Free Essay

Tauqeer Ahmed Khan

In: Business and Management

Submitted By tauqeerkhan
Words 13672
Pages 55
The Impact of Security Permits on Aviation Security at Dubai International Airport
Submitted To:
Submitted By:

Abstract The research paper evaluates the impact of security permits that are adopted by Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai International Airport to strengthen the security of the airport. It identifies the significance of security measures to be adopted at this airport to ensure the safety and security of local and foreign passengers who travel to and from the airport. Considering the requirements of the aviation security at Dubai airport, the responsible authorities should adopt latest technologies and best scanning system and training of security professionals to ensure the security of airport building, equipments and passengers is protected. The paper evaluates how safety and security regulations are adopted to ensure stringent security at the airport to overcome terrorist threats in this part of the Middle East. The paper also determines how effectively the Civil Aviation Authority has developed stringent measures in consultation and coordination with airport operators, security officials and airport staff members. The paper gives best suggestions to implement effective scanning system at the airport and to develop strong coordination world international airports to strengthen Dubai airport security. The paper illustrates how the confidence of passengers have been increased to ensure their life and belongings will be in complete protection due to the adoption of latest technologies, world best scanning system by highly trained and equipped security professionals and airport staff members.

Definitions of Aviation Terms
AAIB – Air Accident Investigation Branch
AIC – Aeronautical Information Circular
AMC – Acceptable Means of Compliance
AOPA – Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
ATA – Air Transport Association of America
BCAR – British Civil Air Worthiness Requirements
ECAR – European Civil Aviation Requirements
ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival
FAA – Federal Aviation Administration
IATA – International Air Transport Association
IFALPA – International Federation of Airline Pilots’ Association
UKAIP – United Kingdom Aeronautical Information Publication
VFR – Visual Flight Rules
VMC – Visual Meteorological Conditions
VOR – VHF Omni Range
WAAS – World Airline Accident Summary
Table of Contents
Definition3
Chapter 1: Introduction5
Research Objective6
Chapter 2: Literature review10
Chapter 3: Research Methodology17
Limitation of the Research19 Classified Information19
Difficulties to Reach to the Place20
Staff Fear22
Data Sharing Limitation between Security Personnel24
Chapter 4: Analysis and Discussion27
Analysis of the Interviews Conducted with Head of Security Permits & ICAO Manager33
Analysis of Data Collected from Airline Security Professionals & Staff Members 36
Outcome of the Analysis and Discussion on Aviation Security 38
Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendations42
Conclusion42
Recommendations44
References51
Bibliography53
Appendix55

Chapter 1
Introduction
Introduction The research paper evaluates the impact of security permits to be adopted for the security of Dubai International Airport on aviation security. It identifies how airport security measures have become important in the recent years considering the type and intensity of terrorist attacks on world international airports. It has become the responsibility of Civil Aviation Authority in UAE to strengthen safety and security of Dubai International Airport by adopting best security measures, scanner system and latest technological equipments to be successful in achieving their security measures. The aviation authority can evaluate various types of security methods and techniques to be used to ensure the protection of airport building, equipment and the passengers. In order to examine the safety and security of Dubai International airport through security permits and security scanners, the baggage of passengers is scanned and checked at different checkpoints to examine the safety of airport building and passengers travelling to and from Dubai International airport. The report on evaluating the impact of security permits determines what security measures are best suited to world international airports. The UAE government in cooperation with the private sector can successfully regulate the aviation industry in the country and security operators responsible to have complete control over control tower and landing aide. The research has adopted explanatory and descriptive statistics in the research methodology and selected 100 participants from airport officials and staff members of the Dubai airport. A questionnaire is prepared and distributed among respondents by conducting an interview with them to examine their opinions on evaluating the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International Airport.
Research objective The research has significant value and impact on my daily business process which attracts me to evaluate the security permits at Dubai International airport and how they are making an impact on their smooth operations. In the recent years, security at airports has been tightened due to security threats all over the world including the Dubai International airport. It is one of the busiest airports in the UAE and needs careful attention from the UAE civil aviation authority to tighten security to ensure the safety and protection of local and foreign visitors, airport staff and the building and equipments of the Dubai International Airports. The UAE government must adopt all possible practices and aviation security systems that can be used to maintain a safer and secured security permit system for Dubai International Airport. It is the goals of every successful aviation authority to develop best aviation security system to ensure airport security in its business operations and ensuring the safety of their passengers, travelers and airport premises. The airport staff members view airport safety and security as an airport operational system that is free from all types of danger and threats (Wilding et al., 2007). The recent study is conducted considering the importance of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International Airport. Airline industry has grown incredibly over the past few decades and people now prefer to travel through air rather than road or rail transportation. The research paper enhanced my personal interest to work on dissertation writing of this topic because airport security has become one of the most important issues in the modern day world. The paper will be helpful in determining how the aviation authority can take best control of the airports by using latest security measures through technologically updated tools and techniques by making airports more secured. Furthermore, the privatization of the world international airports and the collaboration of security authorities have made the topic much more important considering the current terrorism conditions all over the world. Ideally, an airport security system like the security system adopted and implemented at Dubai International airport would have multiple layers and perform multiple functions. An airport system is considered to be multifunctional if there are many things needed to be given importance. Not only passengers and employees of the world international airports should be scrutinized, but their baggage should also be properly checked to avoid possible terrorist threats facing world airport these days and it is the main objective to observe the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International Airport (Safecardid, 2011). The research paper is focused to examine the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai international airport. It identify why security permits have become essential in the recent years and these permits should be changed in every two to three years to ensure the security of the airport building and equipments. The security permits should be used effectively by the security professionals and security staff members to provide security to airside and security restricted areas. These areas should be controlled effectively by the airport authorities by using security identification permits system to ensure that security permits are working efficiently. The paper also examines how Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai International Airport can modify security regulations to ensure strict security measures at the airport restricted areas. It is also focused to find out what type of stringent security measures are developed at Dubai International Airport with full consultation and coordination with airport operators, airlines and other segments of the airline industry. The paper is also developed with the objective to identify whether security personnel, including airlines and airport operators are providing best security services with security permits to support facilities required by the security services. It evaluated how security permits should be modified regarding ICAO requirements to ensure safety of the airport and passengers travelling using airport building. The paper identifies why security permits system used cards and documentation system to be issued to individual employees at the airport building or those who need to enter to the airside or security restricted areas of airport building and equipment. The paper evaluates how security measures have become essential considering the possibilities of threats at world international airports. The airport authority at Dubai airport should adopt stringent measures to strengthen the safety and security of airport buildings and equipments to be installed at Dubai International airport. The research paper also evaluates how Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai airport has adopted latest technologies and scanner systems to scan passengers and their baggage. The paper illustrates how the confidence of passengers have been increased to ensure their life and belongings will be in complete protection due to the adoption of latest technologies, world best scanning system by highly trained and equipped security professionals and airport staff members. In addition observes the impact of security permits or security passes used by UAE aviation authority at the Dubai International Airport. It evaluates what types of different methods and techniques are used to ensure the safety and protection of Dubai International airport daily operations, safety of staff members working at the airport, equipments and installations and the safety of passengers by collecting data from airport staff members and security personnel at Dubai International Airport. Since the 9/11 attacks on the United States, different international airports all over the world has tightened their security measures and this research paper observes how effectively UAE aviation authority is using security permits to ensure the safety and complete protection of Dubai International airport, their installation and the safety of passengers.

