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The Role of Family Business

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ershana86
Words 8507
Pages 35
TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract................................................................................ 2
1.0 Introduction........................................................................... 3
2.0 Literature supporting issues...................................................... 7
3.0 Literature not supporting issues................................................ 12
4.0 Discussion............................................................................. 17
5.0 Conclusion............................................................................. 26
6.0 References............................................................................ 28

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ABSTRACT
This study is based upon research previously that have been investigates and studied. Therefore the previous study will be main reference and it will state on literatures review, and then will be discussed in this study. The literature supporting issue suggest that women often have great success in performing their expatriates’ assignments than men and the literature not supporting issue will discuss about advantages over male side rather than women in expatriates assignments. These both literature issues will be discuss and compare on details in perspectives expatriate gender between male and female. The previous study have found, suggest that women often have great success in performing their foreign assignments, certain have stated that women and men performance expatriates equally same and also certain found that men will be much better perform expatriate task rather than female expatriates manager.

1.0 INTRODUCTION Business firms are increasingly becoming aware that the key to success in the marketplace rests with their ability to mobilize and utilize their human resource talent in formulating and implementing new global business strategies. To achieve that, many medium-sized and large companies send professionals abroad and many of them plan to increase their number of expatriates (Selmer & Leung, 2003). The demand for expatriate employees, both long-term and short-term, is growing rapidly as it becomes increasingly necessary for firms to expand globally in response to the internationalisation of markets, competition, and technology. In today’s global economy it is critical to attract, develop and retain employees with global knowledge and experience. These employees represent the human capital that is a key resource for creating and sustaining a company worldwide competitive advantage. At times, however, it may become difficult to find employees willing to accept international assignments, for host-location, professional, and/or personal reasons. For instance, concerns about safety and security have increased in a post-9/11 world (Cox et al., 2007; Suder, 2004, as cited in cole et al., 2011). Employees are also concerned with the stress of cross-cultural relocation on their family and on the education and social development of their children (Haslberger and Brewster, 2008 as cited in cole et al., 2011). In addition, the increasing prevalence of dual-career families presents unique challenges for many employees considering global postings (Harvey et al., 1999; Permits Foundation, 2009 as cited in cole et al., 2011). Skills developed during international assignments are also often underutilized upon repatriation, and in some cases career development is hindered rather than enhanced by the time spent on assignment.
However rapid increases in demand due to the continuing globalization and managers increasing doubts of the advantage of pursuing an expatriate career have contributed to a supply crisis (Selmer & Leung 2002). Currently, many multinationals face a severe shortage of executives with the skills, knowledge and sophistication to operate in a competitive global environment (Caliguiri, 2002). Traditionally, the pool of potential expatriate candidates has excluded women. However international firms cannot any longer afford to limit their pool of talented human resources by excluding particular groups of employees. Now it is time for multinationals to broaden now their recruitment base (Paik & Vance, 2002). Business firms are increasingly becoming aware that the key to success in the marketplace rests with their ability to mobilize and utilize their human resource talent in formulating and implementing new global business strategies. To achieve that, many medium-sized and large companies send professionals abroad and many of them plan to increase their number of expatriates (Selmer & Leung, 2003). Expatriates play important roles in joint venture negotiations, subsidiary management, new market development, technology transfer and, more generally, in developing a firm’s global competence (Caligiuri, 2000). Thus, the choice of an individual for an expatriate assignment looms large as a key, strategic selection decision. As such, an increasing number of researchers have focused their attention on these critical decisions. In light of these difficulties, it may be necessary to expand the pool of candidates being considered for international assignments. Looking beyond traditional expatriates who were almost always exclusively male (Vance et al., 2006; Taylor et al., 2002, as cited in cole et al., 2011), female expatriates may be an additional and important source of talent in global firms. Indeed, there is growing acceptance that gender diversity can be a corporate performance driver. For example, empirical evidence has shown that females more commonly exhibit personality characteristics associated with expatriate success (Guthrie et al., 2003). Both Adler (1979) and Fisher (1999) concluded that women may have exceptional faculties for managing internationally, including a preference for co-operating, reaching consensus, and leading via egalitarian teams; an ability to work on several tasks simultaneously; emotional sensitivity; and a talent with words. Often referred to as the female advantage (Helgeson, 1990) or the feminine-in-management (Calas and Smircich, 1993), this style reflects those of successful men as well as women in most parts of the non-Western world (Adler, 2002) (Cole et al., 2011). In light of these difficulties, it may be necessary to expand the pool of candidates being considered for international assignments. Looking beyond traditional expatriates who were almost always exclusively male, female expatriates may be an additional and important source of talent in global firms. Indeed, there is growing acceptance that gender diversity can be a corporate performance driver (Cole & Nulty, 2011). For example, empirical evidence has shown that females more commonly exhibit personality characteristics associated with expatriate success (Guthrie et al., 2003). Cole & Nulty (2011) have notes we can assume that qualified women may continue to be left out of the pool of candidates being considered for international assignments. As a result, the probability of choosing the best candidate may also be diminished. This, in turn, could lead to ongoing unsuccessful or only modestly successful international projects and assignments and seriously limited careers.” Adler (1987) explored three “myths” that were not found to represent reality: (a) that women do not want to be international managers; (b) that companies refuse to send women overseas; and, (c) that foreigners‟ prejudice against women renders them ineffective, even when they are interested. However The exclusion of females from consideration for expatriate assignments is ill-considered because female expatriates have been found to be equally successful to male expatriates in the performance of their international assignments (Caligiuri & Tung, 1999) As companies increasingly select their global managers from among the best women and men worldwide, rather than restricting candidates almost exclusively to men – as has been done so often in the past - an inevitable question arises: how different are women managers, if at all, from their male counterparts? While few studies, until recently, have focused on women who are global managers, especially from a cross cultural perspective, researchers have studied the differences between women and men in general, and between female and male managers working within their own countries (Adler and Izraeli, 1994). Although unanimity on the existence and type of differences and their effects has yet to be reached, scholars do agree that male and female managers are perceived differently (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974; Powell, 1999; Yeager, 1999; as cited in Adler, 2002). Most US research contends that both men and women describe successful managers as more like men than women (Schein, 1975), with the exception of one follow-up study in which men but not women persisted in sex-typing managers (Schein et al., 1989; as cited in Adler, 2002). Advocates of the two seemingly opposite positions - 'Women and men managers are exactly the same' and 'Women and men are distinctly different' - often tenaciously adhere to their own point of view and respond incredulously or even with hostility to proponents of perspectives other than their own. Not surprisingly, this crucial similar or- different dilemma surfaces frequently within global companies considering sending women abroad as expatriate managers. Given the paucity of research on women expatriate managers, existing studies cannot, as yet, definitively resolve whether women and men act differently as global managers or whether they are perceived to act differently (Adler, 2002).

