The Nature of a Man

In: Business and Management

Submitted By innocencetqy
Words 13167
Pages 53

Michael C. Jensen
Harvard Business School and
William H. Meckling
University of Rochester

Understanding human behavior is fundamental to understanding how organizations function, whether they are profit-making firms, non-profit enterprises, or government agencies. Much disagreement among managers, scientists, policy makers, and citizens arises from substantial differences in the way we think about human nature—about their strengths, frailties, intelligence, ignorance, honesty, selfishness, and generosity. In this paper we discuss five alternative models of human behavior that are commonly used
(though usually implicitly). They are the Resourceful, Evaluative, Maximizing Model
(REMM), Economic (or Money Maximizing) Model, Psychological (or Hierarchy of
Needs) Model, Sociological (or Social Victim) Model, and the Political (or Perfect
Agent) Model. We argue that REMM best describes the systematically rational part of human behavior. It serves as the foundation for the agency model of financial, organizational, and governance structure of firms.
The growing body of social science research on human behavior has a common message:
Whether they are politicians, managers, academics, professionals, philanthropists, or factory workers, individuals are resourceful, evaluative maximizers. They respond creatively to the opportunities the environment presents, and they work to loosen constraints that prevent them from doing what they wish. They care about not only money, but about almost everything—respect, honor, power, love, and the welfare of others. The challenge for our society, and for all organizations in it, is to establish rules of the game that tap and direct human energy in ways that increase rather than reduce the effective use of our scarce resources.
© M. C. Jensen and W. H. Meckling, 1994
Journal of Applied Corporate…...

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