Chapter 2
Literature Review
The Review of the Literature Frittelli (2005) identified transportation security issues and elaborated that aviation security has become the major focus of transportation security in the recent years. The aviation authorities in different parts of the world should develop effective security policies to create and develop effective transportation security administration at world international airports. The researcher discussed the importance of training aviation security professionals to effectively inspect passengers and their luggage through aviation permits. The TSA authority should assess the loopholes and gaps that could damage aviation security and cause severe damage to passengers’ life and the airport buildings. The volume and number of check points at the aviation security should be practical to provide necessary screening of airline passengers and to reduce the possibilities of terrorist attacks. The airport security professionals can adopt various steps to overcome the consequences of terrorist attacks. The airport security professionals and administration should successful assess the vulnerabilities considering emergency planning, emergency response training, ensuring ideal coordination with police and fire fighting agencies, coordinating with medical personnel and ensuring the development of communication programs and safety equipments at airport premises. NSAS (2007) presented aviation operational threat response plan in which they suggested how coordination, appropriateness and operational response to terrorist attacks can be adopted by the aviation security authorities. The plan was considered to be highly effective and useful to ensure layered and well developed aviation security and in-depth defence. The plan was developed to enhance the existing aviation security capabilities with the direction of coordination, integration and the collaboration of the US government agency command centres. It enhance the capability of the US to ensure the effective planning and mission achievement objectives of the aviation security agencies to counter terrorist attacks and adopt immediate aviation response actions when needed. In order to successfully execute the coordination, the aviation security plan should be directed in building highly responsive activities to ensure the safety and security of airline passengers and their luggage. To meet the requirements of immediate threats, the plan should be directed to counter full range of airborne and ground-based aviation security threats. The researcher also stressed the need for developing successful aviation operational threat response to terrorist attacks. They should execute the airline security plan with intelligence sharing and the receiving of other necessary information that an incident is about to happen and immediate response is necessary. ICAO (2014) in evaluating the symposium on innovation in aviation security suggested seven key themes that aviation security professionals should adopt to enhance the security of their passengers and enhance their confidence on airline industry. The research elaborated that threats to aviation security has increased in the recent years since the September 11 attacks on the United States. The aviation security authority should adopt latest technology and innovate in risk-based screening to ensure their travellers about increased security measures. The security professionals should enhance the passenger’s experience by developing highly effective and well coordinated security processes and transfer information through innovative methods. The aviation security companies should strengthen people and organizations towards innovation and achieve highest satisfaction of their passengers and their luggage.
ACI (2009) in evaluated airport security and suggested how different states can comply with the basic needs of civil aviation security and show their cooperation with other states to bring criminals in justice and enhance security of airports. The line of action on aviation security is continued to be improved over the years considering the requirements of their passengers and associated luggage security. The worldwide response to September 11 attacks has begun in tightening the security and passing areas of the airports, particularly in the passenger streams. Passengers are now restricted to carry everything when they are travelling in domestic or international flights. New technologies have been introduced for the detection of water, liquids and weapons by using the scanning of passengers and their luggage. The researcher highlighted the need of designing new facilities at the world international airports with contingency plans to reduce the risks of lethal attacks at terminals. They should segregate those who have been subjected to security controls from those who have not after carefully screening the passengers and their baggage. The airport security professionals and security permits should be effectively deployed to provide special facilities to high-risk flights and passengers screen and transfer the baggage and construct the features to reduce the secondary damage and injuries following the acts of unlawful interference. Martonosi (2005) evaluated the operations research approach to aviation security and indicated its importance after the unprecedented series of attacks that occurred in the United States on September 11, 2001. The United States was much aware of the impact of security permits on aviation security as they had faced aviation related terrorist attacks in which nearly 300 American civilians had been killed. The researcher elaborated that operations research in aviation security can help the aviation industry to successfully address political issues by using analytical mathematical models. Therefore, the government officials make best aviation security policies to protect their assets by setting up risk based priorities to defend them. The operations research can contribute to evaluate the conditions in which policymaking on aviation security can never be effective. They should identify the risk level at which proposed operational measures becomes cost effective and efficient to implement such policies. The research work in this paper on aviation security supported the improvements in the operational systems of aviation industry. They given importance to the security permits in aviation security resources and focused on the capabilities of the individuals who are believed to be most dangerous and allow passengers to pass through security check posts. The researcher critically evaluated the services of these people and assessed about which passengers are considered as accurate and dangerous and whether the terrorists can break these systems to evade them easily in the airport areas. The research observed that there is a possibility that terrorists could threaten the pre-screening system at the airport check points. There is a possibility that they can send their group members on trial flight by passing through security permits and cause severe damage to the airport buildings and security premises at the world international airports. The researcher stressed the need to build such systems that could be helpful in identifying high-risk individuals. These systems are considered to be useful in effective screening of low and high level risks to their passengers. Without the development of effective screening system at the airport check points, the terrorist could threaten to cause huge damage to airport security systems and passengers. The security permits should be developed in such a way that they could identify high level and low level risk members and could decrease the likelihood of facing successful terrorist attacks to be placed at world airports. Poole (2009) observed the case of risk-based aviation security policy by determining how world international airports can develop effective airport defence system to protect airport resources and the life of passengers. Economic resources are always limited and the management of world international airport should allocate scarce resources to get maximum benefits to ensure the protection of their airport security. The researcher identified that terrorist can shift their priorities from hardened targets to non-hardened targets to cause huge loss to human life. Terrorist can hide their identities among general population, search soft targets and make severe impact on the aviation security despite aviation industry policies. The researcher gave the example of cost effectiveness system that can be developed and adopted in the aviation security. The TSA aviation security program was developed in the US and considered to be highly effective and useful considering relative cost-effectiveness of the system. The researcher also presented US, Canadian and European airport authorities approach considering the requirements of the aviation security. Firstly, the airport aviation security measures were adopted due to hijacking issues that took place in the 1970s and 1980s in the US, Canada and the EU countries. These countries developed aviation security programs after the increasing incidents of hijacking at their international airports. Airlines were made responsible to ensure the security of their aircrafts by providing standards of security at world major airports. The flight bombings in 1980s led to the development of government policies in aviation security to enhance checkpoint screenings, physical inspection and X-ray of the checked language on international flights. The world international airports also developed aviation security systems to detect explosive detective systems for baggage screening and to use the passenger bags that match on international flights. Coughlin, Cohen and Khan (2002) evaluated aviation security and terrorism and identified how security issues increased at world international airports since September 11 attacks. The researchers examined economic impacts of the aviation security, highlighted key features of airline industry and suggested possible solutions. The security at one of their airports can affect their security issues and unregulated private markets will be able to provide little aviation security by setting up alternatives for ensuring security regulations and providing aviation security. The research paper observed how right amount of aviation security can be ensured assuming that passengers of the airline industry have demanded for airline security services. The researcher in the aviation security highlighted numerous security problems that existed in major areas, including computer based aviation security, access of passengers to the aircrafts, airfields and other facilities that are promoted to enhance the security measures at world international airports. Considering computer aviation security, two associated problems were also described involving physical security at facilities housing and their air trafficking control systems. The second problem was associated in determining the security of airport management to ensure the security of operational computer systems. The researcher also highlighted the technology issues related to aviation security. Along with personnel issues of detecting dangerous objects and terrorist threats, technical performance of existing machines at aviation industry should be increased that can scan metal objects. The technical performance may not be adequate to ensure the detection of numerous dangerous objects that not contain metal. The implementation of technological solutions at airports is also associated with many of non-technical issues that could affect the implementation of technical equipments successfully. Therefore, researcher suggested all possible personnel and technological solutions to enhance the security of world international airports and to ensure the protection of passengers and their luggage travelling to domestic and international destinations. Poole (2008) highlighted different threats to aviation security at world international airports and suggested how effective security teams should be selected including motivated personnel performing well coordinated and appropriate tasks. The researcher identified appropriate role for human operators with timely intelligence services that are necessary to reduce the possibilities of security issues at airport premises. The report described current practices to be adopted in screening passengers and their baggage. It suggested operators performing specific screening tasks should be well equipped with latest technically advanced equipments, ensure the detection of rarely occurring metals and have excellent technological competency to ensure the provision of security to passengers. The paper evaluated that checkpoints at the airport locations should be strengthened, baggage should be properly screened out, on-board security officer services should be enhanced and attention to air cargo should be strengthened. The resources are always limited at aviation security checkpoints and they should be well prepared to face hardened and non-hardened targets. Terrorists are expected to enhance their operational activities with longer time horizons considering political processes. Terrorist could hide among the general population and damage passengers and airport security points. The capacity of terrorist could wreck destruction and create fear and governmental agencies should be well prepared by developing security checkpoints and security permits to defend costly airport equipments against terrorist attacks. The aviation security professionals should ensure cost-effective measures in countering terrorism by outlining conceptual global strategies and estimating cost/benefit ratios. They must conduct cost/benefit analysis in countering terrorism activities and offering permanent solution to get benefits from counter-terrorist strategy and to evaluate the level of terrorist activities that would have been in the absence of the strategy and the cost of such strategies would be difficult to ascertain.

Chapter 3
Research Methodology The research paper on evaluating the impact of the security permits on the aviation security of the Dubai International Airport adopts both descriptive statistics and explanatory research methods. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 100 randomly selected respondents from the airport security professionals and airport staff members to be selected from Dubai International Airport. The questionnaire was distributed among selected staff members of the Dubai international airport and their security professionals using security permits to ensure the security of the airport for domestic and international flights. The research methodology was used to conduct interviews with the selected participants to determine what type of security permits, security scanners for passengers and baggage and other technological developments are used at Dubai International airport. The primary data evaluates and determines how security permits are issued to airport staff members, the passengers including suspicious and non-suspicious passengers and their baggage. The paper describes the descriptive statistics of the respondents selected for conducting interview and collecting necessary data from these respondents. The data is collected and the interview is conducted on the basis of male and female respondents, their age, qualifications, years of experience in the aviation industry and how much they are competent in using and adopting latest technological equipments to be used at security check-up points at Dubai International airport. After conducting the interview with the selected respondents and conducting descriptive statistics of the respondents, the paper evaluates their competency level in using the latest technologically updated airport security permits, security scanners and other equipments. The report also observes how aviation authority of the Dubai international airport has arranged different educational, learning and training programs for airport security professionals and airport staff members including men and women. The report uses both the qualitative methods of data collection and quantitative methods of data collection to enable the researcher to conduct face-to-face discussions with the selected 100 security professionals and the airport security staff members. The interview method is used to decide whether he will take the notes or record the interviews conducted with selected respondents of the aviation security industry. The interviews were recorded showing accurate time consumed in conducting the interviews from the respondents and writing the answers of the collected responses. In order to collect qualitative and quantitative data from the respondents, the researcher scheduled the timeframe to conduct the interviews from the selected 100 respondents. The researcher also decided whether he should conduct closed end or open end questions from the selected respondents or will use the mix of both. In this particular research, closed end questionnaire are used by adopting Likert Scale with five possible answers of the question including strongly agreed, agreed, neutral, disagreed and strongly disagreed responses. The researcher conducted the closed end questions and collected the data from 100 respondents and evaluated how much data on certain statements is correct regarding the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai. The researcher has read all the comments of their respondents, carefully categorized them and reported them in diversifying and making necessary statements. In quantitative research method, the respondents were asked to complete the answers of the questions on the spot. The researcher was well aware about the questions asked and the answers collected to be reviewed and analyzed in the paper (Patton and Cochran, 2002).