2.0 LITERATURE SUPPORTING ISSUESS Despite that fact that women make up nearly half of the productive workforce in the United States, they are grossly under-represented at the senior management level and in positions of authority domestically and as expatriates internationally. The paper research by Paula M. Caligiuri and Rosalie L. Tung entitled “Comparing the success of male and female expatriates from a US-based multinational company”, examines the differences between male and female expatriate employees along three criteria of global assignments: (1) cross-cultural adjustment, (2) desire to terminate the assignment and (3) supervisor-rated performance. This study was a preliminary test of the effect of gender on success in global assignments. Like all studies, this study has limitations. There supported the hypothesis which is there will be more women in the workforce (and in management) in countries with greater individualism and power distance. (Caliguiri & Tung, 1999). Individualism Individualistic societies, such as the US, tend to value each person on the basis of his or her attributes and abilities, rather than his or her affiliation and/or association with a particular group. As such, there should be less stereotyping of what roles are suitable for men versus women. In collectivistic countries, such as Japan and Korea, on the other hand, a person's worth is often judged by the group to which he or she is affiliated. Hence, there is a greater tendency to characterize women, as a group, in such roles as home-makers and clerical staff, rather than as managers and professionals. Also Countries low in power distance (i.e. egalitarian societies such as the US and Scandinavian countries) tend to accept people (women included) as equals, while in high power distance countries, such as Japan, the rigid hierarchies and protocols, many of which are based on century-old traditions, may stifle the advancement of women to positions of authority. Hofstede (1998) showed there is an increased level of participation by women in technical and professional jobs in societies with low power distance. This level of participation becomes even more marked if the country also scored high in femininity. American female expatriates were found to be just as successful as their male counterparts overseas - even in male-dorninated cultures such as Japan and Korea (Adler, 1987). The paper research by Muhammad et al., 2012, is to examine the perception of host country nationals (Malaysian workers) about expatriates gender as their coworkers and the difference between expatriate male and female performance evaluated by host country nationals (Malaysian workers).The data were collected from 200 Malaysian workers to know their perception about expatriate’s gender as their coworkers and gender based performance differences among expatriates evaluated by host country nationals. The results of the study explained that women can adjust well in foreign business as compared to men in multicultural society like Malaysia. Although the difference between male and female is not higher when come to evaluate their performance in terms of foreign business adjustment. But still the results show higher score for female as compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, females scored higher in establishing business contact as compared to male but male scored higher then female when comes to technical skills. The analysis of the data indicated that women expatriates perform better than men expatriates in terms of communication skills, team work, personal skills and initiative. In contrast, men expatriates perform better when come to productivity as compared their female counterpart. The reason behind better expatriate female performance might be due to the perception of host country nationals (Malaysian workers). Another finding of this study is that women perform better than men during international assignment especially in multicultural setting like Malaysia. More specifically, there is no difference between expatriate male and female performance. The finding of this study discourages the mind set claimed that women cannot perform well during international assignment. The important point is that management and selection committee should not under estimate women capabilities and skills. Women can also perform well if they get host country nationals support at workplace. If the host country culture is not friendly, proper pre-departure training and awareness can helps the expatriate women to perform well. The findings of this study suggested that multinationals organizations should select more female candidates for overseas assignment in order to enjoy the fruits of diverse workforce (Muhammad et al., 2012). The research study by Sinangil & Ones (2003) to examine gender differences in expatriate job performance at Middle East area which is Turkey that have dominant culture that not perceived by western executives to be particularly friendly to female manager. There found that men and women expatriates on average are rated quite similarly in terms of their job performance. This was true across the specific components that make up the construct of job performance. Like most countries in the Middle East, the dominant culture in Turkey is not perceived by Western executives to be particularly friendly to female managers. However, based on this research, employing female expatriates in Turkey