The nation’s response to the growing data processing need as contained in the national development policy have continued to witness the importation and sales of hardware and software to clients. Thus, the unprecedented and overwhelming influence of information and communication Technology (ICT) on all facts of human life, particularly teaching and learning is not impacted directly due to low level of exposure.
Over the years, there was the development and implementation of technology to teaching and learning and this has taken different forms, it ranged from the use of radio, television, satellite communication, teleconferencing, interactive video, computer assisted instruction to the utilization of internet technology.
Bello, (2008) opined that most teachers lack necessary competencies in integrating technology into classroom subject teaching because they have no training relevant to their role in changing environment where ICT could be most useful tools while teacher-learner interaction remain central to the teaching-learning process.
ICT helps to motivate students to learn, it also allows students to learn at their own pace, encourages students to participate actively in learning and providing feedback necessary for students to correct learning mistakes. It makes for all necessary tools needed by teachers to make tactical decisions in the overall performance of their duties.
5.2 Conclusion
In conclusion, though there are lots of documented evidences for and against the positive impact of ICT on education in general, there is urgent need to address issue of availability of ICT facilities and guided exposure of stakeholders in the educational system (teachers and students). This can only be achieved by promulgation of requisite policies and their full implementation.
Reflection and further analysis have to be done in improving the ICT application in mathematics classroom. Compared to traditional teaching, teaching mathematics with ICT requires skill, creativity and good infrastructure in order to make the lesson more meaningful. Students should be motivated in learning mathematics with the aid of ICT. The use of ICT should be fully utilized in giving exposure how mathematics can be fun in solving their problems. Both educators and students must willingly explore the use of ICT in their respective part. The institution should provide continuous professional development for educators and resources (Sue and Peter, 2004) so that the combination of mathematics and ICT will ensure the success of the learning outcome. The mathematics curriculum should be suited according to the type of ICT use in classroom and instructional strategies must be well blended with ICT. This will lead to ICT- Savvy employees.
5.3 Recommendation
In order to have a good grasp of the benefits of ICT in teaching and learning of Mathematics, the following recommendations are suggested viz: * Government should sensitize and encourage the ICT industry and other companies in the private sector especially mobilze phone operators (MTN, AIRTEL, GLO ETC) to invest in education of future Nigerian students. * Proper implementation of ICT in teacher training colleges institution project as well as producing qualified ICT personnel for sustainable take up of information technology in schools * Every Nigerian schools and institutions should have a computer system laboratory where all students will be exposed to ICT tools and practice. * Conferences, seminars and workshops and relevant programmes should be organized by professionals of ICT to teach mathematics teachers and science teachers on modern technology and its uses. * Since ICT depends largely on power supply, the erratic power supply needs to be improved upon throughout the country. Also schools authority should improvise for alternative source of power supply such as generator set in case of power failure. * Establishing facilities for electronic distance learning networks opportunities in our schools. * Creating ICT Application, content and domesticating technology through a conscious Research Design and Development (RD & D) strategy, advocacy and activities for students.

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APPENDIX I
APPENDIXES
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS,
SCHOOL OF SCIENCES,
FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,
P.M.B 1041, ZARIA,
KADUNA STATE
ICT ACHIEVEMENT TEST QUESTIONNAIRE (ICTAT) FOR LECTURERS
Dear Respondent,
We are students of the above mention institution carrying out a research study on “The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria. We kindly request your assistance in this research by filling in the questionnaire. Tick in the box to each relevant answer where necessary. We assure you that the data collected here will be hold in confidentiality.
SECTION A
PERSONAL DATA 1. Sex of respondent
a. Male [ ] b. Female [ ] 2. Age range of respondent a. Under 30 years [ ] b. 30-50 years[ ] c. Over 50 years [ ] 3. Educational qualification of respondent
a. Ph.D [ ] b. Master [ ] c. Degree [ ] 4. How many year have you been in teaching profession?
a. Less than 10 years [ ] b. 10-20 years [ ] c. More than 20 years 5. What courses do you teach students of NCE II?
_____________________________________________________________
6. Are you aware of the word Information and Communication Technology (ICT)?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 7. Have you been using Computers and Technology related?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ]
SECTION B 8. How many years have you been using computers and technology related?
a. Less than 2 years [ ] b. More than 2 years but less than 6 years [ ]
c. more than 6 years [ ] 9. tional qualification of respondent er 50 years in confidentiality. nnaire. tick Mathematics in Federal College oWhere do you have access to computers and technology related?
a. a. Institution [ ] b. Home [ ] c. Nearest Town [ ] d. Others ___________

10. Did you receive ICT training before joining the teaching profession?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 11. How will you rate your level of expertise in computer use? TICK THE ONE THAT APPLIES | LEVEL OF EXPERTISE | i. [ ] | NO EXPERTISE-cannot use computers at all | ii. [ ] | FAIR- Able to operate basic computer function and a word processing application | iii. [ ] | GOOD-Able to use office application (word processor, spreadsheets, presentation software) | iv. [ ] | VERY GOOD-All the above skills including use of internet and internet resources | v. [ ] | EXCELLENT-All of the above (ii), (iii) (iv) including use of email, internet surfing and searching. |

