Free Essay

State of the World

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Asif412
Words 64439
Pages 258
Barbados
Barbados is a North American sovereign island country located in the Caribbean. The capital of this state is Bridgetown. This state raised its head as an independent state in 1966 after being a Colony of the British Empire for almost 350 years. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 439 Square km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 277,821 | 5.Currency | Barbadian Dollar | 3.Language | Barbadian | 6.GDP Rate | $16,653 | The main resources of Barbados are Petroleum, Fish, Natural gas, Sugarcane etc. The national symbols of Barbados are Neptune's trident, pelican, and Red Bird of Paradise flower (also known as Pride of Barbados).
In Barbados Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the State and represented locally by Governor General which is at present Elliott Belgrave. These two heads are advised by the Prime Minister of Barbados who is also the Head of the Government on matters of Barbadian state. The current Prime Minister of Barbados is Freundel Stuart.
Barbados functions as a Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy designed on the British Westminster System. Barbados has a Bicameral legislature and Political Party System. There are two dominant political parties in Barbados. One is Democratic Labor Party and another is Barbados Labor Party. The Democratic Labor Party is currently ruling the Government of Barbados.
Barbados became an independent country on 30th November 1966.
The flag of Barbados is a mixture of Blue, Golden and a symbol in the middle. It has a special meaning. Blue represents the sea and sky of Barbados, while gold represents the sand of the island's beaches. The symbol at the centre of the flag represents the Trident of the mythical sea God, Neptune - the shaft of the trident is broken symbolizing Barbados' break from Britain.
Barbados is famous for its tourist destination. The foods of Barbados also attract people.
Barbados is a full and participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Organization of American States (OAS), Commonwealth of Nation and the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ). Barbados is an original member (1995) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and participates actively in its work.
Republic of Ecuador
Ecuador, officially known as the Republic of Ecuador is the fourth smallest country in South America. It is located at the West coast of the continent. Quito is the capital of Ecuador. Guayaquil is the largest city of Ecuador. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 283,560 Square km | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 16,144,000 | 5.Currency | United States Dollar | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP Rate | $11,244 |
The main resources of Ecuador are Petroleum, Fish, Timber, Hydropower etc.
Ecuador has emerged as a sovereign state in 1830.
15.2 million People of Ecuador are mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Amerindian, and African descendants. The average Ecuadorian is estimated to be 52.96% Native American, 41.77% European, and 5.26% Sub-Saharan African overall.
National symbol of Ecuador is Andean Condor. Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities. The country is classified as a medium-income country. Ecuador's economy is the 8th largest in Latin America.
Ecuador is governed by a democratically elected President, for a four-year term. The current president of Ecuador is Rafael Correa.
The Ecuadorian State consists of five branches of government: the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, the Electoral Branch, and Transparency and Social Control.
Modern political parties on the right include the Social Christian Party (PSC), the Republican Unity Party (PUR), and the Ecuadorian Conservative Party (PCE). On the left are the Democratic Left (ID), linked to the Social Democratic Movement; the Popular Democracy Party (DP) of former President Hurtado; the traditional Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE); and the Radical Alfarista Front (FRA).
The flag of Ecuador, which consists of horizontal bands of yellow (double width). The colours of the flag have the following meanings: Yellow: The crops and the fertile soil. Blue: The Ocean and the clear skies. Red: The blood spilled by the heroes who died in the name of their countrymen's Fatherland and Freedom.
Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, and the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America, the Andean Community of Nations.
Republic of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan officially the Republic of Kazakhstan is a country in central Asia. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country by land area and the ninth largest country in the world. It has borders with (clockwise from the north) Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 2,724,900 Square km | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.Population | 17,563,300 | 5.Currency | Tenge | 3.Language | Kazakh | 6. GDP Rate | $24,143 | The main resources of Kazakhstan are major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium etc.
The national symbol of Kazakhstan is Golden Eagle.
About 54% of the population are Kazakhs, 30% are Russians, and 3.7% are Ukrainians. The remaining population consists of Uzbeks (2.5%), Germans (2.4%), Tartars (1.7%), Uighurs (1.4%), and other groups. The Kazakhstan economy is extremely well-endowed.
Kazakhstan is a unitary republic. Its first and to date (2016), only President is Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament composed of the Majilis (the lower house) and Senate (the upper house).
The national flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan has a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centred on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future. Kazakhstan was admitted to the United Nations (UN) on 2 March 1992; it is a member of ESCAP and several non regional specialized agencies, including the FAO, IAEA, IFC, IMF, the World Bank, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO.
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Nepal, Officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a South Asian landlocked country. It is the 93rd largest country by area and the 41st populous country in the world. The Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 147,181 Square km | 4.Religion | Hinduism | 2.Polpulation | 27 million | 5.Currency | Nepalese Rupee | 3.Language | Nepali | 6.GDP Rate | $2,310 |
The capital and largest metropolis of the country is Kathmandu.
