Free Essay

The Evolution of Musical Instruments

In: Historical Events

Submitted By PKATT
Words 1082
Pages 5
Evolution of Musical Instruments
Music, the concept is something almost instinctually recognized. Rhythm, is it appropriated from our culture, or is it something innately recognized between living beings? From beating on walls to humming tunes, making music is something we are almost all capable of doing. But over time we have evolved our way of procuring these sounds, these vibrational patterns, and it has helped us evolve the actual concept of music to newer and grander concepts. To better understand this, I have drawn up the following timeline, demonstrating the evolution of musical instruments.

• ??? Our first musical instruments were natural our lungs. Dating back to the beginning of human history
• 45,000 years ago Neanderthals carve a flute from the leg bone of a young bear, in the region that is now Slovenia
• 8000 BC Aborigines develop first Didgeridoo
• 4000 BC Harps and flutes played in Egypt
• 3500 BC Lyres and Double Clarinets played in Egypt
• 3000 BC Chinese court musician cut first bamboo pipes
• 2800 BC The harp and the lyre are in use as musical instruments in Mesopotamia
• 2000 BC Percussion instruments added to Egyptian orchestral music including Bells
• 1500 BC A copper trumpet is in use in Egypt, forerunner of the brass instruments of the orchestra
• 1500 BC Hittites use guitars, lyres, trumpets, and tambourines in music
• 1000 BC Bagpipes first used
• 800 BC Five tone and Seven tone scales appear in Babylon
• 800 BC Earliest known written music. A hymn on a tablet in Sumeria, written in cuniform
• 700 BC Seven string lyre introduced
• 600 BC The followers of Pythagoras discover the mathematical basis of the octave
• 600 BC Indian Vina appears, two hollow gourds connected by strings and bamboo reed. Considered the precursor to all hollow instruments.
• 500 BC Typical Greek instruments Aulos, Cithara, Lyre
• 340 BC Aristotle lays the foundation of musical theory
• 250 BC The organ, using a mechanical device to pump air through a set of musical pipes, is invented in Alexandria by Ctesibius
• 50 BC Earliest form of Oboe used in Rome
• 386 Hymn singing introduced by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan
• 500 In Peru, Flutes, Tubas, and Drums in use
• 600 Ritual intoning of the psalms, derived from Jewish synagogues, is formalized in Christian worship as Gregorian chant
• 609 The Crwth, a Celtic string instrument appears
• 650 Neumes, notation for goups of notes used in music. This system is used in the West until 1050
• 750 Wind organs, originally from Byzantium, start to replace water organs in Europe
• 942 Kettledrums and trumpets brought to Europe by Arabs
• 980 Organ with 400 pipes finished at Winchester Monastary, England
• 990 Development of systematic musical notation
• 1050 The harp arrives in Europe
• 1100 First acoustic guitars used
• 1200 Cymbals introduced as a musical instrument
• 1360 Beginnings of the development of the Clavichord and Cembalo
• 1465 First printed music
• 1564 Andrea Amati makes his first Italian violin
• 1600 Recorder becomes popular in England
• 1610 Trombone invented
• 1664 French Horn becomes an orchestral instrument
• 1680 Stradivari makes his earliest known Cello
• 1709 Invention of the pianoforte
• 1711 Tuning Fork invented in in England
• 1750 First banjos, thought to be derived originally from Africa, made popular by North American slaves
• 1753 The Denis d’or, the first technical electrical instrument is mentioned in manuscript
• 1762 Benjamin Franklin improves the Harmonica, turning it into a practical instrument
• 1772 First barrel organs produced by Flight and Kelly, a firm in London
• 1783 Patents for piano pedals are procured in England
• 1795 Early predecessor to the Keytar, the Orphica, a small portable piano is invented in Vienna
• 1814 J.N. Maelzel invents metronome in Vienna
• 1823 Sebastien Erard constructs a grand piano with double escapement
• 1829 Accordion invented
• 1830 Valves were added to trumpets
• 1833 Dulcimer starts to circulate
• 1835 Tuba invented
• 1840 French develop first Harmonium
• 1846 First Saxophone patented
• 1850 Italians start developing first Mandolins
• 1853 Ocarina is invented by Italian, Giuseppe Donati
• 1880 Ukulele developed in Hawaii
• 1900 Modern keyboard invented
• 1902 Thaddeaus Cahill sets up the Telharmonium or Dynamaphone, a 200-ton array of Edison dynamos that produced different pitched hums according to the speed of the dynamos. The electrical output was "broadcast" over telephone lines.
• 1905 Early drum kits started being assembled
• 1906 Lee DeForest invents the Triode Vacuum Tube which led to amplification of electrical signals.