12. How frequently do you use ICTs for your school work related to the following purposes? PURPOSE | VERY OFTEN | OFTEN | RARELY | NEVER | i. Teaching specific subject | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. Finding and accessing educational materials | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Making presentations/lectures | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Preparing lessons | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | v. Communicating with students | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vi. Communicating with other and professionals lecturers in the college | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vii. Do you use the internet to share knowledge with other students/teachers? | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | viii. Have you use computers/internet to gather and organize learning materials? | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

13. Do you think ICTs can be used for the purposes below? PURPOSES | NO | YES | NOT SURE | i. Motivate/reward students | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. As a substitute for teaching | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Keep students busy while lecturers is not with them | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Allow students to learn on their own | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

14. Can ICT usage enhance teaching and learning of mathematics?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ]

15. The following are some proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics. According to you, rank them in order of relevance. Tick in the appropriate box | Very Necessary | Necessary | Not Necessary | i. Demonstrate sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. Demonstrate interest in continual growth of technology knowledge so as to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Design learning strategies that use ICT to support the diverse needs of learners | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Apply current research on teaching and learning with ICT when planning learning environments | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | v. Identify and locate technology resources suitable for meeting learning objectives | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vi. Plan student learning in technology enhance context comprehension | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vii. Apply ICT to develop students’ creativity | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | viii. Identify and use technology resources that affirm diversity | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ix. Promote safe and healthy use of technology resources | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | x. Promote equal technology resources for all students | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

APPENDIX II
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS,
SCHOOL OF SCIENCES,
FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,
P.M.B 1041, ZARIA,
KADUNA STATE
ICT ACHIEVEMENT TEST QUESTIONNAIRE (ICTAT) FOR STUDENTS
Dear Respondent,
We are students of the above mention institution carrying out a research study on “The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Federal College of Education, Zaria. We kindly request your assistance in this research by filling in the questionnaire. Tick in the box to each relevant answer where necessary. We assure you that the data collected here will be hold in confidentiality.
SECTION A
PERSONAL DATA 1. Sex of respondent
a. Male [ ] b. Female [ ] 2. Age range of respondent
a. Less than 20 years [ ] b. 20-30 years[ ] c. 30years and Above [ ] 3. What is your course combination?
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Have you encounter the word ICT before?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 5. Have you been using Computers and Technology related?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ]
SECTION B 6. How many years have you been using computers and technology related?
a. Less than 2 years [ ] b. More than 2 years but less than 6 years [ ]
c. more than 6 years [ ] 7. tional qualification of respondent er 50 years in confidentiality. nnaire. tick Mathematics in Federal College oWhere do you access have to computers and technology related?
a. a. Home [ ] c. Nearby cafe [ ] d. None [ ] 8. Did you receive ICT training before joining F.C.E Zaria?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ]

9. How will you rate your level of expertise in computer use? TICK THE ONE THAT APPLIES | LEVEL OF EXPERTISE | i. [ ] | NO EXPERTISE-cannot use computers at all | ii. [ ] | FAIR- Able to operate basic computer function and a word processing application | iii. [ ] | GOOD-Able to use office application (word processor, spreadsheets, presentation software) | iv. [ ] | VERY GOOD-All the above skills including use of internet and internet resources | v. [ ] | EXCELLENT-All of the above (ii), (iii), (iv) including use of email, internet surfing and searching. |

10. How would you rate your skills in the following computer areas? PURPOSE | NONE | BASIC | INTERMIDIATE | PROFICIENT | i. Word processing | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. Spreadsheets | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Internet | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Preparing lessons | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | v. Basic repairs and maintenance | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vi. database | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

11. How frequently do you use ICTs Tools for your school work related to the following purposes? PURPOSES | YES | NO | i. Do you use computers to help you learn school subject? | [ ] | [ ] | ii. Do you use computer to assist you in preparing assignment? | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Do you think you can learn some of the subjects independently with computer? | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Does using computers to learn change your attitude toward a subject? | [ ] | [ ] | v. Do you use the internet to share knowledge with other students/teachers? | [ ] | [ ] | vi. Have you use computers/internet to gather and organize learning materials? | [ ] | [ ] |

12. Do you think ICTs can be used for the purposes below? PURPOSES | NO | YES | NOT SURE | i. Motivate/reward students | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. As a substitute for teaching | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Keep students busy while lecturers is not with them | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Allow student to learn on their own | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

13. Can ICT use enhance teaching and learning mathematics?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 14. The following are some proposed ICT related skills that should be emphasized in teaching and learning of mathematics. According to you, rank them in order of relevance. Tick in the appropriate box | Very Necessary | Necessary | Not Necessary | i. Demonstrate sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ii. Demonstrate interest in continual growth of technology knowledge so as to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iii. Design learning strategies that use ICT to support the diverse needs of learners | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | iv. Apply current research on teaching and learning with ICT when planning learning environments | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | v. Identify and locate technology resources suitable for meeting learning objectives | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vi. Plan student learning in technology enhance context comprehension | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | vii. Apply ICT to develop students’ creativity | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | viii. Identify and use technology resources that affirm diversity | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | ix. Promote safe and healthy use of technology resources | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] | x. Promote equal technology resources for all students | [ ] | [ ] | [ ] |

APPENDIX III…...

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