The main resources of Nepal are quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron etc. Nepal consists of two primary ethnic elements: Mongoloids, who migrated to Nepal by way of Tibet, Sikkim, Assam, and northern Bengal; and Indo-Aryans, who came from the Indian plains and from the sub-Himalayan hill areas to the west of Nepal.
The emblem of Nepal is the national symbol of Nepal. Nepal has a low income economy. The current President of Nepal is Bidhya Devi Bhandari and the current Prime Minister of Nepal is Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli. He is the 1st Prime Minister under the newly adopted constitution of Nepal. Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Up until 1990, Nepal was a monarchy under executive control of the King. In 1990, King Birendra agreed to a large-scale political reform by creating a parliamentary monarchy with the king as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of the government. Nepal's legislature is Bicameral. The main party through Nepal's modern history—providing nearly all of the country's prime ministers even when the ban on parties prohibited party activity—is the Nepali Congress Party (NC). Inspired by the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress and founded by the Koirala brothers. The Communist Party (CPN) and its several communist allies have since split, fragmenting the movement into a number of splinter parties but leaving the CPN.
Nepal was declared as a kingdom 25th September, 1768. The state Nepal was declared on 15th January, 2007 and the Republic of Nepal was declared on 28th May, 2008.
The blue border of Nepal’s national flag symbolizes peace, while red is the colour of the rhododendron, Nepal's official flower. The crescent moon is said to represent the royal house, while the sun represents the Rana family.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations and is a member of ESCAP and several non regional specialized agencies, including the FAO, the World Bank, ILO, IMF, UNESCO, UNIDO, and the WHO. It also belongs to the ADB, the Colombo Plan, and G-77. Nepal joined SAARC with six other Asian nations.
Federal Republic of Somalia
Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa officially known as Federal Republic of Somalia. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia regained its independence on 1st July, 1960. The capital of Somalia is Mogadishu. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 637,657 Square km | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.Population | 10,816,143 | 5.Currency | Somali Shilling | 3.Language | Somali | 6.GDP Rate | $600 |
The main resources of Somalia are uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves.
The Somalis are classified as a Hamitic people with a Cushitic culture Ethnic Somalis, who make up about 85% of the population, are divided into two main clan families: the Samaal, which includes the Darod, Isaaq, Hawiye, and Dir clan groups; and the Saab, which includes the Rahanweyn and Digil clans and other smaller clan groups. The national symbol of Somalia is Leopard. Somalia's economy one of the poorest in the world.
The President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is the head of the state Somalia who is reported by the the Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke the head of the government.
Somalia is perhaps the world's best-known example of a failed state. Its governments have been as fractured as they have been ineffective, and since independence have only nominally ruled the territory within its borders. Since 1991, there has been no recognized permanent central government, and both Somaliland and Puntland—formally part of Somalia—have declared their autonomy. Somaliland seeks international recognition as an independent state.
The blue field of the national flag of Somalia is the same shade used by the United Nations. The five-pointed white "Star of Unity" is symbolic of the Somali race found in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and the former associated British and Italian colonies.
Somalia, which joined the United Nations on 30 September 1960, participates in ECA and several non-regional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, the World Bank, ILO, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, and the WHO. It is also a member of the ACP Group, the African Development Bank, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Council of Arab Economic Unity, the Islamic Development Bank, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), the Community of Sahel and Saharan States (CENSAD), G-77, the Arab League, and African Union.
Kingdom of Bhutan
Mountainous Bhutan, half the size of Indiana, is situated on the southeast slope of the Himalayas, bordered on the north and east by Tibet and on the south and west and east by India. The landscape consists of a succession of lofty and rugged mountains and deep valleys. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. size | 38,394km2 | 4.Religion | Vajrayana Buddhism | 2. population | 742,737 | 5.Currency | Bhutanese ngultrum | 3. language | Dzongkha | 6.GDP | $6.384 billion | Head of the state: Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Political system: constitutional monarchy
Although archaeological exploration of Bhutan has been limited, evidence of civilization in the region dates back to at least 2000 B.C. Aboriginal Bhutanese, known as Monpa, are believed to have migrated from Tibet. The traditional name of the country since the 17th century has been Drukyul, Land of the Drokpa (Dragon People).
Bhutan opposes immigration and forbids the entry of new settlers from Nepal. The border between Bhutan and India is open, and citizens of Bhutan are free to live and work in India.
Bhutan's political system has recently changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck transferred most of his administrative powers to the Council of Cabinet Ministers and allowing for impeachment of the King by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly.
Bhutan's first national election, were held in March 2008, with turnout at about 80%. The pro-monarchy The Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party, won 44 out of 47 seats in Parliament, trouncing the People’s Democratic Party. The election marked Bhutan's transition from an absolute monarchy to a democracy. In April, Lyonpo Jigme Thinley, of the Peace and Prosperity Party, became prime minister. A new constitution went into effect in July. Universal suffrage was implemented under the new constitution.
The flag features the Thunder Dragon, the country's emblem. Yellow symbolizes the authority of the king, white represents purity and loyalty, while orange is symbolic of the Drukpa monasteries.