does not appear to be a problem.. Might be the result have influence more positive effect because women`s rights in Turkey have seen much progress since the creation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Even though Turkey is predominantly Muslim, the secular and democratic nature of the Turkish state and important modernisation efforts initiated nature of the Turkish state. Even so, there is still room for progress on such issues as male domination in rural communities and gender gaps in income, according to a number of authors (e.g. Arat, 2000). The political and economic climate of Turkey has substantially liberated Turkish women, especially since the 1980s. Nevertheless, Western organisations often focus on the male-dominated, patriarchal, Middle Eastern, and Islamic institutions of the country in making gender based selection decisions for their expatriates. Personality and psycho-social factors have often been discussed at Guthrie et al., (2001) as particularly important factors affecting expatriate success. The study used “big five” personality data to explore this issue by (Guthrie et al., 2001) have found the use of personality assessment in expat selection may favor women. Despite this speculation, relatively little research has directly explored these issues. Caligiuri’s (2000) study of the “big five” and expat performance supported a role for personality in explaining international success. She found that more extroverted and agreeable individuals on foreign assignment were less likely to want to terminate their assignments prematurely. Caligiuri believes that these personality dimensions may relate to the ability to interact with and form social alliances with host nationals and other expatriates. Her research also suggests that expatriates with higher levels of conscientiousness are judged to be superior performers. Greater use of personality assessment and feedback may help guide individuals in making better career decisions, leading to better experiences for expats and their families. This big five categories supporting that big five personality in expat assignment argued that women, better suited for foreign assignments than their male counterparts. May often be better suited for expat assignments than men. Adler (1987) survey of 52 women expatriates in Asia indicated that 42% felt that being female was an advantage, 22% found it irrelevant, 16% said that being female had both positive and negative effects and 20% fount it primarily negative. She suggest the advantages may occur to women because there are small in number and are therefore highly visible, they are afforded higher status because of their uniqueness or because they have better interpersonal skills than men (Westwood & Leung, 1994; as cited from Adler 1987). Female expatriates seem to have generally positive feeling about the expatriate assignments 97% in Adler (1987) sample saying their success was a success. Beside a survey of 1,129 graduating MBAs from the United States, Canada and Europe indicated that male and female MBA graduates were equally interested in international careers (Adler, 1986). Also, women are more likely to find an expatriate experience in large firms and with financial institutions (Adler, 1987) Adler (2000) have stated in her paper that the reasons companies give for choosing to include women along with their male managers for global assignment, how they expect women to contribute once hired, and the levels at which women managers are invited to contribute have been changing rapidly, but subtly, over the last fifty years. Companies' expectations have varied depending on their assumptions about the value to the company of diversity, the value to the company of men's and women's unique contributions, and to belief, or lack thereof, of the possibility of positive synergies. As selected women began to be promoted, organizations realized that these female 'outsiders' could potentially become executives, and thereby have influence over the nature of the organizational culture. In response, most companies reasserted the superiority of their historic organizational culture - that is, the ways of the dominant male leadership culture (Adler, 2002). Culpan & Wright (2000) study explores the work environment of expatriate women managers in American corporations and investigates the determinants of their job satisfaction. Culpan & Wright (2000) most of women expatriates studied had high levels of education. Out of those surveyed 47.1 per cent had bachelors degrees; 32.9 per cent had masters degrees and 11.4 per cent doctorates. Some of the women (8.9 per cent) had only high school educations. those who were fluent in foreign languages constituted 54.3 per cent of the respondents. All of the returned women managers interviewed stated that they spoke at least one foreign language fluently The strategic importance of global assignments has increased over the years. There have found that the profile of women shows that they represent a highly skilled workforce who had professional positions in major American corporations overseas. Their indicated that they were confronted with problems in the international workplace and most of those problems were cultural in nature. Yet, they had the skills and qualifications to cope with those problems also there have flexibility, good communication skills and foreign language skills helped them to deal with those problems.