Limitations of the Research 1. Classified Information The application of security classified information came to be regulated of bases to assign the necessary responsibility to the security officials at the airport premises. The classified information at world international airports is highly confidential and it can vary from airport to airport. The classified information is considered to be highly confidential and can never be shared with private media and news agencies. The research paper is facing the limitations of classified information that can be effectively used in decision making process under the Immigration Act of 2009. The classified information is categorized as the information that can be provided by the government to another country (Tamasi and Demichela 2011). The Government and international organization has consent not to disclose this highly confidential information regarding the security permits of aviation security to be used at Dubai International airport. For the researcher, it is very difficult to get an access to their classified information which is impossible to get due to understanding between the UAE government and the Civil Aviation Authority of Dubai international airport. The research has limitations to get an access to this classified information because it may lead to identify the source the information, the nature of information, the methods to be adopted in sharing this information among particular agencies and particular agency operations. The classified information which is shared between Government and international organization can never be disclosed because it could lead to prejudice Dubai airport security and the overall security of UAE, defence or international relations (Stewart and Mueller 2013). The research has limitation to this highly classified security information because it could prejudice the entrusting of information to the Dubai international airport, prejudice the maintenance of law and endanger the safety and security of airport staff members and passengers travelling to and from Dubai International airport through international airlines. The classified information in evaluating the security requirements of Dubai international airport can be effectively used for immigration decision making if the ministry of information relate it to the security or criminal conduct (Ross and Schwartz 2015). The government authorities and the officials of Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai international airport were never agreed to disclose any confidential information that could breach the rule of law and security requirements of the airport. The research paper was developed by getting information on the use of security permits in aviation security of Dubai airport that was general in nature and could not cause any severe impact on the security of airport building, equipments, and passenger security. The report has clear limitations on classified information because it can never be used in residence, private purposes, temporary entry to the onshore, deportation and refugee purposes and protection of decision making unless summary of allegations can be provided to the concerned individuals responsible for the security of airport building and equipments. This classified information can never be shared with the companies or personnel entering to the airport for repair and maintenance purposes. The security permits or passes were only issued to the companies with complete confidence that they will never disclose any of information regarding their maintenance services to the airspace areas and highly confidential security restricted areas of the airport premises (Prenzler, Lowden and Sarre 2010).

2. Difficulties to reach to the Place Difficulties to reach to the place are the second limitation of the research work on examining the security permits impact on the aviation security of Dubai international airport. Due to increased terrorist threats to world international airports, it was difficult to reach to the security restricted areas and to get complete information regarding each and everything to be installed within the airport building. At the local level intelligence, there is always lack of information and most of the airport like Dubai international airport which is near to local population centres can have an access to local law enforcement intelligence groups. The research paper was mainly focused to evaluate and analyze the impact and importance of security permits or passes that can be used to allow individuals, airport staff members, and specific companies to enter and exit the airport building, airside and security restricted areas of Dubai airport. Although the research was focused on evaluating the impact of security permits on the aviation security, but the research is limited to have an access to airside, airport security restricted areas and areas where the access could breach the classified information that is only shared between the government of UAE and the Civil Aviation Authority of the Dubai international airport (Pozzo 2015). In the recent years, the use of technology has increased at the airport security checkpoints. The security scanners, permits and passes can be used and revised twice a year to enhance the security of the airport. In conducting this research work, it was difficult to reach and research every single areas of the airport because airport authority, the airline officials and security professionals appointed to ensure the security of airport expressed their concerns regarding the security risk due to overcrowding of stand along EDS machines ETD system which is being located in the airport lobbies (Pozzo 2015). The Civil Aviation security in Dubai takes a whole of airport approach and they have developed numerous overlapping security layers. Due to such security layers, it was difficult to reach to this place and to approach head of security affairs and other officials responsible for security matters of the airport building and equipment. The Civil Aviation authority at Dubai international airport has developed regulatory security affairs that are designed to be flexible and responsive to meet ever changing threat environment. The framework has responded to numerous developments that are used to enact the aviation transport security legislation and outcome focused approach. In conducting the research, the approach to airport security checkpoints, the scanning system developed at Dubai airport and other airport entry and exit points was difficult to access. The research overviewed some of the recently used security permits and security passes that are designed and developed in the recent years to overcome emerging threats of terrorists and additional burdens of aviation security to regulate the aviation industry (OECD/ITF 2009). The security of the airport building is always very crucial to response to the increasing concerns to ensure the effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the current screening system to be developed at Dubai international airport. The Aviation Security Screening system at Dubai international airport is also highly critical and responsible for maintaining and ensuring the security of the Transport Security within the Infrastructure department, the transportation, regional development and local government department within the airport checkpoint areas. In this research work, the access to latest screening system to be installed at Dubai international airport, the passengers and baggage screening system, the latest permits developed for individuals, companies and airport officials was difficult to approach to examine their overall impact on the security the Dubai airport. Only the interview conducted with the Head of security at Dubai airport gave direction to conduct the research and to get information on some of the security permits and security related issues to be managed at the airport (Butcher 2011). 3. Staff Fear The airport security is a very sensitive and high profile issue and the staff members of aviation security were feared to give complete information to this work regarding the security efforts and their responsibilities. The Civil Aviation Authority of Dubai airport also restricts security professionals and airport staff members to pass on highly confidential airport security related information to a research person. It was a major limitation to the research because staff often fear even if they are selected as the research participants to gather necessary information on what practices are being adopted to ensure the safety of the airport building, installed equipment and the passengers travelling from this airport to world destinations. The aviation security legislations also restrict security staff members not to disclose highly confidential information to avoid future security lapses at the airport building (OECD/ITF 2009). The Government of UAE also restricts the Civil Aviation authority at Dubai airport not to disclose classified information to ensure safety of airport building, equipments and passengers is surely protected. The security officials are also fear to share information with the researcher because they think that the disclosure the information would constitute invasion of personal privacy, secret security and financial information sharing would cause reduction in the safety of airport building, the aircrafts, security restricted areas and safety of their passengers. The airport security checks have been intensified in the recent years (Harris 2002). The security officials, airport staff members are not encouraged to disclose confidential security related information to a person conducting research on the aviation security and it was an issue in conducting the research and getting true picture of the aviation security to be deployed at the airport security sensitive areas. The terror threats are rising and the airport security check points are also increasing considering the security requirements of the airport areas. The combination of increased security due to increased security check points, security permits and airport entrance passes, growing air travel services and the travellers’ confidence in taking airline services has strengthened the need to intensify the airport security. The airport security officials claim that security can only be stiff up if the important security plans and security measures are not disclosed and keep secret (Australian Government 2012). The airport security professionals and staff members are even advised not to disclose security related information to anyone outside the aviation authority of the Dubai airport. Under such circumstances, the conduct of research work on evaluating the impact of security permits on aviation security was very challenging task. The questionnaire prepared and interview conducted with some of the selected respondents only shared some of the security information that could not be a breach of classified information and breach of security issues at the airport check points. The results discussed and analyzed could be further improved and give a direction for the further research work to collect more valid information from the selected group of respondents and to ensure the safety of their airport buildings, equipments, machinery and passengers presence at the airport. The research can be further improved if the airport security professionals and airport staff members are taken into confidence and to ensure them that the information share will only be disclosed which is not a security threat or challenge for the aviation authority at Dubai airport (Elias 2009).

4. Data Sharing Limitations between Security Personnel There is also a data sharing limitation between the research and the security personnel appointed for security purposes at the airport check points. The data regarding airport security is highly confidential and the research work tried to cover as many security issues as possible to conduct the research on evaluating the impact of security permits at aviation security. The economic prosperity and the security challenges of a country depend largely on the secure operations of its aviation system and the use of world’s best airspace by the country. The security information regarding the airport security programs are kept confidential even with its international partners to legitimate the commercial interests of the airport in dealing with their international partners. Considering the importance of confidentiality of secret security information and security measures to be adopted at the Dubai airport, the airport civil aviation authority has restricted the staff members not to disclose any of the confidential information and it was the big limitation and challenge in conducting the research work (Elias 2009). The Dubai international airport is in the areas of the centre of the Middle East and terrorists, criminals and hostile nation states can target the airport at anytime and cause severe damage to the building, airport security equipments and the passengers travelling from this airport to world destinations. The types of terrorist attacks are increasing around the world and gave a direction to the Civil Aviation authority to strengthen their security measures to secure and protect the population, borders and the critical assets. At the same time, the persons responsible for aviation security are directed not to give any of the confidential information to the media agencies, private companies or research related activities. The Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai international airport is well aware how the negligence in conducting airport security at security checkpoints, the screening system of screening passengers and their baggage could be vital for strengthening the airport security. The security professionals are also trained and educated to learn what type, colour, and type of security permits are issued to individuals, airport staff members, and companies entering for doing repair and maintenance work within the premises of airport areas. They must be recognized that the successful attacks by the terrorists on the airport building, airplanes and passengers could inflict mass casualties and grave economic damage and get significant public attention due to the impact on modern transportation system of the country. As the threats on airports are becoming more and more probable, and their impact on causing severe damage are increasing, the Civil Aviation authority at Dubai airport has directed the airport security professional to be restricted in sharing confidential information to anyone other than their own team members. The airport security professionals are also facing the challenges of new forces like terrorists, activists, the pressures groups, insurgents, criminals and disgruntled employees and they should show complete restrain in sharing highly confidential information with research and other companies. Due to this restriction and limitation of conducting the research, the results could be affected (Harris 2002).