Republic of Estonia
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia. It is an Eastern Europe country bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. Its capital is Tallinn. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1. size | 45,228 km2 | 1. religion | Non-religious (55%) | 2. population | 1,340,415 | 2. currency | Euro | 3. language | Estonian | 3. GDP | $39.43 billion | Head of the state: Toomas Hendrik Ilves Political system: Parliamentary democracy
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attain independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The current Estonian Government is a majority government and the coalition consists of three political parties: the Reform Party (RP), Social Democratic Party (SDP) and Pro Patria and Res Publica Union (IRL). The current Government was formed following the parliamentary elections on March 1, 2015.
Estonia is party to most major international organizations. It is a UN, EU, and NATO member and a strong ally and partner of the United States on all fronts. It is deeply committed to good transatlantic relations and to promoting democracy and free-market economic policy globally.
Estonia's liberal economic policies and macroeconomic stability have fostered exceptionally strong growth and better living standards than those of most new EU member states. The IMF projected GDP growth at over 9% in 2006. The country is so wired that it is nicknamed E-stonia.
While many countries are still debating the concept of online voting due to security concerns, Estonia has already been at it. It started practicing online voting since 2005.
The color blue represents loyalty, and the country's beautiful blue skies, seas and lakes; black is symbolic of past oppression and the fertile soil, and white represents virtue, winter snows, and Estonia's long struggle for freedom and independence.

State of Kuwait
Kuwait, officially the State of Kuwait is situated northeast of Saudi Arabia at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, south of Iraq. It is slightly larger than Hawaii. The low-lying desert land is mainly sandy and barren. Its capital is Kuwait City.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.size | 17,820km2 | 4.religion | Islam | 2.population | 4,044,500 | 5.currency | Kuwaiti Dinar | 3.language | Arabic | 6.GDP rate | $282.06 billion | Head of the state: Emir Sabah AL-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Political system: Constitutional Emirate
Kuwait is believed to have been part of an early civilization in the 3rd millennium B.C. and to have traded with Mesopotamian cities.
According to the constitution of 16 November 1962, Kuwait is an independent sovereign Arab state under a constitutional monarch. Executive power is vested in the emir, who exercises it through a Council of Ministers. Succession is restricted to descendants of Mubarak as-Sabah; an heir apparent must be appointed within one year of the accession of a new ruler.
In July 1990, Iraqi president Saddam Hussein blamed Kuwait for falling oil prices. After a failed Arab mediation attempt to solve the dispute peacefully, Iraq invaded Kuwait on Aug. 2, 1990, set up a pro-Iraqi provisional government, and drained Kuwait of its economic resources. A coalition of Arab and Western military forces drove Iraqi troops from Kuwait in a mere four days, from Feb. 23–27, 1991, ending the Persian Gulf War.
Kuwait has a geographically small, but wealthy, relatively open economy with crude oil reserves of about 102 billion barrels - more than 6% of world reserves. Kuwaiti officials plan to increase oil production to 4 million barrels per day by 2020. Petroleum accounts for over half of GDP, 94% of export revenues, and 90% of government income.
The traditional Pan-Arab colors of black, green, red and white are used on the flag. Black symbolizes defeat of the country's enemies; green symbolizes the fertility of the land; red is symbolic of the enemies' bloodshed, and white represents purity.

