Subnetting Made Easy

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sorotn2dacore
Words 833
Pages 4


IP Classes

The class system has become "old" in the ever demanding Internet paradigm, it has been (partially) replaced by CIDR system, which allows more efficient and practical allocation of IP addresses for the need of smaller networks. Nevertheless, it is important to know and understand what class system is and how it works, which has been the backbone of the IP.
IP addresses have been classified into 5 classes and special purpose addresses, depending upon the value in the first octet. Viz- • Class A - This is a class for very large networks, such as IBM which holds IP addresses in the range - - (almost 16,777,216 IP addresses). First Octet - - The first octet is between 1 to 126. (Starts with binary bit - 0). Network Address - The n/w address is denoted by first 8 bits or first octet. Host/Node Address - Host address is denoted by last 24 bits or last 3 octets. This Network-Host IP configuration for class A can be shown as - and each can have 1 to 3 decimals. Thus forming 126 network addresses (27 - 1) and each of them capable of having 16,777,214 (224 -2) host addresses. • Class B - This is a class for medium-sized networks. First Octet - - The first octet is between 128 to 191. (Starts with binary bits - 10). Network Address - The n/w address is denoted by first 16 bits or first 2 octets. Host/Node Address - Host address is denoted by last 16 bits or last 2 octets. This Network-Host IP configuration for class B can be shown as - and each can have 1 to 3 decimals. Thus forming 16,384 network addresses (214) and each of them capable of having 65,534 (216 -2) host addresses. • Class C - This is a class for small-sized networks. First Octet - - The…...

Similar Documents

Subnetting 1 2 3

...Subnetting 1 2 3 By Adam Chee W.S Ever get stressed out because you know that there would be subnetting question(s) in the next exam you are taking and that these questions easily take up 10 to 20 minutes of your precious exam time? What if there is more than one question? The process of converting the subnet to binary and decimal can drive the unfamiliar insane, not to mention the waste of precious time and brain power which can be utilized for other areas of exam preparation. Let's take a look at a shortcut method that will cut down the time needed to answer these questions without the need for a calculator. Subnet Basics: This article assumes that you know how to perform subnetting in the traditional method but it is important to stress that there are only 3 classes of usable IP addresses which are Class Range Subnet mask Host bit Subnet Class A (127 is reserved for loopback) 24 8 Class B 128 - 191 16 16 Class C 192 - 223 8 24 1 - 126 You must understand and remember this table well in order to master the shortcut. Note: You must borrow at least 2 bits and must leave at least 2 bits The 'Subnet Table' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bit Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Subnet Mask 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 0 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 Bits Borrowed (N) Number of......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Subnetting Chart Class a to Class E

...Subnetting | Default Subnet Mask | CIDR | Up to usable # Hosts | Default Network/Host | Typical Use | Class A: 1 - 126 | 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 | /8 | 16,777,214 224 -2 | N.H.H.H | Largest block allocation made by IANA | Class B: 128 - 191 | 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 | /16 | 65,524 216 -2 | N.N.H.H | ISP/Small ISP/large business | Class C: 192 - 223 | 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 | /24 | 254 28 -2 | N.N.N.H | Large LAN, Small LAN, Smallest multi-host network, "Glue network" (pt-to-pt) | Class D: 224 - 239 | not defined | not defined | not defined | not defined | A multicast network. | Class E: 240 - 255 | not defined | not defined | not defined | not defined | Address range is reserved for future or experimental purposes. | 127 is Loopback | | | | | | 255 is Broadcast | Broadcast Address: All host bits = 1 | | | | | 0 is the Network | Network or subnet address: All host bits = 0 | | | | | Powers of 2 and CIDR Prefix 16,777,214 | 65,536 | 32,768 | 16,384 | 8,192 | 4,096 | 2,048 | 1,024 | 512 | 256 | 128 | 64 | 32 | 16 | 8 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 2(24) | 2(16) | 2(15) | 2(14) | 2(13) | 2(12) | 2(11) | 2(10) | 2(9) | 2(8) | 2(7) | 2(6) | 2(5) | 2(4) | 2(3) | 2(2) | 2(1) | 2(0) |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | 128 | 192 | 224 | 240 | 248 | 252 | 254 | 255 | Length of the CIDR Prefix, which is varied using VLSM (variable length subnet mask). | /15 |......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Online Education Made Easy