Chapter 4
Analysis and Discussion The research evaluates the impact of security permits on the aviation security at the Dubai International airport. The aviation security has become highly important due to increased terrorist attacks on the airports and caused severe threat to airport property and the human life. Airport authorities and national policymakers have recognized the importance of aviation security after the incidence of 9/11 terrorist attacks on the US airports and Washington DC. In the current decade, terrorist has the potential to cause huge loss to the airport properties, their installations and the passengers travelling through domestic and international flights. Considering the safety of airport premises, their flight operations, airport security permits and equipments and installations, there is always a need to improve aviation security to ensure the security of airport equipments and passengers travelling to and from the Dubai International airport, UAE. The report evaluates the use of different methodologies of aviation security that are considered to be highly important to ensure the safety and security of passengers and airport equipments (Poole 2009). In the last decade, the aviation authorities have privatized world international airports and the new owners of the airports concentrated on airport security and promotions through security permits. When the airport security was considered as the entity of the municipal corporations, the protection of airports was given less importance. The transition of aviation security from government level to private level has strengthened the aviation security. The airport managed by private sector has adopted strict security measures to ensure the satisfaction of their passengers (Harris 2002). They spent extra funds to add ground collision avoidance of radars rather than adopting measures of FAA. Therefore, the report evaluates that world international airports should be provided with additional security to reduce the possibilities of terrorist attacks on the airport buildings, installations and the passengers travelling to and from the world destinations. The national legislators should develop strong legislations in the areas of airport security policy to address various security issues considering security permits at world international airports. The government of UAE and their policymakers should also realize the importance of security permits, airport scanners and adoption of other security measures to address terrorist threats and different problems within some kind of quantitative parameters (Buhari 2015). The main objective of the research paper is to evaluate the impact of security permits on the aviation security at Dubai International Airport, UAE. The paper determines how security permits have become highly important to strengthen the security at the DIA. It also evaluates how the UAE government and policymakers have made necessary regulations to make sure stringent security at the airport by adopting necessary security measures and avoiding possibilities of terrorist attacks and other security threats (Shimamura 2006). The report also evaluates what type of strict security policies and measures are adopted by the aviation authority at Dubai International Airport by consulting and coordinating these measures with airport operators, airline companies and other segments of the airline industry. It also evaluates how security professionals, airport operators and the airline administration can adopt best security measures at DIA by using stringent security permits to support facilities required by the security services. The outcome of the paper is based on the evaluation of the security permits and other stringent security measures that airport authorities have developed over the years to ensure the safety and security of the Dubai International Airport, UAE (Poole 2009). The researchers evaluated that the aviation security has become highly essential after observing the unprecedented series of attacks that changed the world after 9/11 attacks on the United States. The aviation security can also be helpful in addressing political issues by successfully using analytical mathematical models. The paper evaluates that it is the responsibility of the UAE government, the aviation authority and policymakers to make best security policies to enhance aviation security at Dubai International Airport. The policymakers should identify the risk level in developing aviation security policies and proposing operational measures that are considered to be cost effective and efficient in implementing aviation security policies. The professionals responsible for aviation security should be highly focused on strengthening individual capabilities by using latest technologies (Seidenstate and Splane 2009). They can differentiate between two types of passengers, including most dangerous and less dangerous passengers to ensure the safety and security of airport installations and other passengers. When passengers pass through technologically improved scanners and security permits, it helps security professionals and airport officials to reduce damage to the airport buildings and passengers travelling to and from the world popular destinations. The installations of passenger screening systems are most useful and helping in determining low and high level of risks. The airport checkpoints should be associated of effective screening systems to reduce terrorist attacks and to help airport professionals to be successful in strengthening security measures (Shimamura 2006). In the research methodology, the paper adopted both explanatory and descriptive statistics as the most favourable research methods to examine the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International Airport, UAE. In order to conduct exploratory and descriptive statistics of research methods, respondents were randomly selected from airport security professionals and staff members to be selected randomly from the populations of airport security professionals and staff members to be appointed at Dubai international airport (Sumner 2007). The research paper adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather best results and compare these results with secondary sources of data. In order to collect data, 100 respondents were randomly selected as a sample from the population of security professionals and airport staff members. In the process of data collection, the researcher developed well organized questionnaire and asked questions from security professionals and airport staff members of Dubai International Airport. Interviews were conducted from the selected participants to determine what type of security measures was adopted to strengthen the security at the airport premises (Shimamura 2006). The interviews were also conducted to examine what type of security permits, scanning systems and security related technologies were used to scan passengers and their baggage to be used to Dubai International Airport. The primary data was collected to determine how these security permits are issued to airport staff members and passengers, including suspicious and non-suspicious passengers and their baggage. The descriptive statistics of the respondents was conducted through interviews of the respondents from airport security professionals and staff members. The data was collected from both male and female members of airport security professionals and staff members and their age, qualifications, years of experience and other descriptive statistics measures were examined in the data collection process. The paper evaluates the competency level of the passenger scanner systems and latest technologies to be installed at airport security permits and checkpoints (Seidenstate and Splane 2009).

Frequency Statistic of 100 Qualified Respondents
Table: Gender | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid Male Female Total | 8020100 | 8020100.0 | 8020100.0 | 80100.0 |

Figure: Frequency Statistic of 50 qualified respondents
The demographic profile of respondents including airport security professionals and airport staff members include 80 male and 20 female members out of 100 qualified respondents. The percentage of male respondents is exactly 80% and female respondents is 20% in the respondents to whom the questionnaire was presented and answers were collected to evaluate how security permits and security scanner systems are introduced and adopted at Dubai International airport and how much security is strengthened at the airport checkpoints.
Table: Age | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid Below 25 Years26-35 Years36-45 Years45 Years & MoreTotal | 40351510100 | 40351510100.0 | 40351510100.0 | 407590100.0100.0 |

Figure: Respondents’ Age Frequency In evaluating the descriptive statistics of the selected 100 respondents from Dubai International airport, the age group of selected respondents is also examined. The respondents are divided into four areas, including below 25 years old respondents group, 26-35 years old respondents group, 36-45 years old respondents group and 45 plus years old respondents. The data clearly indicates that 40% of the respondents were selected below 25 years of age, 35% between 26-35 years old professionals and airport staff members, 15% between the age of 36-45 years old respondents and remaining 10% were selected from 45+ years’ old respondents. The respondents selected for the research has their significance because they were selected from the airport security professionals, including the head of security permits, the ICAO AVSEC Professional Manager and key professionals who were selected for conducting the interview to evaluate the responses and to make sure security measures are effectively adopted without compromising the security of airside and security restricted areas at Dubai international airport.
Analysis of the Interviews Conducted with Head of Security Permits & ICAO AVSEC Professional Manager Considering the demographic profile of the respondents, a minimum of two interviews were conducted. The first of the interview was conducted from the Head of security permits – the general department of the airport security, First Lieutenant Mr. Mansour Al Maeeni, who is responsible for all pass permits and equipments and the temporary passes to enter the airport premises at Dubai International Airport. The interview conducted by the Head of security permits professionals was of key importance regarding the sensitivity of the research work on evaluating the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International airport. The head of security permits is responsible for conducting the general department security of the airport give permission to the companies to show all the documents necessary for entering or exit any equipment to the airport. Without his consent no company can enter and exit to the airport premises showing all documents of their verification that they are entering the airport for their necessary airport functionalities. The Head of security permits is also responsible to check the name for how to apply for the renewal or requirements of new permits at the Dubai international airport. Some of the key questions were asked to the Head of security permits at Dubai international airport, including * Do you think security permits have made considerable impact on the aviation security of Dubai International Airport? * Do you think security professionals are well trained to meet challenges of terrorist attacks at Dubai International Airport? * What do you think operational research concerns have been properly met at Dubai international airport? * How aviation industry has successfully addressed political issues considering analytical mathematical models in meeting security related issues? * Are you satisfied with security check-points and security permits executed at Dubai international airport? In most of the questions asked to the head of security at Dubai international airport, the respondent answered in strongly agreed. The respondent was strongly agreed that security permits has made considerable impact on the security of the airport, its building, equipments and passengers travelling to different destinations. The security professional responded positively that security professionals are well trained to safeguard the building and equipments of the airport premises and they are successful addressing various security issues, security checkpoints and security permits that are executed at the airport premises. The second person responsible for aviation security at Dubai international airport Majed J. Al Sarrah, the ICAO AVSEC Professional Manager who is head of Aviation Security at Dubai Civil Aviation Authority was interviewed. This person is responsible for ensuring the side of aviation security in Dubai airports interims of the airport security and aviation activities. Majed J. Al Sarrah was one of the main selected respondents of the Dubai international airport who is responsible to check the ICAO requirements of the national and international program (NCASP). The interview was conducted and questions were raised from this respondent to evaluate the impact of security permits on the aviation security at the airport. To make sure the implementation process of the issuance of permits are conducted effectively and efficiently, it was asked from Majed J., Al Sarrah whether he is agreed in changing the permits in every two or three years and why? His answer was yes and he given lot of security reasons to change the security permits in every two to three years due to access to airside and security restricted areas of the airport that should be controlled effectively by using the security identification permits system to ensure security permits are effectively working and playing their part in the achievement of their security objectives. The person interviewed responded that a security permit system was developed and modified to ensure effective safety and security of the airport and the passengers travelling to and from the airport. The security permits system was based on the cards and other documentation system that are issued to individuals employed at the airports or those who need to enter the airport due to their needs of getting access to the airport, airside or the areas of security restricted buildings and equipments. He further clarified that vehicle permits should be clearly issued and identified in the similar manner and permits should be referred with identification cards or passes for the airport entry. The interviewee also clarified that people who want to enter the airport premises should be issued with these identification cards or permits by the organization which is approved by the concerned airport authority. There should be strong legislation or regulations considering the airport personnel who want to work in the security restricted areas of the airport building, in the maintenance areas of the airport, the catering facilities, air cargo or other restricted areas of the airport building. The respondent responsible for aviation security at Dubai international airport was strongly agreed that airport security should be strengthened in the recent years due to increased terrorist attacks at world international airports. He was also agreed that the security permits should be issued to the people want to enter in the airport building from appropriate authority with guidance for the design and management of the identification permit system. Therefore, the use of different identification system at the airport building should be avoided to strengthen the security and avoiding the problems that security staff members could face for the effective administration and operations of the security permits systems to be developed at Dubai international airport. The system will be useful with an automated access control system by which permits may be equipped with electronic or other machine readable devices and codes to allow the entry of the people who want to enter to work or conduct repairing work at the airport building.