Federal Republic of Nigeria
Nigeria, one-third larger than Texas and the most populous country in Africa, is situated on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa. Its neighbors are Benin, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 4. size | 923,768 km2 | 4. population | 182,202,000 | 5. religion | Christianity & Islam | 5. GDP | $1.105 trillion | 6. language | English | 6. currency | Naira | Head of the state: Muhammadu Buhari Political system: Federal Republic
The first inhabitants of what is now Nigeria were thought to have been the Nok people (500 BC –c. AD 200). The Kanuri, Hausa, and Fulani peoples subsequently migrated there. Islam was introduced in the 13th century, and the empire of Kanem controlled the area from the end of the 11th century to the 14th.
The 1979 constitution, promulgated by the outgoing military government, established a federal system resembling that of the United States, with a directly elected president and vice president (whose names appear on the same ballot) and separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
As leader of the multination peacekeeping force ECOMOG, Nigeria established itself as West Africa's superpower, intervening militarily in the civil wars of Liberia and Sierra Leone.
The official language is English, although there are over 300 distinct indigenous tongues. Hausa is the mother tongue of more than 40% of the inhabitants of the northern states
Boko Haram, the fundamentalist Islamist sect that many thought had been obliterated in 2009, made a resurgence in 2011. In fact, the group, which had previously launched attacks locally, emerged as a transnational force possibly linked to al-Qaeda in 2011. The government declared a state of emergency in northern Nigeria and dispatched troops to the region, where the group is based.
The Nigeria national flag was officially adopted on October 1, 1960.The centered white stripe is symbolic of peace and country unity, while the green stripes represent fertile land.

Republic of the Sudan
Sudan, in northeast Africa. Its neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic on the west, Egypt and Libya on the north, Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, and South Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo on the south. It is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1. Area | 1,886,068 km2 | 4. Language | Arabic&English | 2. Population | 40,235,000 | 5. Currency | Sudanese Pound | 3. Religion | Islam | 6. GDP | $159.5 billion | Head of the state: Omar al-Bashir Political system: Military government
What is now northern Sudan was in ancient times the kingdom of Nubia, which came under Egyptian rule after 2600 B.C. An Egyptian and Nubian civilization called Kush flourished until A.D. 350. An influx of Muslim Arabs, who had already conquered Egypt, eventually controlled the area. Egyptians again conquered Sudan in 1874, and after Britain occupied Egypt in 1882, it took over Sudan in 1898, ruling the country in conjunction with Egypt.
Federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party, which seized power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which between 2005 and 2011 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the southern Sudan-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement, was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan.
Since 1999 international attention has been focused on evidence that slavery is widespread throughout Sudan. Arab raiders from the north of the country have enslaved thousands of southerners, who are black. Some sources point out that the raids intensified in the 1980s along with the civil war between north and south.
The flag of Sudan was officially adopted on May 20, 1970. It's similar to flags of other Arab countries in both color and style. The red represents socialism, green the traditional color of Islam, while white is symbolic of purity and optimism. Those three colors combined are also the official Pan-Arab colors.

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN Afghanistan is a mountainous and landlocked country in Central Asia that is bordered by Pakistan to the south and east, Iran to the west and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north. It is the 41st country in the world. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 652,864 km2 | Population | 32,564,342 (40th) | | | | | Currency | Afghani (AFN) | GDP rate | $36.838 billion | Capital | Kabul (largest city) | Recognition | 1919 | The country is split east to west by Hindu Kush mountain range, rising in the east to heights of 24,000 ft. With the exception of the southwest, most of the country is covered by high snow-capped mountains and it traversed by deep valleys. The flag of Afghanistan consists of three equal vertical bands of black, red and green with the national emblem in white centered on the red band. Black symbolizes the troubled past, red blood shade for the independence and green represents hope for the prosperity of the country as it is believed to be a favorite color of Prophet Mohammad and his daughter Fatima. In late 2001, the Taliban were removed from the power of the country and an interim government was created. Since then, parliamentary and presidential elections have been held but the Taliban still are conducting attacks in Afghanistan and has managed to capture districts even a major city. Now ISIS has started operations in Afghanistan and their fighters are waging war not just against the Afghan government, but the Taliban as well. Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem. Afghanistan is administratively divided into 34 provinces with each province having its own political and a provincial administration. The provinces are further divided into about 398 smaller provincial districts, each of which normally covers a city or a number of villages. Each district is represented by a district governor.