3.0 LITERATURE NOT SUPPORTING ISSUE

The goal of Caliguiri & Tung (1999) paper was to understand the underlying relationships between a country's work values and the percentage of women active in the workforce (in particular, in managerial positions). This was done to better understand the premise of the assumption that female expatriates will not be successful in countries where women are not accepted in the workforce. Regarding the first goal, the relationship between countries' work values and the percentage of women in the workforce, four hypotheses were tested. This study have supported one of their hypothesis stated that there will be fewer women in the workforce and in management in countries that are high in masculinity. Theory and research in this area suggest that discrimination (e.g. in terms of authority,eamings) is lower in the more competitive sectors of the economy (Becker, 1971; Beck et al. 1978; Hopcroft, 1996). At the country level, this would suggest that, the more a country is in a state of high economic competition, the more likely it is that it will utilize the talents of women. Given that masculinity encompasses the attitude of competition and not the economic competitive reality, future studies should examine this more closely. If the organizational theory literature could be extended to countries, the effect of competitiveness may, in fact, be the opposite of what was hypothesized. Future research should examine the effects of national economic competitiveness and the utilization of women in the workforce, in particular, in positions of authority (Caliguiri & Tung, 1999). As globalization increases and finding qualified expatriates becomes more difficult, more consideration must be given to potential female candidates when making international selection decisions. From a practical standpoint, information is needed on why women make up such a small percentage of expatriates (Connerly et al., 2003). There have been several myths and concerns around placement of women in expatriate positions (Adler, 1984; Caligiuri and Cascio, 2000 ; as cited in Connerly et al., 2003). One myth was the belief that there were not enough qualified female managers from which to choose. Another myth (Adler, 1984) posited that women do not wish to work internationally. In fact, research has found that women’s expatriate career preferences are the same as men’s (Selmer, 2001a ; as cited in Connerly et al., 2003). The study by Connerly et al., 2003 uses a sample of male and female self raters and supervisors to examine the relationship between perceptions of expatriate readiness, global competencies, and overall performance. The suggestion that although women may be perceived by their supervisors as having the same level of performance as men, they are not seen as being ready for international assignments at the same rate and find at the. Lastly there found that women will be rated lower than men for expatriate positions which have typically been held by men similar with supervisors will rate same-sex subordinates higher than opposite-sex subordinates (Connerly et al., 2008). Guthrie et al., (2001) argued that the possibility of women may not be as interested as males in international postings. Another possibility is that foreigners’ prejudice against women may cause them ineffective as expats which, in turn, diminishes their prevalence in these roles. In fact, the opposite may be true – many female expats report that being a woman is more of an advantage than a disadvantage (Adler and Izraeli, 1995 as cited in Guthrie et al., 2001). Another factor which may play a role is corporate resistance; firms may be reluctant to send women “over there”. According to Adler and Izraeli (1995), the evidence suggests that this reluctance is, in fact, a major limiting factor. Expressing concern that women may have greater difficulties than their male counterparts in achieving success, many firms report caution in selecting women for international assignments. The research study by (Davoine et al., 2012) to examine the social role played by expatriate spouses during international assignments, using a dramaturgical approach. There do conducted face-to-face interviews with the spouses of consular and diplomatic professionals who were in Switzerland between two foreign assignments or during a period of vacation. He have found that while professional work is important for men spouse and women spouse in expatriate task, women renounce more frequently to work than men do (e.g. to take care of the children, of the house, etc.) or more often perform volunteer activities instead of professional ones and many of them mention having drastically interrupted their career development to follow the female expatriate. These studies have found in comparison with female spouses, male spouses tend to more frequently share their role of spouse with a professional activity. Traditionally, the male breadwinner model of gender relations has been dominant and powerful within most western societies (Janssens, 1997, p. 9; as cited in Davoine et al., 2012). This model is based on fundamental assumptions about male and female contributions within a household, where men are primarily responsible for the earning of the household financial income while women are assigned to unpaid care and domestic tasks (Lewis, 2001; Crompton, 1999; as cited in Davoine et al., 2012). Yet, although this traditional family configuration represents only a minority of families in European societies today (Jurado-Guerrero et al., 2012; as cited in Davoine et al., 2012), traditional norms concerning women’s domestic responsibilities remain significant in many western countries (Hobson and Fahle´n, 2009; as cited in Davoine et al., 2012). From David Thomas (1998) study, his surveys have generally indicated the preference of overseas business people for dealing with male executives reported differences among Asian and Australian managers with regard to their attitudes toward women expatriates. In Westwood and Leung`s (1994); as cited from Redding et al., (2003) survey of 45 female expatriates in Hong Kong, 62% reported that sex discrimination was higher overseas than at home and 58% reported that they had encountered some form of overt discriminatory behaviour. Thomas (1998) notes that “about the single most uncontroversial, incontrovertible statement to make about women in international management is that there are very few of them”. Indeed recent estimates suggest that perhaps less than 3% of expatriates are female (Westwood & Leung, 1994). However, the profile of the typical female expatriate suggests that the small number of female expatriates might be the beginning of the trend (Thomas, 1998). Vance & Paik (2001), review of existing literature and group interviews with 27 American managers identified common rationales that American managers may use in order to justify the selection of males over females for expatriate assignments. overall expectation that American males would be more successful than American females in an expatriate assignment. Vance & Paik (2001) have supported the six common rational statements which is;1. female American executives generally are not as qualified for extended foreign work assignments as are male American executives, 2. Culturally-based role expectations often represent an insurmountable barrier to the acceptance by foreign businessmen of female American executives working in their country, 3. Because international business tends to be dominated by males, male American executives are generally more appropriate for being selected for extended foreign assignments, 4. Female American executives generally have more difficulty adjusting to cultural differences in an extended foreign assignment, 5. Because of their more sensitive natures, female American executives generally have more difficulty than do their male counterparts in coping with the aggressive atmosphere of business abroad, 6. Overall, female American executives tend not to be as successful in extended foreign work assignments as are male American executives (Vance & Paik, 2001).