• 1920 First electrically amplified violins used
• 1928 Russia patents first Theramin
• 1928 Ondes-Martenot patented
• 1928 Trautonium patented
• 1929 Hammond Organ developed based on the technical principles of the Telharmonium
• 1930 Americans develop Electric Guitars
• 1930 Improvement of amplifiers and invention of the Tape Recorder
• 1930 Americans develop Bass Guitar
• 1940 First Synthesizer made by Canadian composer, Hugh Le Caine
• 1952 Raymond Scott designs possibly first Sequencer
• 1956 Raymond Scott invents Clavivox Synthesizer
• 1956 Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson compose the first complete work of computer- assisted composition.
• 1959 Columbia-Princeton Studio established in New York with the help of a $175,000 Rockefeller grant. Incorporated the RCA Mark II synthesizer, the first major voltage-controlled synthesizer.
• 1960's Development of large mainframe computer synthesis. Max Mathews of Bell Labs perfects MUSIC V, a direct digital synthesis language. Development of smaller voltage-controlled synthesizers by Moog and others make instruments available to most composers, universities and popular musicians.
• 1960’s Beginning of live electronic performances.
• 1963 Germans manufacture first Keytar
• 1963 Mellotron, a first-wave type of Sampler was invented in England
• 1972 Kraakdoos AKA Cracklebox, invented in Netherlands
• 1975 Laser Harp invented 1977 Americans invent the Synclavier
• 1980's MIDI instruments and software make powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Acoustic sounds are reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments. Miller Puckette develops graphic signal-processing software for 4X called MAX (after Max Mathews), later ports it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background.
• 1981 Omnichord introduced by Suzuki Musical Instrument Corporation
• 1985 Yamaha introduces DX-7 MIDI keyboard, based on FM synthesis algorithms developed by John Chowning at Stanford University.
• 1985 Digidesign releases Sound Designer software for the Macintosh, the first consumer-level hard-disk recording and editing software.
• 1990s An upsurge of DJ mixers rose, surmounting to the introduction to Turntables
• 2004 First conceptual AudioCubes are drafted
• 2007 Steel Tongue Drum Patented by Dennis Havlena
• 2008 Skoog has its initial release
• 2009 Eigenharp is developed in the UK 2013 AlphaSphere comes out of…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Brass Instruments

...6, 2012 Brass Instruments The brass family has a variety of instruments that have the ability to cover a wide range of sounds. Brass instruments have changed greatly since the beginning of time. Throughout history, the manufacturing of brass instruments has become more complex by using different materials, dimensions, and including valves. Compositions have been composed to show off the capabilities of brass instruments through concertos and solos. With that being said, famous musicians have created a reputation for their musical talents by playing instruments in the brass family. The sacbut and piccolo trumpet are two instruments included in the brass family and will be focused on due to their unique qualities. The brass family is a unique group of instruments that has helped change the compositions of music throughout history. History of Brass Instruments Before the history of brass can be described, people have to understand what a brass instrument entails, “a brass instrument is defined as an “aerophone,” which means it is an instrument where the musician must blow air into the instrument. The musician produces the tone by buzzing the lips into what is generally a cup-shaped mouthpiece. It doesn’t mean that the instrument is necessarily made of brass, since instruments that are made of other metals, wood, horn, or even animal bone are included in the family of brass instruments.” (Wilken) Before the Renaissance period, the brass instruments were very......