THE REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA The state Colombia is in South America and has a strategic position in the Americas. The name ‘Colombia’ is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus. It is a country of lush rainforest, towering mountains and coffee plantations. Categories | Fact | Categories | Fact | Size | 1,141,748 km2 (26th) | Currency | Peso | Population | 48,400,388 (28th) | GDP rate | $682.977 billion | Capital | Bogota | Recognition | 1819 | To describe the regional status, Colombia is bordered to the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti. It customarily describe their country in terms of climatic zones and established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean. The flag of Colombia was adopted on December 17, 1819 and it has three horizontal bands of yellow, blue and red that symbolize sovereignty and justice; loyalty and vigilance; and victory respectively. In accordance with the principle of separation of powers, government is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial branch. As the head of the executive branch, the president serves as both head of state and head of government. The President is elected by popular vote to serve four-year term. Next to it, the legislative branch is represented nationally by the Congress, a bicameral institution comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate. The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives is elected in electoral districts and members of both houses are elected by popular vote. Then the judicial branch is headed by four high courts, consisting of the Supreme Court which deals with penal and civil matters; the Council of State, which has special responsibility for administrative law; the Constitutional Court, responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution and the Superior Council of Judicature, responsible for auditing the judicial branch.

REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY

This central European country is the size of Indiana. Most of the Hungary is fertile, rolling plain lying east of the Danube River and drained by the Danube and Tisza rivers. In the extreme northwest is the Little Hungarian Plain. South of that area is Lake Balaton. Hungary is a member of UN, EU, NATO, the OECD, the Viseg`rad group and the Schengen Area.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 93,030 km2 | Population | 9,855,571 (88th) | GDP rate | $255.254 billion | Currency | Forint | Language | Hungarian | Capital | Budapest |

Since the fall of Communism, Hungary has had a multi-party system. The current political landscape in Hungary is dominated by the conservative Fidesz, who have a supermajority and two medium-sized parties, the left-wing Hungarian Socialist Party and nationalist Jobbik.
The flag of Hungary is like a horizontal tricolor of red, white and green. The official Hungarian state flag does not contain the Hungarian Coat of arms, but the coat of arms is often used during solemn occasions. The three colors of Red, white and green stands for strength, faithfulness and hope respectively.
Hungary is a unicameral parliamentary representative democratic republic. Members of Parliament are elected to the highest organ of state authority, every four years. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is elected by the National Assembly. Therefore, traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the President. The President of the country is Janos Ader and the Prime Minister is Viktor Orban.

About the ethnicity of the country there are 92.3% Hungarian; 1.9% Roma and 5.8% are others. There is also a great variation in religions and among Roman Catholic is the major group having the percentage of 37.2, then the Calvinist, Lutheran, Greek Catholic also take places.

REPUBLIC OF MARSHALL ISLAND

The Marshall Islands derive their identity from British Captain William Marshall, who explored the area with Captain Thomas Gilbert in 1788. It is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 181.43 km2 | Population | 72,191 (250th) | Currency | United States dollar | GDP | $115 million | Capital | Majuro | Recognition | 1979 |

The country occupies a vast expanse of ocean in the west-central Pacific, from 2,000 to 3,000 miles south and west of Hawaii. With a mere 66 square miles of land, the twenty-nine low-lying atolls and five coral pinnacles that make up the Marshalls are like fine necklaces of reef and sand pits strewn across the 780,000 square miles.
The Islands, long a part of the U. S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, gained their independence in 1979, and hoisted this striking flag. The orange and white stripes are symbolic of the two side-by-side islands chain within the Marshalls, the Rotok and Ralik. The flag was designed by Emlain Kabua, who served as the First Lady of the republic.

The Marshall Islands have successfully marketed their strategic location for military purposes, northern Marshall Islander’s incomes have been supplemented through compensation for post-World War II nuclear tests, and attempts have been made to revitalize copra production and energize the fishing industry.
Politically, the Marshall Islands is a Presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense, subsidies, and access to U. S. based agencies such as the FCC and the USPS. With few natural resources, the islands wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture; aid from the United States represents a large percentage of the island gross domestic product.