While the demand for business expatriates continues to increase, a number of reasons make it more difficult for employees to accept foreign assignments. Hence, international firms need to broaden their recruitment base by hiring people from outside their traditional male candidate pool. Women still represent a relatively untapped source of human talent for expatriate assignments. The number of female business expatriates lags far behind that of men (Selmer & Leung, 2003). Selmer & Leung (2003) supported there hypothesis in their study which is female expatriates have lower general adjustment, have higher interaction adjustment and have lower general adjustment to Hong Kong than their male counterparts. A few studies (Adler, 1987; Taylor and Napier, 1996; as cited from Selmer , 2003) found that there were no significant differences between male and female expatriates in their work adjustment in high masculine locations, such as Asian countries. More recent work, however, found masculinity negatively affecting the cross-cultural adjustment of expatriate women, compared with their male counterparts (Caligiuri and Tung, 1999). However it also noted that women possess more feminine qualities, such as consideration behaviour (Lewis and Fagenson-Eland, 1998; as cited from Selmer 2003) and emphasize more on cooperation and interdependence (Leung and Clegg, 2001). In general, women have been observed to be more relationship oriented, self-aware and nurturing than men (Murray and Atkinson, While women receive higher levels of educational achievement and the number of female expatriates is growing, progress is slow. Differences in accepting women in management vary by countries. (Hofstede 1989; as cited from Caliguiri, 2002) found that some cultures were more challenging to women than others. He suggested that women could be less effective because of cultural bias against them. For example, cultures that rate higher in ‘masculinity’ tend to look less favourably on women as professionals. Caligiuri (2002) proposed that female expatriates could be negatively stereotyped in host countries where women in senior positions are not appreciated. However, findings on this point have been inconsistent.

4.0 DISCUSSION

The supported study that women often have great success in performing their foreign assignments which is by Caliguiri & Tung (1999) which Comparing the success of male and female expatriates and supported women in the workforce (and in management) in countries with greater individualism and power distance while there also not supported about expatriate women regarding that fewer women in the workforce and in management in countries that are high in masculinity. Also supported this study by Muhammad et al., 2012, is to examine the perception of host country nationals (Malaysian workers) about expatriates gender as their coworkers and the difference between expatriate male and female. There found women can adjust well in foreign business as compared to men in multicultural society like Malaysia. Sinangil & Ones (2003) to examine gender differences in expatriate job performance at Middle East There found that men and women expatriates on average are rated quite similarly in terms of their job performance. The study used “big five” personality data to explore this issue by (Guthrie et al., 2001) have found the use of personality assessment in expat selection may favor women than men. Adler (1987) survey of 52 women expatriates in Asia indicated that being female was an advantage because of their more higher qualification and interpersonal skills than men. Culpan & Wright (2000) study explores the work environment of expatriate women managers in American corporations and investigates the determinants of their job satisfaction high skill, fluent speak foreign language and high education more women side. Adler (2000) have stated in her paper that the reasons companies give for choosing to include women along with their male managers for global assignment because women easily began to be promoted, organizations realized that these female 'outsiders' could potentially become executives, and thereby have influence over the nature of the organizational culture.