Words: 2568 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Why Playing a Musical Instrument Is Important

...Why a Musical Instrument is an Important Hobby Audience: Students just starting secondary school. I don't know how many of you play an instrument, but I personally have been playing the drums for just about two years now. Although I don't play in a band or even have a strict practising routine I find them to be a key part of my life now, something that I would find very difficult to live without. As you are starting secondary school, this is an ideal time to start playing an instrument. Not necessarily the drums but it can in fact be any form of instrument to find the same rewards. Over the last few years at K.E.S. School I have worked towards my GCSE's and taken the all important exams. All of this has been a very stressful experience for me and I'm sure it will be the same for a lot of you when it comes to your time to do the same. This is my first reason to take up an instrument. Stress. We all have days when we are so stressed out that we just need to take a break. Have you ever noticed that when listening to soft and calm music it makes you feel more at ease and relaxed? Playing an instrument has a very similar effect on you as this, especially when you are the one playing. Drumming through out my GCSE examination period was what allowed me to release stress and focus on my work at the same time allowing me to get the grades that I wanted. That isn't the only benefit though, in studies that have been carried out in recent years, we have found evidence that......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Musical Theater

...AUTHOR’S NOTE Don’t listen to anything I say. INTRO What does Anything Goes, Hello Dolly!, Les Mis and Wicked have in common with anything else that has ever existed? The answer at the bottom of the page (upside down “absolutely nothing”). It’s a strange world, musical theatre; we have all seen one, been in one, fantasized about starring in one, hate one or adore one. None the matter. When it comes down to it, we must come to realize that our proud, intelligent, gun-slinging species has created the most romantic and magical source of entertainment I have ever come to witness. How do other animals entertain themselves? Dogs chase their bums, cats get their nip-fix, dolphins screw, primates throw excrement. Humans deride at our beastly brethren for their means of amusement, yet I have little doubt if you sat a gorilla in the mezzanine to watch a hoard of synchronized singers and dancers telling their story in front of him, he would think “What the hell are these idiots doing? I want my stick back.” Yet what makes it so real? Where does the allure come from? The high notes or the kick lines? The consistency or the insanity? I have but one theory. One of my favorite words is “romance”. Not, of course, in the way you are probably thinking. I’m thinking in the broadest sense of the word. Not the squishy “I love you, you love me, so-on-and-so-forth mediocrity.” Not the “Oh, Shannon” and, “William, my sweet love.” Give me a break. The romance I’m talking about is the......

Words: 832 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Musical Essay

...Musical Theater The evolution of musical theater is the true are of telling a story. Musical theater dates all the way back to the 5th century BOE. This was a time the Romans nailed metal to shoes to create the first tap shoes, wagons were called “stages on wheels” and poetry was cited with a melody. Musical theater is presented all around the world thru history, “boots musicals”, and many popular musical films. In ancient Greece, music and dance war introduced thru staged comedies and tragedies. As early as the 3rd century BCE Romans performed in “theaters” by creating the technical part of dance – tap shoes. Now dance steps can be heard. This form of theater is a combination of songs spoken dialogue, acting, and dancing. Musical theater is often compared to opera. The only difference is musical theater targets popular music and opera focuses more on classical. They can also contain different stories from love to tragedies. Composers and singers contribute to explain each character’s feelings thru the music. Musical theater isn’t what it is without a performer who is extremely talented in dancing, singing, and acting. Since the 20th century, musical theater productions are what we know as musicals. Producing a musical contains set designing, costumes, props, lights, and sound. The three key parts of a book musical are music, lyrics, and of course a book. The story is well created full of drama. Musical plays bring songs and dances to another level so real emotions......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evaluation of Acquisition of Steinway Musical Instruments by John A. Paulson

...Evaluation of Acquisition of Steinway Musical Instruments by John A. Paulson The Acquisition Back to the year 2011, the world’s most famous manufacturer of musical instrument, Steinway Musical Instruments Corporation, had begun to considerate the offer to acquisition. Two member of the board of directors, Dana Messina and John Stoner set up the special committee to discuss the acquisition deals. But Steinway turned down the Stoner-Messina offer in 2012,12 and declared that the company was not for sell. Now it’s time to take a fresh look at this issue. Kohlberg & Co. announced that they are going to offer a price of $448 million to take an overall acquisition, and Steinway accepted the $35-per-share Kohlberg proposal. However, at the last days in the 45-day “go-shop” period, a second, unidentified suitor offered a higher price: $38-per-share and $477 in total. This mysterious competitor is John Paulson, a hedge fund billionaire. In the end, Steinway announced that it would be acquired for approximately $512 million, $40-per-share, and the investment firm Paulson & Co. has completed its approximately $499 million purchase of Steinway in Sep, 2013. Kohlberg & Co. refused to increase its offer so Steinway will be required to pay Kohlberg a $13.35 million termination fee. This deal makes Steinway a private company, again. John A. Paulson Born in Queen, now John A. Paulson is one of the top American hedge fund mangers, or maybe the best. Warren E.......