Analysis of Data Collected from Airline Security Professionals & Staff Members
Table: Summary of the Questionnaire for data Collection Descriptions | Strongly Agreed | Agreed | Neutral | Disagreed | Strongly Disagreed | Importance of Security Permits at DIA? | 90% | 10% | | | | Necessity for Education and Training of Security professionals & staff members? | 70% | 30% | | | | Has aviation security at DIA successfully addressed security issues? | 60% | 30% | 10% | | | The satisfaction of passengers on Security checkpoints and security permits installed at DIA? | 40% | 20% | | 40% | | Risk level has been properly identified at Dubai International Airport? | 50% | 20% | | 20% | 10% | Passengers have been divided into dangerous and non-dangerous groups at Dubai International airport? | 50% | 20% | | 20% | 10% | The satisfaction level of passengers regarding security checkpoints and permits installed at the airport? | 60% | 30% | | 10% | | Dubai International airport is a soft target for terrorist organizations? | 80% | 10% | | 10% | | Dubai International airport is hard target for terrorist organizations? | 20% | 10% | | 70% | | The contribution of latest technologies like passenger scanners and baggage scanners has contributed in the reduction of terrorist attacks at DIA? | 70% | 20% | | 10% | | Do you think International security measures are adopted at DIA? | 70% | 20% | | 10% | | Computer based aviation security measures have reduced possibilities of terrorist threats at DIA? | 50% | 10% | 10% | 30% | |

The data collected from selected respondents clearly indicates their point of view regarding the security measures to be appointed at Dubai International Airport. When asked about the importance of security measures at DIA, most of the passengers strongly agreed that security permits are highly important regarding the security measures to be appointed at the airport permits and checkpoints. Regarding education and training at Dubai International airport, 70% respondents strongly agreed that security professionals and airport staff members should be well educated and trained while 30% agreed that airport security professionals should be well trained to reduce the possibilities of security threats at the airport locations (Sumner 2007). Similarly, large proportion of respondents agreed that aviation security at Dubai Airport has properly addressed the security issues and 60% strongly agreed and 30% agreed with the efforts adopted by security professionals and security staff members at the airport locations. But 40% respondents showed dissatisfaction regarding the security of passengers through checkpoints and security permits. Some respondents also not agreed that risk level has been properly addressed at Dubai international airport. The respondents also disagreed that division of passengers into dangerous and non-dangerous groups would be helpful in reducing security issues at the airport, but passengers showed their satisfaction regarding the security permits and checkpoints to be installed at the airport premises. In the given summary of questionnaire, large numbers of respondents were disagreed that Dubai International airport is a hard target for terrorist organizations and 70% respondents believed that terrorist can easily target DIA despite stringent efforts of airport authorities.
Outcome of the Analysis and Discussion on Aviation Security The airport aviation authority responsible for the security of Dubai International Airport should conduct cost-effective screening system. The airport security professionals responsible for the security of the airport should only allow those people and companies that show the necessary documents to enter or exit any equipment to the airport. They should not allow them without showing the necessary identification documents through security permits to be shown on requirements. The persons appointed at security check points should check the name for the all how they have applied for the renewal or requirements of the new permits. The security professionals and airport staff members are agreed that security permits should be changed in every two to three years to enhance the security measures and to ensure security is tighten up in the era of terrorist threats to world international airports. Only those people should be given access to the airside and the security restricted areas that show security identification permits and effectively controlled by using the security identification permit system. The responses collected from the selected respondents of 100 airport security officials and staff members favoured that the airport security policy should be improved and modified by developing an effective security permits system of cards or other documentation to be issued to individual employed at the airport, or those who want to get an authorization to the airport building, airside or security restricted areas. The system should be focused on determining the identity of the individuals and facilitate the access to the airport building. Vehicles permits can also be allowed in the similar manner and the permits will be referred to as airport identification cards or passes. Therefore, all the persons working at the airport should be issued with identification permits by authentic organization or by appropriate authority. The legislation or the regulation also needed to be strengthened for the personnel working at the security restricted areas, maintenance areas of the airport building, catering facilities and the airport cargo building (NASAO 2002). Dubai International Airport aviation authorities should clearly evaluate the economic impacts of targeted hardened strategy. The aviation authority at Dubai International airport should adopt highly effective and useful strategy to ensure the safety and security of airport building and equipments and the passengers travelling to and from the Dubai International airport. The aviation authority at DIA should design and develop aviation security programs involving volunteer passengers to strengthen the security measures and to ensure effective measures to improve the security at the airport buildings. The aviation professionals can develop the screening system for high-risk passengers. The screening system for low-risk passengers would be limited at Dubai International airport although random check points can be conducted as usual to avoid easy gaming for the system. By adopting this approach, the aviation security authority members would have more resources available to deal with high risk categories of the passengers travelling to and from Dubai International airport (Poole 2009). Considering the requirements of aviation security, Dubai International Airport authorities should promote safety and security of their passengers by adopting latest technologies like security permits and scanners installed in and around airport building and equipments. In regards to safety, the aviation authorities have adopted highly effective and useful safety management system developed in the recent years (Biernacki 2014). Dubai International Airport should be in the state of real-time responsiveness to potential threats and adopt all possible measures to reduce terrorist threats and enhance the security of their passengers. The responses collected from the selected respondents clearly indicate that airport authorities should adopt advanced defence and identification mechanisms with information technology solutions to ensure the safety and security measures of the passengers and their baggage (Shimamura 2006). The Dubai International Airport can adopt latest technologies by adopting highly effective and useful scanner systems associated with advanced imaging technology. This advanced imaging system has the ability to successfully detect metallic and non-metallic threats. The airport security professionals and staff members to be appointed at Dubai International airport can adopt nano-photonic composite scintillation detector to ensure the safety and security of airport building and equipments are strengthened. It has the ability to combine rare earth elements and other materials to ensure the improvements in the sensitivity, accuracy and the robustness in detecting nuclear weapons that hijackers and terrorist can use to exploit the security of Dubai International airport (Buzdugan 2014).