However in many cases they may even hold distinct advantages over their male counterparts. The study that not supporting the women much fit in better than men expatriates the study by Connerly et al., (2008) which stated women will be rated lower than men for expatriate positions which have typically been held by men similar with supervisors will rate same-sex subordinates higher than opposite-sex subordinates. Also Guthrie et al., (2001) argued that the possibility of women may not be as interested as males in international postings. Another possibility is that foreigners’ prejudice against women may cause them ineffective as expats which, in turn, diminishes their prevalence in these roles The study by Davoine et al., (2012) to examine the social role played by expatriate spouses during international assignments, using a dramaturgical approach. There do conducted face-to-face interviews with the spouses of consular and diplomatic professionals who were in Switzerland. , women renounce more frequently to work than men do such as to take care of the children and of the house, so that women expatriates with spouses and family afraid cannot give the fully task of job. From David Thomas (1998) study, his surveys have generally indicated the preference of overseas business people for dealing with male executives reported differences among Asian and Australian managers with regard to their attitudes toward women expatriates . Westwood and Leung`s (1994) survey of 45 female expatriates in Hong Kong. reported that sex discrimination was higher. However, the profile of the typical female expatriate suggests that the small number of female expatriates might be the beginning of the trend (Thomas, 1998). Vance & Paik (2001), review of existing literature and group interviews with 27 American managers. One of the statement there have supported in their study that female American executives generally are not as qualified for extended foreign work assignments as are male American executives. Selmer & Leung (2003) supported there hypothesis in their study which is female expatriates have lower general adjustment, have higher interaction adjustment and have lower general adjustment to Hong Kong than their male counterparts. The study by Paula M. Caligiuri and Rosalie L. Tung have emphasize the effect of gender on success in global assignments more to women gender. Even their have some argument that women expatriate may adapt to the stress of the global assignment and experienced lower levels of stress in way different from their male counterparts. Even some point their suggested that there was no difference between men and women in the outcome of their global assignment. There may, however, be a difference in the process while they are on the assignment, but there have argued that women tend to possess three attributes that make them more suitable for overseas work, compared to the tendencies in their male counterparts. These are: one, indirectness in communication; two, emphasis on cooperation over competition; and, three, isolation in a foreign setting. So this study need to discuss more details because even the study are more supporting the success in expatriate job in women side but still have argument because of their limitation of study. The purpose of study by Sinangil & Ones (2003) was to examine gender differences in expatriate job performance. In doing so, to main questions come: can women effectively perform expatriate job duties? and can female expatriates be successful in a cultural environment that may perceived to be unfriendly to females by western standards?. Data were collected from expatriates working in Turkey which is turkey is a rapidly developing country and a recently emergent market both in Europe and the Middle East. At the end of the results it appears that men and women expatriates on average are rated quite similarly in terms of their job performance. Might be the result have influence more positive effect because women`s rights in Turkey have seen much progress since the creation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Even though Turkey is predominantly Muslim, the secular and democratic nature of the Turkish state and important modernisation efforts initiated nature of the Turkish state. However the result finding cannot being main reference because sample was very limited. All expatriates sampled were working in Turkey and the host country perspective assessed in this study might carry the idiosyncrasies particularly to that country. There need to think that like most countries in the Middle East, the dominant culture in Turkey is not perceived by western executives to be particularly friendly to female manager. (Sinangil & Ones, 2003). Davoine et al., (2012) have not supporting argument for women expatriate fit in better than men who women that already have spouse or family because women need to do extra work like take care of the children, of the house, etc and its more hard husband follow their wife to immigrate rather than wife follow husband. In fact many previous studies have found that family-related problems were the biggest reason why expatriates fail in international assignments (Caligiuri et al., 1998; Shaffer et al., 1998; as cited from Shu, 2005). This is not surprising since the international assignment affects the family as a whole rather than just the expatriate (Caligiuri et al., 1998; as cited from Shu, 2005). Especially for women who have double work include household. Might be they all seemed to be very supportive of their spouses’ careers and engaged in their role of expatriate spouse. Indeed, although men continue to work, many of them mention having drastically interrupted their career development to follow the female expatriate. Both male and female spouses thus often renounce to better positions, opportunities and remuneration in order to help their spouses and have a family life. So it can be said that this study founded not supported the argument for women expatriate fit in better than men who women that already have spouse or family. Guthrie et al., (2001) have argued the possibility that of women may not be as interested as males in international postings and possibility is that foreigners’ prejudice against women may cause them ineffective as expats which, in turn, diminishes their prevalence in these roles which not supporting, but at the same time there study have found that in terms of big five personality for international assignment success that gender-based dispositional differences may, in fact, favour women than male, which supporting the women fit in better than man in expatriate jobs. In fact Statistical tests confirm that the use of big five personality criteria results in gender being significantly associated with selection outcomes (Guthrie et al., 2001). These results are consistent with arguments that women are dispositionally advantaged with respect to international assignments. These findings contrast sharply with extant evidence indicating that women hold relatively few expat positions. This is been approve by several study before, while males and females may differ along personality dimensions in the general population, the existence and importance of gender-based personality differences within the general managerial ranks has generated a good deal of debate and discussion (Morrison and Von Glinow, 1990; as cited in Guthrie et al., 2001). This discussion has extended into the global arena where authors have speculated that gender based. The differences in personality, managerial style and behavior may have significant implications in overseas assignments (Caligiuri and Cascio, 1998), and women may be better suited for expatriate success. As companies increasingly select their global managers from among the best women and men worldwide, rather than restricting candidates almost exclusively to men. Advocates of the two seemingly opposite positions - 'Women and men managers are exactly the same' and 'Women and men are distinctly different' - often tenaciously adhere to their own point of view and respond incredulously or even with hostility to proponents of perspectives other than their own. Not surprisingly, this crucial similar or- different dilemma surfaces frequently within global companies considering sending women abroad as expatriate managers. Given the paucity of research on women expatriate managers, existing studies cannot, as yet, definitively resolve whether women and men act differently as global managers or whether they are perceived to act differently (Adler, 2002). Most global managers know their companies can no longer afford to ignore potential talent 'simply because it's wearing a skirt' or because it holds a passport different from that of the founding executives (Fisher, 1992; as cited in Adler, 2002). Whereas women are recognized as differing from men, all such differences are judged to be detrimental to women's abilities to manage successfully and therefore to contribute successfully to the company's performance. From this perspective, of identifying with men's global management styles, it is inconceivable that women or women's unique approaches to managing internationally might benefit the company. Both men and women, therefore, attempt to minimize the differences between their own approaches and the male norm. Seeing men's ways as superior, women attempt to think like, act like and manage like their most successful male colleagues. North American women who are sent to Japan as expatriate managers, for example, choose to go out drinking with their Japanese colleagues and clients - thus replicating the pattern of the men who are sent to Japan (Caliguiri, 2000). Expatriate job assignments have not traditionally been among the settings that support diversity. The numbers of women in expatriate management have been low. This has been a long-standing cause for concern. Further despite the increasing numbers of women in management in general, the numbers of expatriate women has remained low. Traditionally, three resons have been put forth for the low number of female expatriates which is, women are not interested in international careers, organisations refuse to send women employees abroad for fear of poor job performance in foreign cultures and foreign cultures discriminate against women. Adler (1993) suggested that women may not be selected for expatriate positions because those making selection decisions believe in these three prevalent myths that prevent them from hiring females. Past research has insinuated that gender diversity among expatriates might be an unattainable goal as host country national evaluations of male and female expatriates might drastically differ (Sinangil &Ones, 2003).