Words: 1823 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Japanese Traditional Musical Instruments

...encountered music from Korea and China around 7th century. In traditional Japanese music, there are three general types of instruments, which are percussion, stringed, and wind instruments. Japanese musical instruments have distinct characteristic that distinguish themselves from western instruments; they are made to enjoy to delicate change of the sound in the small room and that trait can be contrasted to the trait of big concert hall sound made by western instruments. Recently, a growing number of artists are being recognized for bringing these instruments to modern audiences, giving the old instruments new life and energy. First, the stringed instrument to be introduced is Koto. The koto is probably the most familiar Japanese instrument in the world. In ancient tradition, a kind of koto was used as the symbol of music, one of the attributes of a scholar in the Chinese Confucian tradition. As thirteen strings harp, the koto has pillars, made of Paulownia wood, to support the strips. The strings are all the same length and are attached parallel along the length of the instrument. The pitch is controlled by stretching the string using pillar to transmit the vibration of the string to the body. Using picks on the thumb, first two fingers of the right hand, and the left hand to modify pitch and tone, Koto players perform in an ensemble or as a solo instrument. The left hand alters the sound in various ways, sometimes pressing down on a string firmly on the left side of the......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Musical Impressionism

...Musical Impressionism Impressionism implies suggestion. With art, impressionism was to suggest rather than sustain a clear objective or draw a perfect picture. Impressionist music is tremendously similar. It focuses on creating a “sense” of the piece by using chromatic harmony and refined shadings of sound rather than keeping on a steady beat and straight rhythm. Impressionistic music could be thought to be filled with “wonder”. Impressionism, in the late Nineteenth century and early Twentieth century, was unheard of and had a confusing aura- as it naturally would be as it was not introduced before. Claude Debussy, the forefather, if you will, of impressionism, created his music through suggestion [rather than statement]. He took Mallarme’s poem Prélude À "L'après-midi d'un faune" and turned it into a song, which later he would (finally) “win acclaim”. Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun expresses impressionism in the finest state with his use of chromatic scales and whole tone scales, and unusual sound patterns. It had an ebb and flow of an ascending and descending scale and but never the same repeating rhythmic sequence. It’s complex rhythms, variations, and subtle textures “con­vey the impression of light and movement, rather than giving an exact representation of shapes”. It focused on feelings rather than a straightforward look at the poem. Ravel’s Le tombeau de Couperin is not surrounded with the same sounds as Debussy, however has the......

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Hartig, clarinet 8 p.m. 09 18 Jazz at Mirror Lake 5:30 p.m. Rain location: Weigel Hall at 7:30 p.m. MONDAY THURSDAY BROWNING AMPHITHEATRE 09 22 Kia-Hui Tan, violin 8 p.m. This final recital in the series of complete Bach sonatas and partitas, Paganini caprices, and Ysaÿe sonatas features contemporary works derived from Paganini’s 24th Caprice and Ysaÿe’s 6th Sonata, including Milstein’s Paganiniana! Katherine Borst Jones, flute, and Caroline Hartig, clarinet, perform duos by DeVoto, Larsen, Arnold and Szalowski in honor of their mentor and teacher, Professor emeritus Donald e. McGinnis, who will celebrate his 97th birthday on October 21. McGinnis once recorded a program of some of these works, where he played both instruments. MONDAY 09 26 FRIDAY 4 Symphony Orchestra 8 p.m. 09 30 Wind Symphony 8 p.m. 10 07 Jazz Workshop Ensemble 8 p.m. 10 08 Symphonic Band 8 p.m. TUESDAY WEDNESDAY TUESDAY 5 5 4 OCtOBER CONCeRTS Vocal Arts Showcase 10 10 10 11 10 20 FRIDAY SATURDAY 8 p.m. 4 p.m. Faculty: James Hill, saxophone; Thomas Wells, piano 8 p.m. Ohio State Choral Collage Vocal Arts Showcase Concert MONDAY The finest Ohio high school and community college singers join Ohio State choral and voice faculty and students for two days of music-making, with guest clinician Ryan Beeken, director of choral studies at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. 10 13 Faculty: Scott......