...Students spend less time in the classroom with online educations; therefore, students with children at home can study while taking care of his/her children. Students can still attend his/her children’s activities in school while studying at home. Clearly, students who seek a higher education via online learning have an advantage over students in traditional educations. Adults are able acquire a higher education while working to survive famine, sustain a paycheck, and support his/her family. Adults, who work full-time, acquire a higher education through online learning. Online educations allow adults with children to create a happy home, a healthy family environment, and a hopeful future for his/her children. Online educations provide easy access to a higher education for people who move many times such as, military family members (Payne & Johnson, 2005). Clearly, people who have busy lifestyles; people who work full-time jobs; people graduating from high school; people accustom to moving many times; and anyone who does not want a traditional education are the people who benefit most from online educations. Students, who apply for online educations should search for information on how to succeed while taking online learning courses. Applying for online educations is fairly simple. Students should consider asking questions before enrolling, e.g. “how is advising done?”; “what kind of time commitment is required?” and “what GPA is required?” (Payne & Johnson, 2005, p. 3).......

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9


...Gun practice with your weapon of choice. | [Transition to conclusion: Now that you have some guideline on how to harvest a wild turkey, let’s go over what I showed you today.] | III. Conclusion |   | A.  Final Review: So today I showed you how to do three basic things. | 1.  Species. | 2.  Some habitat of the Wild Turkey. | 3. Gear you might need along the way. | B. Tie back to the audience: In some culture we all sit down around a table and eat or give thanks for i.e. Thanksgiving something turkey is the main dish for that occasion. So how cool will it to say I harvest this juicy and moist turkey that we are about to enjoy. | | C. Concluding remarks: So if you do try to harvest wild turkeys just remember it’s not easy. You will never know what might learn about yourself and the great outdoors | Works Cited: | Batcheller, Gordon R. The “Great State of Hunting”. New York State Conservationist. Feb2013, Vol. 67 Issue 4, p2-4. 3p. Draper, David.” The Turkey Hunter's Playbook”. Field & Stream. Apr2011, Vol. 115 Issue 11, p72-76. 5p. Bethge, Gerry. “Spring Gobbler”. Outdoor Life. Mar2009, Vol. 216 Issue 3, p60-65. 6p....

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Easy a

...Easy A The Princess Bride, Groundhog Day, and Ferris Bueller’s Day off have all become some of the great classic comedies of all time. What makes a classic comedies movie? A classic stands the test of time. It does not matter the period the film was made, because people can relate to the storyline in each era. The plots are solid. The films are enjoyed generation after generation. I believe Easy A will be joining this group of classic comedies as move generation moves to the next one. What makes Easy A such a great movie, that will last for generations, is its story. About how one lie can change the way everyone see you. It is a relatable and clever movie, with great humor and quotable one-liners. Easy A is about a high school student, Olive Penderghast, played by the talented Emma Stone, finds herself the victim of her school's "rumor mill". When she lies to her best friend Rhiannon, played by Alyson Michalka that she has a date with a nonexistent community college student, so that she doesn’t have to spend the weekend with Rhiannon and her family. The two of them are over heard in the bathroom the next Monday as Olive lies about her encounter, telling Rhiannon that she lost her virginity that weekend with her fictitious boyfriend. The rumor spreads through the school like wild fire; she soon becomes the scandal of the school after the religious fanatic Marianne decides to make her the school outcast. Meanwhile, Olive is studying "The Scarlet Letter" in the English...