Chapter 5
Conclusion and Recommendation
Conclusion
The research paper has evaluated the impact of security permits to be adopted for the security of Dubai International Airport. It identified the security measures that airport security professionals should adopt to ensure the safety and security of their passengers at Dubai International Airport. The airport security must be given due importance in the recent years considering the type and intensity of terrorist attacks on world international airports. It has become the responsibility of Civil Aviation Authority to adopt latest technologies to setup world’s best scanning system to scan the passengers and their baggage. The aviation authority at Dubai International Airport has evaluated various types of security methods and techniques to be used to ensure the protection of airport building, equipment and the passengers. In order to examine the safety and security of Dubai International airport through security permits and security scanners, passengers and their baggage is scanned and checked at different checkpoints to examine the safety of airport building and passengers travelling to and from Dubai International airport. The report on evaluating the impact of security permits determines what security measures are best suited to world international airports. The UAE government in cooperation with the private sector have successfully regulated the aviation industry in the country and security operators responsible to have complete control over control tower and landing aide. The research has adopted explanatory and descriptive statistics in the research methodology and selected 100 participants from Dubai International Airport including airport officials and staff members of the Dubai airport. A questionnaire is prepared and distributed among respondents by conducting an interview with them to examine their opinions on evaluating the impact of security permits on aviation security at Dubai International Airport. The research paper was focused to examine the objectives of evaluating the impact of security permits and security scanners on aviation security at Dubai International Airport. The research evaluated and identified the security permits that are considered to be highly essential in strengthening the security at Dubai International Airport. The security professionals should be well trained to ensure safety and security of local and foreign passengers is protected due to education and training programs established at DIA. The Civil Aviation Authority of UAE must determine the World Aviation standards and rules and regulations. These standards and rules and regulations can be adopted for ensuring the security of Dubai International Airport by adopting highly stringent security measures, scanners and latest technological developments. The aviation authority should develop stringent security measures to ensure the safety of DIA by establishing complete coordination with the airport operators, airlines professionals, staff members, security officers and other segments of the airline industry. The management in Dubai Civil Aviation authority should be confident that all the security personnel, including airport security professionals, staff members and airport operators are given with best security services due technologically advanced security permits and check points to support the facilities required by security services. The paper also evaluated how security measures have become essential considering the possibilities of threats at world international airports. The airport authority at Dubai airport should adopt stringent measures to strengthen the safety and security of airport buildings and equipments to be installed at Dubai International airport. The research paper also identified how Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai airport has adopted latest technologies and scanner systems to scan passengers and their baggage.
Recommendation
Security Permits or Passes for Outside Entrants In offering security permits, the aviation security professionals at Dubai International airport should take complete responsibility of the security permits offered to employees and other persons who want to enter the airport building or security restricted areas. The security permits or passes should be developed separately for airport employees, airport staff members, passengers and companies who want to enter security restricted areas due to technical or mechanical reasons. The aviation authority can use different colours like Red for outside companies who want to enter into airport building, green for airport employees and yellow security permits for passengers. Without the consent of Head of Security at Dubai international airport no one either individual or company should be allowed to enter into airport building or security restricted areas at the airport building. They should show security permits with necessary documents to get an access to airport building. It will be helpful to strengthen the airport security and to ensure the safety and security of airport building, airplanes and passengers travelling in domestic and international flights (Pozzo 2015).
Training of Airport Security Professionals The training of airport security professionals is highly important regarding the security of airport building and equipment that should be strengthened at Dubai international airport. The Civil Aviation authority should arrange educational and training programs for security professionals and airport staff members. The security professionals should be well trained to scan the passengers and their baggage through effectively developed security scanning system. These professionals should be well educated and trained to check the documents of verification of the entrance and exit of airport staff members, different companies working at the airport building and the passengers. They should be able to check the names and other necessary requirements of getting verification of the individuals and companies interested to enter the airside and sensitive security areas at the airport areas. By getting latest security training, the airport security professionals will be able to distinguish between terrorists and non-terrorists. The professionals will be able to overcome the security threats and meet the challenges of the terrorists by getting in-depth education and training of how to properly scan and check the entrance and exit points at the airport security sensitive areas (Butcher 2011).
The Modification and Update of Security Permits When the ICAO AVSEC Manager of the Civil Aviation Authority of Dubai international airport was asked about the modification and update of security permits and airport entry passes in every two to three years, he responded positively and replied that these permits should be modified and updated to strengthen the security measures at the airport checkpoints. The security permits should be changed in every two to three years to strengthen the security of airport building, crew members of the airline companies and the passengers travelling to domestic and international destinations (Ross and Schwartz 2015). The security permits should be changed, modified and updated in every two to three years to give an access to individual and different companies working on different tasks at the airport building, airside and security restricted areas. The change of security permits will be helpful for the aviation authority at Dubai international airport to effectively control and strengthen the airport security to successfully achieve security objectives and to ensure the security of airport building and passengers (Stewart and Mueller 2013).
The Security Screening Checkpoints The security screening check points at Dubai international airport should be strengthened by changing and updating security permits in every couple of years. The security at checkpoints should be strengthened by getting complete information of the individuals and companies interested to enter into the airport building or security restricted areas. The security screening checkpoints at DIA should deals with the areas of public travelling which is subjected to screening persons and airport property. When passengers pass through airport property and public areas before entering into the sterile areas of the airport, they should pass through security screening points. It will be used to examine the space, infrastructure and layout requirements of that area which is most familiar to the general public (Pozzo 2015).
The Baggage Screening should be Strengthened The baggage screening at Dubai International Airport should be given due attention by screening the baggage of passengers through latest technologies and updated world class baggage screening systems that is installed at DIA. The baggage screening is useful to evaluate the explosives and other anomalies before loading the baggage to the aircrafts. The airport security professionals and staff members can consider different alternatives depending on the type of equipment and space available at the airport with constraints and limitations, the infrastructure and the operational efficiencies of the trade-offs (Pozzo 2015).
The Cargo Screening should be Strengthened It deals with the screening of cargo baggage as in some cases it may be stored within the terminal locations and sometimes found in remote locations both inside and outside the boundaries of Dubai International Airport. The airport aviation authority can consider additional screening of the cargos to ensure all the material is transported to other countries from a secure area which is stored until the period of time when the process of loading and departure took place (Sumner 2007).
Civil Aviation Authority should be Competent in Aviation Security The responses collected from the respondents indicates that competent authority in the aviation security in the United Arab Emirates, the General Civil Aviation Authority, should take all possible measures to ensure the safety and security of their passengers. The airport security of Dubai International airport has become a challenge for General Civil Aviation Authority due to increased threats from terrorist organizations in the South Asian countries (Butcher 2011). The competent authority is responsible to ensure all the rules, regulations, practices and procedures to safeguarding civil aviation against all acts of unlawful interference are successfully developed and implemented. It will be helpful to reduce the possibilities of damaging airport building or equipment from the possible terrorist threats. The airport authority should take all possible measures to ensure the safety and security of their passengers is intact along with crew members, ground personnel and the general public in matters relating to protecting the civil aviation against unlawful acts of terrorist organizations (Shimamura 2006).
The Civil Aviation Authority at Dubai airport Should Enhance International Cooperation The main challenge to the Civil Aviation Authority in UAE is to ensure key principles of international cooperation between Dubai International Airport security professionals and world international airports is successfully developed. The passengers travelling to and from the airport have to travel to different worldwide destinations and world international airports. Therefore, cooperation and coordination among the civil aviation authorities of the Dubai and world international airports should be promoted (Tamasi and Demichela 2011). By successfully developing security measures at Dubai International airport and enhancing international coordination with other countries civil aviation authorities will enhance the security measures at the airport buildings. Therefore, laws and regulations should be promoted to ensure the safety of passenger by adopting standardized security principles of screening passengers and their baggage, ensuring safety and security of air cargo and taking necessary measures for aircrafts such as cabin security search (Sumner 2007).
DIA Civil Aviation Authority should Use highly Developed Screening System The responses from the selected respondents indicate that Civil Aviation Authority in the UAE should adopt strict measures to ensure the safety of their passengers with well organized passenger screening system. It will be helpful to regulate the airport security standards and give direction to access control to airport operators, airport contingency planning and meeting the requirements of aviation security committee. Considering the requirements of passengers to avoid all possible terrorist threats, the aviation authority responsible for the security of Dubai international airport should develop technologically developed screening system to screen out passengers and their baggage. The security at security permits and checkpoints should also be strengthened. There should be regular police patrolling at the airport terminal and surrounding areas to ensure security is tighten up at Dubai airport. There should be strong response force to meet the requirements of different issues that could happen at the airport checkpoints such as bomb blasts or airline hijacking issues (Blalock, Kadiyali and Simon 2007).

Education and Training of Security Personnel On the basis of responses collected from the respondents, it is the main responsibility of the aviation security authority in the UAE is to develop well organized education and training programs for airport security officials and airport staff members. The education and training program should be highly focused to strengthen the application of technical and screening systems to be implemented at Dubai International airport. The screening system is highly effective and useful to detect weapons, explosives and other dangerous devices to safeguard the security of airport building, equipments and passengers travelling to different destinations through this airport. The certain dangerous articles are classified as highly dangerous goods by International Aviation Authority standards. These standards enhance the requirements of creating and developing safe transport for dangerous goods by air and by the associated technical instructions for the safer transportation of the dangerous goods by air (Blalock, Kadiyali and Simon 2007).
Legislation and Regulation of Airport Security Measures The security permits system to be used at Dubai international airport should be based on the cards and other documentation system that are issued to individuals employed at the airports or those who need to enter the airport due to their needs of getting access to the airport, airside or the areas of security restricted buildings and equipments. The people who want to enter the airport premises should be issued with these identification cards or permits by the organization which is approved by the concerned airport authority (Prenzler, Lowden and Sarre 2010). There should be strong legislation or regulations considering the airport personnel who want to work in the security restricted areas of the airport building, in the maintenance areas of the airport, the catering facilities, air cargo or other restricted areas of the airport building. The security permits should be issued to the people who want to enter in the airport building from appropriate authority with guidance for the design and management of the identification permit system. Therefore, the use of different identification system at the airport building should be avoided to strengthen the security and avoiding the problems that security staff members could face for the effective administration and operations of the security permits systems to be developed at Dubai international airport. The system will be useful with an automated access control system by which permits may be equipped with electronic or other machine readable devices and codes to allow the entry of the people who want to enter to work at the airport building (Buhari 2015).

References
ACI, (2009). “Security at Airports.” ACI Policy and Recommended Practices Handbook, Seventh Edition, November 2009.
Biernacki, H., M., (2014). “The ICAO Aviation Security Programs”, ICAO
Buzdugan, M., (2014). “Air Cargo Security: An Overview of Several Regulatory Initiatives around the World.” McGill Institute of Air and Space Law, Montreal, Canada
Buhari, M., (2015). “Strident Security Measures at Nigerian Airports”, This Day Live.
CAB, (2011). “Better Regulation for Aviation Security – Summary of Responses to the Consultation and Next Steps.” Department for Transport
Coughlin, C., C., Cohen, J., P., and Khan, S., R., (2002). “Aviation Security and Terrorism: A Review of the Economic Issues.” The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
ICAO, (2007). “Symposium on Innovation in Aviation Security (SIAS)”,Security and Facilitation, Canada 21-23 October, 2014.
Loy, J., M., (2004) National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon The United States, Seventh Public hearing of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States.
Martonosi, S., E., (2005). “An Operations Research Approach to Aviation Security”,Sloan School of Management.
NSAS, (2007). “Aviation Operational Threat Response Plan.” Supporting Plan to the National Strategy for Aviation Security, March 26, 2007.
OECD/ITF, (2009) “Terrorism and International Transport: Towards Risk-based Security Policy – ISBN 978-821-0231-2.
Poole, R., W., (2008). “Toward Risk-Based Aviation Security Policy”,OECD/ITF, 2008
Poole, R., W., (2009). “The Case for Risk-based Aviation Security Policy”,World Customs Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, 2009
Seidenstate, P., and Splane, F., X., (2009). “Protecting Airline Passengers in the Age of Terrorism”, Library of Congress in Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Shimamura, A., (2006). “Aviation Security Challenges and International Cooperation”, Civil Aviation bureau, MLIT, Japan
Sumner, K., M., (2007). “Airport Security: Examining the Current State of Acceptance of Biometrics and the Propensity of Adopting Biometric Technology for Airport Access Control.

Bibliography
Australian Government, (2012) “The Use of body scanners for aviation security screening in Australia: Privacy Impact Assessment”, Department of Infrastructure and Transport.
Blalock, G., Kadiyali, V., and Simon, D., H., (2007). “The Impact of Post-9/11 Airport Security Measures on the Demand for Air Travel”, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Butcher, L., (2011) “Aviation Security”, Business and Transport, 14 June 2011.
Council of the European Union, (2012) “Aviation Security against Terrorist Threats – Conclusions of the Conference of 31 October 2012, Nicosia, Cyprus” , Brussels, 16 November 2012.
Elias, B., (2009) “National Aviation Security Policy, Strategy, and Mode-Specific Plans: Background and Considerations for Congress”, CRS Report for Congress.
ECA, (2010) “The European Pilots’ Perspective on Improving Aviation Security”, Piloting Safety, European Cockpit Association
Frittelli, J., (2005). “Transportation Security: Issues for the 109th Congress.” Research, Science and Industry Division, CSR Issues for Congress
GAO, (2004) “Aviation Security Further Steps Needed to Strengthen the Security of Commercial Airport Perimeters and Access Controls”, Report to Congressional Requests.
Harris, D., H., (2002) “How to Really Improve Airport Security”, Ergonomics in Design, Winter 2002.
NASAO, (2002). “General Aviation Security”, National Association of State Aviation Officials, Silver Spring, Maryland
Pozzo, F., R., D., (2015). “EU Legal Framework for Safeguarding Air Passenger Rights”, Springer International Publishing Switzerland
Prenzler, T., Lowden, C., and Sarre, R., (2010) Aviation Security Issues in Australia Post – 9/11, Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, Vol. 5, Number 2, 2010.
Ross, B., and Schwartz, R., (2015) US Steps up Airport Security after Al-Qaeda’s Hidden Bomb Recipe, abc News.
Stewart, M., G., and Mueller, J., (2013) “Cost-Benefit Analysis of Australian Federal Police Counter-Terrorism Operations at Australian Airports”, CEPS, Centre of Excellence in Policing Security, Working Paper, October 2013.
Tamasi, G., and Demichela, M., (2011) “Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety 96 (2011); pp. 892-899