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean. It is the largest island of the country Saint Vincent which is located in the Caribbean Sea, between Saint Lucia and Grenada.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 389 km2 | Population | 103,000 (196th) | Currency | East Caribbean Dollar | GDP | $1.259 billion | | | | |

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines lies to the west of Barbados south of Saint Lucia and north of Grenada in the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, an island arc of the Caribbean Sea .The islands of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines include the main island of Saint Vincent 344 km2 and the northern two-thirds of the Grenadines 45km2, which are a chain of smaller islands stretching south from Saint Vincent to Grenada. There are 32 islands and cays that make up St. Vincent. The island of Saint Vincent is volcanic and includes little level ground. The windward side of the island is very rocky and steep, while the leeward side is more sandy beaches and bays.
The flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was adopted on October 1985. It is a composed of three vertical bands of blue, yellow and green with three diamonds centered in the yellow band and arranged in a V which stands for Vincent.
The country is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, bearing the title Queen of Saint Vincent. The Queen does not reside in the island and is represented in the country by the Governor General of the country, currently Sir Frederick Ballantyne. The legislative branch of government is the unicameral House of Assembly of Saint Vincent, seating 15 elected members representing single-member constituencies and six appointed members known as Senators. The parliamentary term of office is five years, although the Prime Minister may call elections at any time.
This country maintains close ties to the US, Canada, and the United Kingdom, and cooperates with regional political and economic organizations. St. Vincent is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the Association of Caribbean States. Administratively, the country is divided into six parishes. Five parishes are on Saint Vincent, while the sixth is made up of the Grenadian Islands.

United States of America (USA)
USA, officially known as the United States or America, is a federal republic, is a country in North America. De jure USA territory borders Canada and Mexico, The states of Alaska is in Northwestern part of North America and the states of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid pacific. The territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean sea. The capital of USA is Washington, D.C. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 9,857,306 km2 | Religion | Christian | Population | 322,369,319 (2016) | Currency | US Dollar (USD) | Language | English | GDP Rate | $17.419 trillion |

Barack Obama is the president and Joe Biden is the Vice president. In USA two major political parties the republicans and the democratic present itself as the best alternative. The flag of USA is consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red alternating with white, blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small stars. The fifty stars represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent 13 British colonies that declared independence.
The USA is the world largest national economy in nominal terms, representing 22% of nominal global GDP AND 17% of global GDP. The U.S dollar is the most used currency in international transaction and world foremost reserve currency. USA has mixed economy and has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, moderate unemployment rate and high levels of research and capital investment.
The economic resources of USA are petroleum, steel, automobiles, construction machinery, aerospace, agricultural machinery, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing and mining.
The USA is the home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions and values. Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian and native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans settled or immigrated within past five centuries. Mainstream culture is from western culture.
The US military is the largest military in the world. They consist of Army, Marine corps, Navy, Air Force and Coast guard. The president is overall head of defense policy. The US has the hegimon over the world and its dealing a number of operation in past and still now.
The USA is a traditional society with a long cultural history. Importance is placed on family, religion, education and self-discipline and respect. The people over the world have attraction for its tourism sources and safety measurement of life.
UKRAINE
Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognize Crimea as Ukrainian. The capital of Ukraine is Keiv.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 603,500 km2 | Religion | Catholic Church | Population | 44,429,471 (2015) | Currency | Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH) | Language | Ukrainian | GDP Rate | $341.489 billion |

Petro porosshenko is the president and Arseniy yatsenyuk is the prime minister. In Ukraine estimated 52 political parties have been established to present itself as the best.
The state flag of Ukraine is a banner of two equally sized horizontal bands of blue and yellow colour. As a national flag, the blue and yellow bicolour was officially used since the 1848 Spring of Nations when it was hoisted over the Lviv Rathaus. People who were hoisting the blue- yellow flags in the Soviet Ukraine were prosecuted as criminals. The blue and yellow flag was provisionally adopted for official ceremonies in September 1991 following Ukrainian independence, before finally officially being restored in 1992. Ukraine celebrates Flag Day each year on August 23.

The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market. But since2013 the Ukrainian economy has been suffering from a severe downturn. Ukraine covering about 20 major industries, namely power generating, fuel, ferrous and non- ferrous metallurgy, chemical and petrochemical and gas, machine-building and metal-working, forest, wood-working and wood pulp and paper, construction materials, light, food and others. The country possesses a massive high-tech industrial base, including electronics, arms industry and space program.