The effect of the gender of the expatriate manager has become important issue. A central issue in the research on women expatriates has been the extent to which women face greater difficulty overseas than men. In Westwood and Leung`s (1994); Thomas (1998) indicated differences among Asian managers especially women expatriates. There study supported that woman expatriates must be less than men. In Westwood and Leung`s (1994) survey of 45 female expatriates in Hong Kong, 62% reported that sex discrimination was higher overseas than at home and 58% reported that they had encountered some form of overt discriminatory behaviour. Indeed he suggest that perhaps less than 3% of expatriates are female. However some research has suggested that being female was an advantage. Adler (1987) survey of 52 women expatriates in Asia indicated that 42% felt that being female was an advantage. Female expatriates seem to have generally positive feeling about the expatriate assignments 97% in Adler (1987) sample saying their success was a success. Antal & Izraeli (1993); as cited from Westwood et al., (1994) suggest that a greater presence of women in the expatriate community in future may result from recent developments such as shortage of qualified men, legal and social pressure for equal opportunity, the increasing familiarity with women in management position and the increasing ability of women to self-select for an overseas assignment because of changing company attitudes. Whether this prediction is correct or not, much more work is needed to understand the issues surrounding the placement of women in overseas position. Culpan & Wright (2000) study supported the expatriate American women because of their skills and qualification much more increase from time to time, while Vance & Paik (2001) emphasize American women face their biggest obstacle to expatriate career success. Culpan & Wright (2000) stated most of women expatriates studied had high levels of education and fluent in foreign language. There have found that the profile of women shows that they represent a highly skilled workforce who had professional positions in major American corporations overseas. Their indicated that they were confronted with problems in the international workplace and most of those problems were cultural in nature. Yet, they had the skills and qualifications to cope with those problems also there have flexibility, good communication skills and foreign language skills helped them to deal with those problems. Vance & Paik (2001), review of existing literature and group interviews with 27 American managers identified common rationales that American managers may use in order to justify the selection of males over females for expatriate assignments and found overall expectation that American males would be more successful than American females in an expatriate assignment. However Vance & Paik (2001) noted that the main benefit of being a woman in overseas business is high visibility. When competing for the attention of a foreign executive in obtaining a desired business deal, a sole female sales representative will have the advantage of being remembered among the otherwise homogeneous sales representative competition. It has even been suggested that females also may benefit from a positive “self-fulfilling prophesy” or “halo effect” held by the foreign business persons who expect that the female expatriate is extremely capable and talented since she was able to overcome all of the gender biased obstacles which were presumed to be placed in her way back home (Adler, 2002). While women was needed by global to expatriate and not being men alone, organization need to implement strategies to facilitate the adjustment of female expatriates especially in these more challenging countries. According to (Caligiuri, 2002) there are some specific strategies which MNCs can implement to maximize the potential of female expatriates. These strategies include (1) pre-departure training, (2) organizational support and (3) selection. (1) Training - Cross-cultural training for women who will be going on global assignments may include training on the norms, values and traditions of a host country regarding women, and deriving solutions for the potentially challenging situations that female expatriates may encounter. Especially in countries differing in key value orientations, cross-cultural training may also provide a realistic expectation of what is to come in the global assignment. Having realistic expectations may also help to reduce anxiety for female global assignees (Caligiuri et al., 1998; as cited from Caliguiri , 2002). (2) Organizational support - In addition to training their female expatriates, Caligiuri and Cascio (1998) suggest that MNCs should actively promote expatriate women as their 'best qualified' candidates, in order to dispel the 'token' image. In particular, this would become more important in subsidiaries of US-based MNCs 'where most host national managers know that US civil rights laws exist - and may assume that their female expatriate colleague fulfils an affirmative action quota' (Caligiuri and Cascio, 1998). (3) Selection - While training and support are important, it may be the case that certain women are better suited for the more challenging positions in countries where there are fewer women in management. Caligiuri and Cascio (1998) suggest that Western women in global assignments (even more so than men) will need self-efficacy and self confidence in order to be successful. More confident women will doubt themselves less - especially in the face of personal challenges. In addition to confidence, openness will also be important for female expatriates because their will need to adapt the cultural difference. Where these cultural differences have a more direct impact on their performance on the job, and the ability to be open to differences in values, norms, and behaviours may be all the more important' (Caligiuri, 2002). This suggests that women should be selected for global assignments based on their efficacy, confidence and openness. Overall, this study suggests that male and female expatriates can perform equally well in international assignments - regardless of the country's predisposition to women in management. Thus, multinational organizations would benefit from widening their potential expatriate candidate pool to include their talented women. In addition, they would serve their female expatriates well by engaging in activities (i.e. training, support and selection) to facilitate their cross-cultural adjustment in the more challenging global assignments.
5.0 CONCLUSION