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Easy a

...English 379 March 12, 2013 In the movie easy A, a teen comedy, the main character Olive is initially presented to the viewers as the virginal and feminine high school student who dresses like the average high school student, mostly in pants, and turns out to be transformed into the sex object/pin-up girl to resemble her counterparts in the movie. One being her best friend Rhi and the other Marianne, both whom which throughout the entire movie are always in very short skirts and/or extremely revealing tops, especially Rhiannon. Nonetheless, the one normal, dressing female in the movie, Olive, is then in turn forced and presented as a skank, a whore, and a home wrecker. Although one of the central themes of the movie is the loss of virginity, there are no sex scenes and it does displays a witty, contemporary, modern day spin on Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel, The Scarlet Letter. Moreover, the message depicted throughout the movie is that an innocent, little white lie can get blown out of proportion and that teenagers in general are concerned of how others perceive them in their day to day lives. The movie starts off with Olive being portrayed as a virginal, down to earth, average high school student with no cares in the world but is hastily transformed into the slutty female character very commonly used throughout Hollywood films to depict females nowadays. When a little white lie about losing her virginity meant for her best friends ears only gets out of hand......

Words: 1182 - Pages: 5

Subnetting Assignment

...02/8/2015 Pick a network address from the list below.  Everybody must pick a unique network address and number of subnet.  Please reply to the Subnetting Discussion Topic under Week 3 Discussions with your selection.  Don’t select a network address that somebody else already selected. For each of them, I need the following information: * The new subnet mask after the subnetting (10%) * The following information for the four subnets identified: * Subnet’s network address (3%) * Subnet’s broadcast address (3%) * Subnet’s range of available IP addresses (4%) * The calculations on how you get to the answers (50%).  This is very important.  If you don't provide the calculations or the way you get the answer, you will lose 50%. Your goal is to subnet them with as little subnet as possible but still meeting the requirement.  In other word, maximize the number of hosts that is available for each subnet. 26. subnetted to 97 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #8, #65, and #97 10000110 01010100 00000000 00000000 Network address 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 Subnet Mask The formula to find out how many bits to borrow 2 to the power off 7 = 128 need to borrow 7 bits. 7 bits = 0000001 New 10000110 01010100 00000000 00000000 Network Address 11111111 11111111 11111110 00000000 Subnet Mask Subnet Mask #1 Network......

Words: 433 - Pages: 2

Its Easy

...have no problem pushing me up to the Varsity team. Over that summer, I was out there everyday running and doing my own exercises to become significantly better. Junior year comes along and tryouts are right around the corner, so I was still out there running and running. The day of tryouts, we had to run the 2 mile and I remember as I was running I kept telling myself that I was good enough and that I deserve a Varsity letter. I cross the finish line and I couldnʼt wait to hear my time, I was so anxious that I couldnʼt catch my breath. The coach didnʼt yell out the times that day but after all of the anxiety over the next couple of days, it was decision time. As she was yelling out the names of who made Varsity that year, I kept telling myself not to worry and that I know I made it but just incase I didnʼt I would promise myself to work even more harder. But the coach yelled out my name and I felt that warmer rush or blood just flow throughout my whole entire body. It was beyond rewarding knowing that all of my hard work has finally paid off. But I never stopped working hard after that, I was always working hard on Varsity but it was all worth it in the end, thats for sure. Itʼs kind of the same with with my Lacrosse. Iʼve always found an interest in playing Lacrosse because ever since I was little, my cousins played so when ever they were outside practicing, I was too. As soon as my high school created a team, I was the one to be out every day making sure my stick skills......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Subnetting Made Simple

...Subnetting Made Simple IP Subnetting without Tables, Tools, or Tribulations Larry Newcomer The Pennsylvania State University York Campus Abstract Every networking professional should have a thorough understanding of TCP/IP subnetting. Subnetting can improve network performance by splitting up collision and broadcast domains. Subnets can reflect organizational structure and help support security policies. WAN links typically join different subnets. Subnets can define administrative units and hence support the structuring and delegation of administrative tasks. Unfortunately, mastering subnetting can pose difficulties for both professionals and students because of the binary mathematics that underlies the technology. While it is imperative to present subnetting concepts in terms of the underlying binary representation, most texts also present subnetting procedures in binary terms. Such an approach can make it difficult for students to learn how to actually carry out subnetting without tables or other reference materials, even when they understand the basic concepts. This paper presents a simple, alternative method for understanding and implementing subnetting without software, calculators, tables, or other aids. The only knowledge of binary arithmetic required is familiarity with the powers of 2 from 0 to 8 (2x for x = 0, 1, …, 8). With a little decimal arithmetic thrown in, the whole process is simple enough to be carried out mentally. This paper assumes the......