All military and security forces, including the Armed Forces of Ukraine are under the command of the President of Ukraine. The Armed Forces of Ukraine are composed of the Ukrainian Ground Forces, the Ukrainian Navy, and the Ukrainian Air Force with the National Guard of Ukraine making up the main reserve component.
Mutual customs are shared among the cultures of Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Belarus and Turkic peoples of central Asia. Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by the eastern orthodox church and traditions from Slavic mythology.

Socialist Republic Of Vietnam

Vietnam officially the socialist republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina peninsula in south east Asia. The Vietnam translates as southern viet, it was first officially adopted in 1802 by emperor Gia long, and again in 1945 with the founding of the democratic republic of Vietnam under ho chi minh. The country is bordered by china to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia and Malaysia. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of north and South Vietnam in 1997. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 332,698 km2 | Religion | Buddhism | Population | 91,700,000 (2015) | Currency | dong (VND) | Language | Vietnamese | GDP Rate | $593,509 billion |
Truong Tan San is the president and Nguyen Tan Dung is the prime minister. In Vietnam one political party has been established to present itself as the best. The flag of Vietnam, or 'red flag with a gold star', was designed in 1940 and used during an uprising against French rule in southern Vietnam that year. Red symbolizes revolution and blood. The star represents the five main classes in Vietnamese society intellectuals, farmers, workers, businessmen and military personnel.

The economy of Vietnam is a developing planned economy and market economy. Since the mid-1980s, through the reform period, Vietnam has made a shift from a highly centralized planned economy to a socialist-oriented market economy which use both directive and indicative planning. Over that period, the economy has experienced rapid growth. In the twenty- first century, Vietnam is in a period of being integrated into the global economy. Almost all Vietnamese enterprises are small and medium enterprises. In the current period the economy of Vietnam relies largely on foreign direct investment to attract the capital from overseas to support its continual economic rigorousness.

Tourism in Vietnam is a component of the modern Vietnamese economy. The Vietnam National Administration of Tourism is following a long-term plan to diversify the tourism industry, which brings foreign exchange into the country. Tourist arrivals in Vietnam have continued to rise in recent years.

The culture of Vietnam is one of the oldest in Southeast Asia, with the ancient Bronze age Dong Son culturebeing widely considered one of its most important progenitors. Due to 1000 years of Chinese rule. Vietnam is considered to be part of the East Asian cultural sphere. During the French colonial period, Vietnamese culture absorbed various influences from the Europeans. Some elements generally considered to be characteristic of Vietnamese culture include ancestor veneration, respect for community and family Value.

Republic Of Yemen
Yemen, Yemen officially known as the republic of Yemen, is an Arab country in western Asia, occupying the southwestern to the southern end of the Arabian peninsula. Yemen is the second largest country in the peninsula. it is bordered by Saudi Arabia, red sea, gulf of Aden and Arabian sea and Oman. Although Yemens constitutionally state capital is the city of Sana. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 528,076 km2 | Religion | Islam | Population | 25,408,000 (2013) | Currency | Yemeni rial(YER) | Language | Arabic | GDP Rate | $58.202 billion |

Abd Rabbuh Bashar is the president and Mohammed Ali is the prime minister. Yemen has been in a state of political crisis since 2011. It was disrupted by conflict between the Houthis islah, as well as the al-qaeda insurgency. In 2014 houthis took over sana forcing president flee the country. The united nation and many international community refuse houthis and their proposal. Yemens economic and temporary capital and Sana remains under the control of Houthi.
The Flag of Yemen was adopted on May 22, 1990, the day that North Yemen and South Yemen were unified. The flag is essentially the Arab Liberation Flag of 1952, introduced after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 in which Arab nationalism was a dominant theme. The Arab Liberation Flag served as the inspiration for the flags of both North and South Yemen prior to unification, and the current flags of Egypt, Iraq, Sudan, and Syria. According to the official description, the red stands for the bloodshed of martyrs and unity the white for a bright future; black for the dark past.

Agriculture is the mainstay of Yemen's economy, generating more than 20 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Numerous environmental problems hamper growth in this sector soil erosion, sand dune encroachment, and deforestation but the greatest problem by far is the scarcity of water. Yemen used for exportable coffee, and vegetables.