Words: 2306 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Musical Literacy

...Musical Literacy: The Stuff of Genius Keith Rulli COM 156 December 7, 2012 Karen Nowak Musical Literacy: The Stuff of Genius Literacy is the ability to read and write, which implies knowledgeability and capability of exercising one's ability through comprehension and expression. It is developed through learning and training in the intellectual and formal standards of a language. It is not a natural talent or innate capacity, therefore, it is not to be underestimated in importance. Standard, or formal English, differs from substandard, or informal English, as well as broken English and slang, because it is contrained by formal rules and elements. Language of a higher caliber is of greater worth because of its sophistication which breeds sophistication. People with a feebly sentimental attachment to their own nature and its affections may be complacently stifled from pursuing a sophisticated consciousness. Fluency and literacy are not the same. Fluency only requires a degree of understanding that gives one the ability to easily and readily express oneself. Often, illiterate or borderline illiterate individuals are able to speak and understand the English langauge in a basic way. People who speak the same language often speak different dialects identifiable by characteristic nuances. The concept of musical literacy is one that many people are unfamiliar with. Musical literacy is partially an understanding of the notation system that enables one to read......

Words: 2324 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Musical Clarity

...Colie Ballard Musical Clarity As I sit down on the small wooden stool, I take a breath in, hold it for a second, and slowly let it out. I stretch my fingers and place them on the piano’s familiar ivory keys. After I scan my music, I shut my eyes and play the first note or chord. The music takes me on a journey, and allows me to transform from scared and nervous to completely relaxed and confident in the music I am playing. The first sounds of the piano lead me into a place of serenity, and prepare me for the vocals, which I begin shortly after the piano introduction. As I take another breath, I produce my own vibration and begin to sing. As the words and melody of “All of Me” by John Legend resonate through me, I am caressed by an everlasting bliss. At this moment, my brain detaches from reality, as if I am in a dream. Sitting on a chair performing with a piano backing up my voice and expressing myself through music is a place where I am nothing but content. With each note I play and word I sing, I feel enlightened. It is special that I have a place to engulf myself in, my own little haven. I lose myself and all of a sudden it’s the last note. I look up from the music and the keys, and the roaring and clapping from the crowd snap me back to reality. Throughout my childhood I have been brought up with music. It has been something generations of my family have used to cope with any difficulties that came their way, express themselves, and to learn more about who they are as...

Words: 1208 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Musical Growth

...Theodore N Mcgrady Prof. Christopher Hanover Music 160 February 11, 2015 Music Analysis Assignment Musical growth in Taylor Swift’s Blank Space and Dan Emmett’s “De Boatman’s dance”. In this music analysis assignment, I am going to analyze two pieces of music. I will analyze first, “De Boatman’s Dance” by Dan Emmett and then “Blank Space” by Taylor Swift. I shall listen closely for instrumentation, texture, melody, and form and I will talk about the genre of each song. Instruments used in “De Boatman’s Dance” include: a tambourine, bones, voices, and a banjo. I hear several voices singing in different parts. In the vocal section, I hear only men’s voices. I noticed that the tenor singer sings solo in some part of the song. Upon listening closely, I noticed that the singers lower their voices every second time they sing, “I rode de boatman’s boat” in the chorus. I noticed most part of the song is sung in baritone as the chorus is sung in alto and tenor; we hear a little syncopation by the bone. The melody is shared between the banjo and the voices. The music is divided into quadruple meter and takes the form of A-B-C but then there is an intro before the “A” starts. This form is continued throughout the song. In Taylor Swift’s “Blank Space,” the instruments used are: keyboard, effects, drums, bass and her voice. The voice overall has a pleasant timbre that is very sweet and gentle, and can convey emotions well. The voice cuts through the......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Musical Autobiography