Words: 7956 - Pages: 32

Subnetting Exercise

...Subnetting Exercise Create 7 subnets from the following Class C IP address: subnet mask: Answer the following questions and upload your answers to blackboard. See the next page for an example of how to perform the exercise. 1. How many subnets? 2. How many hosts per subnet? 3. What is the new subnet mask? 4. What is the block size? 5. Create the subnet table. 6. What are the useable subnet address ranges?   Example Create 2 subnets from the following Class C IP address: IP Address: Subnet mask: How many subnets? Steal enough bits from the fourth octet to acquire the desired number of subnet. 2n where n equals 2 - 11000000 22 = 4 subnets (Note useable subnets are 22 - 2 = 2 usable subnets), so stealing 2 bits is enough. How many hosts per subnet? 2y – 2 = number of hosts per subnet. Where y is the number of unmasked bits, or the zeros bits in the fourth octet. - 11000000 26 -2 = 62 hosts per subnet What is the new subnet mask? 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 - What is the block size? 256 – subnet mask = block size 256 - 192 = 64 What are the blocks? Start at zero and add the block size to the number to get the next number. Stop when you reach the block size. 0, 64, 128, 192 Create the subnet table. Subnet 0 64 128 192 First Host 1 65 129 193 Last Host 62 126 190 194 Broadcast 63 127 191 255 What are the useable subnet......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Subnetting and Ipv4 Addresses

...Project Description Implement an appropriate addressing scheme, to subnet an IP address for different sized subnets. Introduction I have undertaken this project for the module network models and technologies. The project requires me to implement addressing schemes and to subnet an IP address for different sized subnets. The following topics will also be discussed: * Binary * HEX & decimal number systems * Octet, IP Address, IPv4/IPv6 * Subnet Mask * Network and Host IDs * Address Classes, classful and classless address schemes * Minimising wasteful use of IP addresses * CIDR * Subnetting * VLSM * Health and Safety * Evaluation * Bibliography Binary Computers see things in terms of binary. In binary everything is described as having two values or states: on or off, true or false, 1 or 0 and yes or no. A light switch could be regarded as a binary system, since it is always either on or off. As complex as they might seem computers can be regarded as a box full of light switches. Each switch is called a bit which is short for binary digit and a computer can turn each of these bits on or off. The computer describes 1 as being on and 0 as being off. By itself, a single bit is kind of useless, as it can only represent one of two things. Imagine if you could only count using either zero or one. Alone, you could never count past one. On the other hand, if you got a bunch of friends together who could also count......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Project Management Made Easy

...Projektmanagement ­ Grundlagen Praxis der Planung und Steuerung Reinhard Hradetzky Download free books at Reinhard Hradetzky Projektmanagement – Grundlagen Praxis der Planung und Steuerung eBooks kostenlos herunterladen auf 2 Projektmanagement – Grundlagen © 2012 Reinhard Hradetzky & Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 978-87-7681-973-6 eBooks kostenlos herunterladen auf 3 Projektmanagement - Grundlagen Inhalt Inhalt Vorwort 8 1 Einleitung 9 1.1 Aufbau und Inhalt dieses Handbuches 9 1.2 Detaillierungsebenen des Projektmanagement 9 1.3 Verschiedene Sichten auf den Ablauf von Projektprozessen 10 2 Planen 15 2.1 Definition Planung 15 2.2 Ich plane, um: 16 2.3 Der Planungszusammenhang in einer Organisation 17 2.4 Der Planungsablauf: Rollierende Planung 18 2.5 Übersicht: Die Teilprozesse der Planung 19 2.6 Übersicht: Die Teilprozesse der Planung (Planungsworkshop) 2.7 Übersicht: Die Teilprozesse der Planung (Teammitglied) 2.8 Die Vorgaben definieren 2.9 Ziele 360° thinking 2.10 Projektgröße . 20 21 22 23 27 2.11 Aufwände 33 360° thinking . 360° thinking . Discover the truth at © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities. Discover the truth at © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities...