Appendix A
Questionnaire on Aviation Security
Do you think security permits have made considerable impact on the aviation security of Dubai International Airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think security professionals are well trained to meet challenges of terrorist attacks at Dubai International Airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
What do you think operational research concerns have been properly met at Dubai international airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
How aviation industry has successfully addressed political issues considering analytical mathematical models in meeting security related issues? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Are you satisfied with security check-points and security permits executed at Dubai international airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think risk level has been properly identified at Dubai International airport to defend airport premises from terrorist attacks? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think that the importance of security permits in aviation security resources have been focused on the capability of individuals believed to be most dangerous for aviation industry? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think security checkpoints to allow passengers and their baggage to pass through these security permits should be strengthened at Dubai International airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
As a passenger, are you satisfied with the security checkpoints and security permits to be implemented at Dubai International airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Are you dissatisfied with the security arrangements considering terrorist attacks? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Are you satisfied with the technologies to be used at Dubai International Airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think the aviation authority at Dubai International airport has developed the system where terrorists can’t threaten pre-screening system at airport checkpoints? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Considering terrorist tactics to threaten airport security, are you satisfied with the security arrangements at Dubai International airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think there is possibility that terrorist could send their group members to destroy air flights and airport buildings on trial basis? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Is there any need to enhance the aviation security systems at Dubai International airport to enhance the security measures? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think security measures help aviation security authorities to ensure complete protection to airline passengers at Dubai International airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Are you satisfied with the passenger screening systems to ensure airport security at Dubai international airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think security permits at the aviation security of Dubai international airport have successfully identified low level and high level or risk members? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think security permits could reduce the likelihood of facing terrorist attacks to be placed at Dubai international airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Are you agreed that operators performing specific screening tasks for passengers and their baggage are well equipped with latest technologies? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Considering technical competency, are you satisfied with the security permits of Dubai International airport? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think that the aviation authorities in United Arab Emirates have successfully adopted counter terrorism strategies to meet their requirements of their passengers? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Do you think aviation authority of Dubai International airport has developed computer-based aviation security and ensured the efficiency of passengers travelling with their airlines? * Strongly Agreed * Agreed * Neutral * Disagreed * Strongly Disagreed
Appendix B
Figures of Security Permits at Aviation Security

Figure 1: Dubai International airport Aviation Security

Figure 2: Dubai International airport Aviation Security

Figure 3: Dubai International airport Aviation Security

Figure 4: Dubai International airport Aviation Security

Figure 5: Dubai International airport Aviation Security…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Kubla Khan

...Kubla Khan Kubla Khan is one of the strangest, greatest and most ambiguous poems that I've ever read. This romantic poem is written by Coleridge, and through it, he shows the power of imagination that results in the importance of poetry as an art. The poem has the most significant romantic characteristics: nature, imagination and supernaturalism. The mother is everything for everyone, and nature, considered as the great mother by the romantics, is everything for Coleridge and other romantic poets. The poem takes place in nature in which Kubla Khan builds his dome of rock. The poet describes a wild nature showed by the sacred river that is measureless and sunless and the forests, the hills and the eternal spring. This beautiful nature is no more when it's touched by humans. When Kubla Khan ordered to build the dome, humans begin to corrupt every natural element there and to mix it with artificial one. When the natural place is distorted by humans, we find the poet describing the place as enchanted, and introducing a woman wailing for her demon-love. All these frightened scenes described in the poem have something to do with the corruption man causes to nature. Romantic poets would be nothing without imagination. Imagination is the power that distinguishes the romantic poets from others. The two kinds of imagination is found here in the poem. The primary imagination is the foundation on which the author based his poem. The action of Kubla Khan ordering......

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Kubla Khan

...Analysis of ‘Kubla Khan’ regarding Colonial Discourse: As a product of the complex discursive web of the 18th century, the Orientalist Coleridge could not act out of such historical forces as colonialism that had gone into shaping him and his poetry.He, in post colonial discourse, was unable to go parallel with the theory of ‘Arts for Arts sake’ and ‘Willing Suspension of Disbelief’. In Kubla Khan,Coleridge is trying to establish the heagemony of Abyssinian Christianity which according to him is more pure and can only be revived by colonizers by the song of Abyssinian maid. These lines make this idea more clear: Could I revive within me Her symphony and song, To such deep delight ‘twould win me That with music loud and long, I would build that dome within the air! It is showing his hatred of corrupt religion of the East. His desire is to free mankind from political tyranny of tyrannical despots represented in the figure of Kubla. Although Kubla Khan was the conqueror and master of the world ... in Coleridge's view he was really no more than a passing historical representative cast up from the central 'Romantic chasm' . Kubla, a man of military skill and known for his administrative capabilities was called by the Mongols as Setsen Khan (The Wise Khan). He conquered China and established the Mongol dynasty, unifying the nation for the first time since the T'ang regime. Following the teachings of his mother, he tolerated all religions in the area, helping to......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mr. Ahmed Mahmoud Al Balooshi

...Ahmed Mahmoud Al Balooshi – H00237462 Section: CLO Melanie Gobert Academic Reading and Writing 2 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the main principles of management. Your business is the correspond of the whole decisions you make, with the need of a vision to achieve your objectives. Customers are the real evaluation of your good decision. So base your decision to get best feedback. Planning is a systematic process to get the best use of resources, methodology, and projected outcome in specific period of time. Each plan supposed to have a clear goal and objectives. Organizing is the distribution and use of resources such as capital, information, physical resources, and people. Leading which is another definition of directing people. Leading includes motivating and working in teams. Leaders should have basic skills like communication skills, and they could have a greater impact by leading by example. Controlling includes monitoring, evaluating, and correcting to achieve goals and objectives. Controlling and monitoring are much linked and similar. ACTION PLANS The best way to manage and organize a business is to follow the three action plans, which begins with setting up an operations plan, creating a management plan, and creating a contingency plan. Operation plan starts by setting the whole process and steps from supplying the raw material till delivering it to the customer. A good method to set an operation plan is to......

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mr. Khan

... | |D.G. Khan/ RYKhan | |Multan/ Baha'nagar | |Murree/ Attock/ Gilgit | |Rawalpindi | |Sahiwal | |Sargodha/ Sheikhupura | NWFP’ In the NEFP main offices are in the following cities; |Peshawar | |Abbott Abad | |D.I. Khan | |Kohat | |Mardan | BALUCHISTAN; Main Branches of NBP are in the following cities; |Queta | |Azad Kashmir | |Muzaffarabad | |Mirpur | NBP REGIONAL OFFICES; |Karachi (South) |Bahawalpur | |Karachi (West) |Dera Ghazi Khan ...

Words: 19049 - Pages: 77

Free Essay

Awais Ahmed

...Awais Ahmed |Address: 8260 Spoon Hollow Cove, | Cell: 901-364-2474 | |Memphis, Tennessee 38125-3275, USA. |Email: avais.pirvani@gmail.com | |PEC Registration: TELE/2195 |Passport# RC1159681 | OBJECTIVE Looking to build my extensive range of technical skills within a suitably challenging role and keen to achieve further professional development in Telecommunication and keep interested in research work. IT SKILLS |Networking |PC Troubleshooting |Windows 2000/XP/VISTA/7 | |MS Office |MODEL Design (OPNET) | | LANGUAGES |English |Urdu |Sindhi | | | PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE |Myson Engineering Systems |Jan-2012 to Nov-2013 | Field Sales Engineer – Project Responsibilities: Remained On Call Engineer of assigned 46 Sites [Badin Region] and......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Kubla Khan

..."Kubla Khan." All three were written between 1797 and 1800; however, was not published until 1816. At that time, Coleridge subtitled it "A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment," and added a prefatory note explaining the unusual origin of the poem. This preface describes how Coleridge, after taking some opium as medication, grew drowsy while reading a passage about the court of Kubla Khan in Samuel Purchas's , a seventeenth-century travel book recounting the adventures of early explorers. Soon he fell into a deep sleep which lasted about three hours. During this period, he composed from 200 to 300 lines of poetry based on the vivid images in his dream. When he woke, he remembered the entire poem and immediately began to write it down. Unfortunately, however, a visitor interrupted him, distracting him for about an hour. When Coleridge returned to his writing, the vivid images had fled, leaving him with only vague recollections and the fifty-four lines of this poetic fragment. Many critics challenge the truthfulness of Coleridge's version of this story, feeling that the poem is complete as it stands and much too carefully crafted to be solely the result of a dream. However, whether whole or fragment, dream or not, the poem examines issues of vital importance to Coleridge: creativity and the function of the imagination. The poem, including his prefatory comment, focuses on the process by which art is developed and how it may be lost or destroyed. When the poem begins, Kubla Khan......