Women have been relatively untapped as a source of human talent in the international business arena. The participation rate of women in expatriate assignments lags far behind that of men as they are frequently reported to be passed over for expatriate assignments in favor of men. However a number of more recent articles on women expatriates increasing can be found Recent field research involving interviews of women in expatriate assignments located in several different foreign countries have supported to common perceptions about female expatriates, these women often have great success in performing their foreign assignments (Caliguiri & Tung, 1999, Adler, 1986, 1987, 2000, 2002, Muhammad et al., 2012, Sinangil & Ones, 2003, Guthrie et al., 2001 and Culpan & Wright, 2000). In many cases they may even hold distinct advantages over male side (Connerly et al., 2008, Guthrie et al., 2001, Davoine et al., 2012, Thomas, 1998, Westwood & Leung 1994, vance & Paik, 2001 and Selmer & Leung, 2003). From analysis research previously and literature review from the research, it can be say that women fit in better than man in expatriates assignment because of the similar reason which is women accommodate others more easily than men do and they also establish social network more effectively, feel less confined by trappings of power relationships, flexibility, interpersonal skills, much good personality than men, higher qualification and form more conciliatory personal relationships. These strengths help them to integrate into foreign social environments more easily than men and they are viewed as more cooperative in their behaviour. While expatriates assignments more to male counterparts possibility, prejudice against women, women expatriates with spouse and family been questioned rather than men with spouse and family, women may not be as interested as males in international postings and sex discrimination. In male centred foreign cultures, like country that more masculinity such as Middle East and certain country at Asian, women certainly faces many disadvantages but foreign women in responsible positions receive unusual respectful treatment. Expatriate women are not treated the same way as domestic women. Instead they evoke a sense of admiration from male colleagues. This is occur because men face few women in these positions and perhaps also because they are well qualified professionals with excellent relational skills. Women are generally more trusted than their male colleagues and in societies where trust building is important these relational characteristics are major disadvantages. In fact employment of more females in the international workforce by multinational organisations will enhance the quality of diversity in the workforce in the future. However, the important finding to keep in mind is that such diversity is associated with no decrements to overseas job performance. As such, employing women expatriates in overseas assignments is a win-win strategy: gender diversity of expatriate groups is enhanced, while no declines in expatriate job performance are experienced.

6.0 REFERENCES
Caligiuri & Tung. 1999. The success of male and female expatriates from a US-based multinational company. Int. J. Of Human Resource Management, 763-782.
Cole & Nulty. 2011. Why do female expatriates ‘fit in’ better than males? An analysis of self Transcendence and socio-cultural adjustment. Cross cultural management: An international journal.
Muhammad, Sundram & Hoe. 2012. Gender stereotypes: Expatriates job performance and gender perception through host country nationals (HCN`s) perspectives. International journal of business and management, Vol.7, No. 17.
Sinangil & Ones. 2003. Gender differences in expatriate job performance. A international review, 461-475.
Davoine, Ravasi, Salamin & Mauroux. (2012). A “dramaturgical” analysis of spouse role enactment in expatriation; An exploratory gender comparative study in the diplomatic and consular field. Journal of global mobility, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 92-112.
Connerly, Mecham & Strauss. 2008. Gender differences in leadership competencies, expatriate readiness, and performance. Gender in management: an international journal, vol.23,no.5.

Guthrie, Ash & Stevens. (2001). Are women “better” than men?; personality differences and expatriate selection. Journal of managerial psychology, vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 229-243.
Caligiuri, P.M. (2000), “The big five personality characteristics as predictors of expatriates? Desire to terminate the assignment and supervisor-rated performance”, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 53, pp. 67-88.

Zhu, Luthans, Chew & Li. (2005). Potential expats in Singaporean organizations. Journal of management development, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 763-776.

Adler. (2002), Global managers: no longer men alone. Int. J. Human resource management, 743-760

Selmer & Leung. (2003). International adjustment of female vs male business expatriates. Int. J. of human resource management, 1117-1131.

Culpan & Wright. (2002). Women abroad: getting the best results from women managers. Int. J. of human resource management, 784-801.

Adler. (1986). Women do not want international careers: And other myths about international management, 66-79.

Vance & Paik. (2001). Where do American women face their biggest obstacle to expatriate career success? Back in their own backyard, cross cultural management.

Selmer & Leung. (2002). Career management issues of female business expatriates. Career development international, 348-358.

The journal from book of Redding & Stening. (2003). Cross-Cultural Management Volume II; Managing Cultural Differences, [31].

Thomas. (1998), The Expatriate Experience: A critical review and synthesis, Vol.12, 27-273.

Adler, N.J. (1987). Pacific basin managers: A Gaijin not a woman. Human resources management, 26, 169-191.

Westwood, R.I., Leung, S.M. (1994). The female expatriate manager experience: Coping with gender and culture. International studies of management and organization, 24, 64-85.…...

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