Words: 12265 - Pages: 50

Easy to Spread

...Case Study, 8 – 2 Easy to spread Introduction Using information provided in The Marketing Pathfinder textbook, research carried out via an internet search and a formal interview with Hatuma Lime marketing manager (see Appendix 1 and 2) this assignment will analysis Case 8 – 2 Easy to spread, including answering the questions below. The Purchasing Decision 1. What are factors that a farmer in Taranaki will take into account before purchasing Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate? Marton Site Logistics 2. Outline the logistic decisions that Hatuma Lime needs to make to set up the Marton site? Building Brand Equity 3. What does management need to do to build the Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate brand equity? 1 The Purchasing Decision Price Point The farm paddock can be likened to the engine room of the farm, opting not to fertilise for more than one or two years can cause significant damage to a paddock. In 2009 rising cost of fertiliser and decreasing farm income forced farmers to compare the benefit of fertilising paddocks or reducing stock numbers to maintain (Smith, 2009). Phosphate consumption has been steady in recent years at around 140,000 tonnes, indicating good sales for fertiliser companies (Fertiliser Matters, 2015). Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate marketing manager Aaron Topp feels that high analysis fertilisers have out priced themselves. Dicalcic phosphate (DP) uses 50% less phosphate and is therefor cheaper to produce and purchase (personal communication,......

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6

Sweet Sounding Strings: Changing Guitar Strings Made Easy

...Take a look at your guitar strings. Are they in good shape? Are they silver and shiny? Are six strings there? If it's been several months since you put new strings on your guitar, or if you answered no to any of these questions, it’s time for a string change. Guitar strings on the guitar are just like knees on a baby’s jeans: they wear out easy, and should become a regular part of your guitar care routine. Even the oils in your fingers deteriorate the string. Some people fret over the techniques of replacing their own guitar strings. String changes can be stress-free; it takes little practice, should take only a few minutes per string, and will provide a bright, clear sound from your guitar. Anyone who knows how to play the guitar should know how to perform their own string changes on a basic electric guitar. Many music stores offer restringing for a fee, which can add up quickly if you have a number of guitars to maintain. And the need for a string change can happen at any time, not just when it is convenient to run to a store to have them do it for you. To begin, collect all of the tools you will need. These include a wire cutter or pair of pliers capable of cutting wire, a thick bath towel to protect your instrument’s finish while on your working surface, and a new set of strings. You will need a tuner for when you have your strings on, so you can tune them. To remove fingerprints and oils from the fret board and off of the finished areas, you will want to......

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5


...approvals so that I can graduate with my committee chair’s guidance and supports.   Respectfully,   Evens Baptiste Dr. Tom and classmates, Hello. My main goal this term is to get approval for sections 1 and 2 of my Doctoral Study. The areas that I am working on at this time for that to occur are related to correct APA formatting. Susan Dr. Tom, My goal is to have Section 1 and 2 approved by the Committee in order for me to do the oral defense and begin the interview process with my participants to graduate by June. Marisa My goal this term is to receive approval of sections 1 and 2 from my chair and to send sections 1 and 2 to my second committee member for review. This was my goal last term. Although I did not accomplish this last term, I made great progress and am very pleased. It seems that at some point stating ones goals and wishes makes them actually happening, a taboo. My goal is to complete this journey in this class; however, I am not going to set my heart on it. Currently writing my results and conclusions. Demonte DeVaughn-Witherspoon Wk 1 Discussion My major goal for this term is to successfully complete sections One and Two of the project and hopefully move on to the next Committee member! I plan to focus on the literature review and expanding the number of references. As advised, I will review each section to ensure APA format is correct. The rubric has been helpful in providing an understanding of what is required in each section as well, so it is......

Words: 1785 - Pages: 8