Words: 2140 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ahmed

...Strategic Marketing Management Sec A Assignment 1 Submitted to: Mr. Mobin- ul - Haq Submitted by: (Ahmed Naveed) 13053032001 DATE: 4-11-2013 Product: A product is an item that is used to satisfy the need of the customer e.g. motor car, razor every product has a product life cycle which consists of 3 phases growth, maturity and decline phase in the growth phase the product is at its initial sage and is struggling for the market share whereas in maturity phase the product is at its peak has got the maximum of its market share and sales of the product. In the decline phase the market share and sales of the product start declining. The first p product is used to determine the product or service which the company will introduce in the market. To determine the features of the product and how to differentiate it from the competitors etc. Price: The amount charged by the company for the product or service is called price. Price is very important for the profitability and survival of the company. Price is used to determine the profitability of the company. Price setting is very important so while setting the price company should be aware about the customer perceived value for the product. The p price is used to determine the value of the product or service for the customer. Promotion: All the methods or means that are used to provide the information about the product to the customer are......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Chengis Khan

...Ehrenpreis (Tech.) Gracias (Valor) Jurvetson (Draper) Marver (Vantage) K. Musk Tarpenning Musk Ehrenpreis (Tech.) Gracias (Valor) Jurvetson (Draper) Kohler (Daimler) Marver (Vantage) K. Musk Sonsini (counsel) Musk Buss (outsider) Al Darmaki (Wahada) Ehrenpreis (Tech.) Gracias (Valor) Jurvetson (Draper) Kohler (Daimler) K. Musk Sonsini (counsel) Chairman: Musk Musk Musk Musk Musk Musk Audit: None None None None None Buss Gracias Jurvetson Comp: None None None None None Buss Ehrenpreis Gracias Nom/Gov: None None None None None Buss Ehrenpreis Gracias stanford closer look series 5 Tesla Motors: The Evolution of Governance From Inception to IPO Exhibit 2 — Tesla: Board of Directors (2010) H.E. Ahmed Saif Al Darmaki has been a member of our Board of Directors since September 2009. Since September 1999, Mr. Al Darmaki has been Planning & Development Director of Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority, which manages the generation, transmission and distribution of water and electricity in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Mr. Al Darmaki holds a B.S. in business administration and finance from United Arab Emirates University and an M.B.A. from the Zayed University. We believe that Mr. Al Darmaki possesses specific attributes that qualify him to serve as a member of our Board of Directors, including his experience with both international public and private companies and his experience in the energy sector. Brad W. Buss has been a......

Words: 3649 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Amna Khan Cv

...AMNA KHAN Sami House F-66 Block B, North Nazimabad, Karachi 74700. M: 0332-3142294 E: amnakhan_111@live.com Professional Profile I have a fervent and dedicated professional knowledge across the field of Textile Design Technology and Creative design. I can express a great deal of skill in managing projects from conception till its triumphant inception. I am capable of maintaining a consistent performance under pressurized working environment. Objective To attain an opportunity in a dynamic and reputed company where I can enhance and apply a broad spectrum of design processes, skills and knowledge and serve as a conscientious professional. Education Masters of Business Administration Institute of Business Administration (IBA) (currently) (MBA- Morning) B.Sc. (Hons) TIP 2011 Textile Design & Technology A-Levels Foundation Public School 2007 (Pre-Engineering) O-Levels The City School 2005 (Pre-Engineering) Major Projects Thesis: Fractal Geometry (2011) Focusing on the key aspect of fractals, I worked with action paintings and geometry to produce designs that depicted disorder at one glance but actually followed an order. My product was a Wall panel inspired by Origami. Print Design: Prints on floral, traditional, retro and organic themes, product creation, printing and finishing (trousers) and interior products created through......

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Genghis Khan

...GENGHIS KHAN The name Genghis Khan often conjures the image of a relentless, bloodthirsty barbarian on horseback leading a ruthless band of nomadic warriors in the looting of the civilized world. But the surprising truth is that Genghis Khan was a visionary leader whose conquests joined backward Europe with the flourishing cultures of Asia to trigger a global awakening, an unprecedented explosion of technologies, trade, and ideas. Genghis Khan, who lived probably between 1162–1227, born Temüjin, was the founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He was born in a Mongol tribe near Burkhan Khaldun mountain and the Onon and Kherlen Rivers in modern-day Mongolia, not far from the current capital Ulaanbaatar. The Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born with a blood clot grasped in his fist, a traditional sign indicating that he was destined to become a great leader. He was the third-oldest son of his father Yesükhei, a minor tribal chief of the Kiyad and an ally of Ong Khan of the Kerait tribe and the oldest son of his mother Hoelun. He was called Temüjin because, in the Mongol culture, children were named after the leader of the last tribe to be defeated by the child’s father Childhood was short and difficult for the Mongols, and Temüjin learned how to ride horses when he was three, and hunt and fish before he turned six years old. The Mongols also had......

Words: 2723 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

My Name Is Khan Summary

...My Name Is Khan “There are only two kinds of people in this world. The good that do good deeds and the bad who do bad. There’s no other difference”, Razia Khan said to a young Rizwan Khan which starts his story. He was bullied as a child because he was different, He didn’t think like others did or act like them too. One day, his mother brought him to a known man around town who does nothing but sit all day. She told him that he had degrees she couldn’t name and asked him to teach his son to spare time. “He’s a sharp boy. He can even speak in English”, Razia said to the man. He was about to close the door when Rizwan started talking in English about facts a boy his age shouldn’t have known yet. The man accepted and became his teacher. He taught Rizwan more about books and life all together. He also paved the way for him to have a better life. “You think he could fix all of this?” a woman said in line for Rizwan’s repairs. He was repairing appliances after the floodless miracle he did. Making his mother proud which in return gives all her attention to him that makes his younger brother jealous of him. When his brother turned 18 he left for America and never looked back. Six months after his brother got married his mother died of a heart disease. “I would make a happy life for myself”, Rizwan promised to his mother before she died. He then left for America and went to live with his brother. In the few months that he has lived with his brother he met Hasina, Zakir’s......

Words: 855 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Stunning Kaniz Almas Khan

...Answer of the Case Questions: 1. Answer: Summary of the Case: Kaniz Almas Khan, the pioneer who established Persona as a brand in the beauty industry, is the name of a successful entrepreneur not only among the women entrepreneur but also among all the entrepreneur of Bangladesh. With a deep passion on beautification of human being and a great wish to do something different and big, she started her journey in the beauty industry. In her journey to become a successful woman entrepreneur in the beauty industry of Bangladesh, she got all types of necessary supports from her mother, in laws, husband and peer groups. With the aim to provide the clients with the best quality skin and hair care services, and also bridal makeover, Kaniz opened beauty salon Glamour at her residence in Kalabagan in 1990, with nine workers and an initial investment of Tk 2 lakh which she borrowed from Micro Industries Development Assistance and Services (MIDAS). After being successful to win the love of the clients , she got countrywide recognition as an expert in hair care and inspired many small entrepreneurs to get involved in this business by becoming the 'brand ambassador' for Sunsilk in 1991. As the result of the successful journey, Glamour was turned into Persona Hair and Beauty Ltd. In 1998.Now she is thee successful entrepreneur of two companies: Persona Hair and Beauty Ltd and Persona Beauty Care Ltd. Persona Hair and Beauty Ltd also runs an independent studio and monthly......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Asim Ahmed Khan

...Ph: 0312 2206656 E-mail: asimqadeer@gmail.com Asim Ahmed Khan Objectives: To obtain a position in the New Media Industry where I can be creative and contribute to a team in a modern environment. To do work that I can be proud of and be excited about doing I have developed a handful of company websites and hope to improve myself vastly in that field of work. I have designed company logos and web sites. I work well under pressure and am dedicated to meeting deadlines on time and with precise accuracy. I have been in designing Web sites for 6 years identify customer needs; monitor customer usage patterns; determine order processes and service after sales I have been involved in all stages of the development of web sites - right from planning, design, quality control, launching to online promotion and monitoring. |Company Name |Country |Designation |Experience | |Netpace |Pakistan |Senior Web Designer/ Developer |5th May 2014 to till now | |VeriQual |Pakistan |Senior Web Designer/ Developer |3 Years | |Netpace |Pakistan |Senior Web Designer/ Developer |3 Years | |VeriQual ......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Genghis Khan

...* Genghis Khan Siddhant Keshav * Genghis Khan was perhaps the greatest general ever to have lived. He was the founder, and ruler of the Mongol Empire – a nation much larger than the Roman Empire at its peak, in fact it was the largest and most continuous empire in history – spreading right through central Asia, parts of China, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. The empire he founded became the largest contiguous empire in history, after his demise, was about 12 million sq. miles. Brought the silk route under one cohesive political environment. Born Temujin around 1162 and about 0.5% of the world’s male population carries his DNA. * Temujin was born into a nomadic Mongol tribe in 1162. When Temujin was 12 years old, his father was killed and the family left to die in the harsh Mongolian winter. Temujin and his family survived, but the lessons he learned evolving from manhood at the age of 12 into the warrior known as Genghis Khan, are timeless. * Here are 10 leadership lessons that should be learnt from Genghis Khan * * Build Your Perseverance * * Build your perseverance, and it will produce 4 qualities: * commitment – a sense that you are giving your best * challenge – a sense that obstacles are challenges and not threats * control – a sense that you are in control of yourself and what happens to you * confidence – a sense that you can achieve your goals. * Build Your Mastery ...

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ahmed Zaki Yamani

...Ahmed Zaki Yamani Ahmed Zaki Yamani is a specialist in law and Islamic law. He was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He attended Cairo University, New York University Law School and Harvard University School. He received his LL.M from Harvard. Yamani later went on to serve as advisor to the Saudi government in 1958. In 1962 he became Saudi Arabia’s minister of petroleum until 1986 and became OPEC’s first secretary General. Yamani is known as the founder of many of the kingdom’s modern laws and regulations. His article “the Political Competence of Women and Law” he discusses the controversial topic of women participating in public life in Islamic societies. He believes that “men and women are equal in their human value, their social rights, their responsibilities and their subjection to reward and punishment. (pg 171)” He says that when speaking of political competence in Islam we need to distinct it from the western concept. Westerners see political competence it as a right, while in Islam it is seen as action. An action has to be performed while a right does not have to be performed. However a political action in Islam does not have to be performed by every citizen, just by a sufficient amount of citizens so that the others are relieved of it. This action includes women. As long as a woman is educated and is aware of the current politics then he sees here no different from a man. Yamani believes that Islam does not prohibit nor try to minimize the participation of women......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2