...August 26, 2015 MUS 107 Musical Autobiography 1. What kinds of music do you like to listen to? Be specific! a. I like to listen to Country, Rock, Blues, 70s & 80s Music, Hawaiian, Reggae, Hip-Hop, and Pop Music. 2. Why do you like the kinds of music that you do? b. I like the way how all the songs make me feel. For example, I dance hula and the Hawaiian songs my class and I dance to are either fast or slow songs; either way all of the songs we dance to just make me feel peaceful and at ease. 3. Do you play an instrument and/or sing? What kinds of music do you play/sing/perform? c. I do not play any instrument well, however I did take an ukulele class this past semester. In that class we played/sung/performed all Hawaiian music. 4. What kinds of music do you make with your family and/or friends? d. We don’t really sing together, but if we do were singing whatever is pkaying on the radio or on our iPod/iPhone’s. 5. How much music do you listen to daily? e. A LOT!!! I listen to music almost all day, everyday… Except in class. I listen to music when I wake up in the morning to get ready for school, I listen to music in the car, when I get to school I listen to music while walking to class, I listen to music when I do my homework, I listen to music when I go running, and I listen to music when I shower. 6. When was the last time music caught you by surprise? f. I remember when I was sitting in the......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Jazz and Its Mo0Dern Influence

...The Evolution of Jazz and its Modern Influence Jazz is a music art form that was created solely in America. It is considered to be one of the most influential forms of music in American history. Not only did it originate in America but it is also one of the few art forms that have two distinctive sounds. The jazz sound is separated into classical jazz and jazz fusion (modern) jazz. Jazz is also one of the only forms of music for which college music majors are required to study several artists’ techniques as a semester course. Jazz music has been used in many forms of music in America. With all the respect that jazz has garnered around the world, unfortunately, the art form has lost popularity over the last 20 years. With the emergence of hip-hop, techno, and other music forms, young musicians of today do not find the music appealing or relevant. All the awards for jazz musicians have been moved off the national television award shows. There is also a movement to remove the jazz categories from the Grammy list completely. This paper will discuss the history of jazz, where it began, how it evolved, and its future. To understand the future of jazz, one must understand what it really is and the instruments that were combined to make the ensemble. Jazz started to form early in the twentieth century in New Orleans. At that time, the sound was called Ragtime. This sound was produced by a band that included the string bass, drums, a guitar or banjo, and a "melodic section" with......

Words: 2476 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Musical Eras

...MUSIC PRODUCTION WESTERN MUSICAL ERAS ESSAY Name : Abel Varghese ID No. : AAT/MPDN/00029/BLR Starting Date : 08/05/2016 Submission Date : 13/05/2016 Assessor : Raemus Casterlino Content Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..03 Medieval Music……………………………………………………………………....04 Renaissance…………………………………………………………………………..05 Baroque...…………………………………………………………………………….06 Classical……………………………………………………………………………...07 Romantic……………………………………………………………………………..08 20th Century music…………………………………………………………………...09 21st Century………………………………………………………………………….10 Introduction Music is said to be present in the ancestral period and it was first evolved from Africa and was later spread to the west, which later on became a fundamental constituent of life. Each era existed for a period of time, such as the pre-historic music, ancient music, biblical period , western musical period etc. The western musical era of music will be mentioned in detail below. This period consisted of the medieval music, renaissance music, baroque, classical, 20th century music, and 21st century music. Medieval Music The western music is popularly known for the Gregorian chant also known as the plain chant. This was during years 500 – 1400. It was more of the vocal religious practices of the roman catholic church. The plainchants had very little pitch change and had consisted of only a single melody and lacked harmony. There are no back ground singers or instruments. These kind of music was......

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Beethoven's Musical

...Sonatas).       Beethoven’s thirty-two piano sonatas constitute a great treasure that embodies a part of the human eternity. Numerous pianists and musicologists have researched or studied them, trying to impart to their students or readers the prodigality of these true musical riches.       Beethoven holds a key role in the transformation and evolution of the sonata form. Even if he maintains the characteristics initially set by his predecessors, Haydn and Mozart, Beethoven imposes on the sonata his strong personality creating a new, impressive, form of art, in which his own life, with its joys and sorrows, is projected. With Beethoven the musical theme acquires remarkable proportions, of such strength, that it imposes itself over the listener’s attention and memory. As the French composer, Vincent d’ Indy once said, with Beethoven, the musical theme turns into an concept that spreads throughout the hole work making it easily recognizable even if harmonic, modal or tonal aspects change.       The fundamental principle of organization of the Beethoven piano sonata is the tonality. We can say that Beethoven perceived tonality as the key to any composition, since it leads to the true understanding of the musical form.       In what the structural architectonic of the Beethoven piano sonatas is regarded, there are no apparent patterns: out of the thirty-two sonatas written by Beethoven, twelve have four parts, thirteen have three parts and seven have two parts. Another......

Words: 2698 - Pages: 11