Tourism to the south-west Asian country of Yemen has been a sharp decline in tourism since the 2011 Yemen Crisis. The rise of extremism caused fear in prospective foreign tourists to Yemen. Yemen has four World Heritage Sites, some of the sites have been attacked including historic old city of Sana'a. people of different ethnicities. It is home to several ancient culture.
The culture of Yemen has an ancient history, influenced by Islam. Due to its unique geographic location, Yemen has acquired a very distinctive culture from its neighbors historically and culturally, the people of Yemen have closer ties with the Horn of Africa Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Ethiopia than they do with the rest of Arabia and the Middle East.

Republic Of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe officially the people republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa between zambezi and Limpopo rivers and bordered with south Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 390,757 km2 | Religion | Christian | Population | 12,973,808 (2012) | Currency | USD | Language | 16th , English | GDP Rate | $28.918 billion |

Robert Mugabe is the president and Emmerson Mnangagwa is the vice president.
The national flag of Zimbabwe consists of seven even horizontal stripes of green, gold, red and black with a white triangle containing a red 5 point star with a Zimbabwe Bird. The present design was adopted on 18 April 1980, when Zimbabwe was granted independence by the United Kingdom. The soapstone bird featured on the flag represents a statuette of a bird found at the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. The bird symbolizes the history of Zimbabwe. The red star beneath it symbolizes Marxism, and the revolutionary struggle for freedom and peace. It is similar to the flag of Zimbabwe's ruling party, Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front.

The economy of Zimbabwe shrank significantly after 2000, resulting in a desperate situation for the country widespread poverty and an 80% unemployment rate. However, after 2008, Zimbabwe's economy started to improve dramatically and it became one of the fastest-growing economies in southern Africa. Between 2009 and 2011, Zimbabwe's GDP growth averaged 7.3 percent, making it one of the world's fastestgrowing economies. Zimbabwe's participation from 1998 to 2002 in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo set the stage for this deterioration by draining the country of hundreds of millions of dollars. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe was a major problem from about 2003 to April 2009, when the country suspended its own currency. Zimbabwe faced 231 million percent peak hyperinflation in 2008. The country has reserves of metallurgical-grade chromite. Other commercial mineral deposits include coal, asbestos, copper, nickel, gold, platinum and iron ore.

Zimbabwe has many different cultures, which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona. Zimbabwe's largest ethnic group is Shona. The Shona people have created many sculptures and carvings of gods (idols), which are made with the finest materials available.

Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts several of the EU's official seats and as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 30,528 km2 (140th) | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 11,190,845 (75th) | 5.Currency | Euro (€) | 3.Language | Dutch, French, German | 6.GDP rate | $458.651 billion (23rd) |

The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, popular and hereditary monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians and serves as the country's head of state. The incumbent, Philippe, ascended the throne on 21 July 2013. Charles Michel (born 21 December 1975) is the current Prime Minister of Belgium.
Belgium is a federal state with a multi-party political system, with numerous parties who factually have no chance of gaining power alone, and therefore must work with each other to form coalition governments. Almost all Belgian political parties are divided into linguistic groups, either Dutch-speaking parties, Francophone parties or Germanophone parties.
Natural resources in Belgium include construction materials, silica sand and carbonates.
The national flag of Belgium is a tricolor of three bands of black, yellow, and red. The colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Duchy of Brabant, and the vertical design may be based on the flag of France. When flown, the black band is nearest the pole (at the hoist side).
Belgium has the highest income tax of any OECD country; Brussels' Royal Palace is bigger than Buckingham Palace; a Belgian founded the Holy Roman Empire; French-speaking Belgium is the world's biggest producer of comics per capita; it is a Belgian who founded New York City; the first printed newspapers in the world was published in Antwerp, Belgium.
Belgium is a country in Europe and member of major international organizations like the European Union and NATO which are both headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.As a federal state, the Communities and Regions have their own foreign relations and are able to conclude treaties themselves.

Republic of El Salvador
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador. Its population consists largely of Mestizos of European and Indigenous American descent. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 21,041 km2 (153rd) | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 6,377,195 (99th) | 5.Currency | Salvadoran Colon | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP rate | $52.666 billion |

The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic. The seat of the federal government is in San Salvador. Salvador Sánchez Cerén (born 18 June 1944) is the current President of El Salvador.
El Salvador has a multi-party system. Two political parties, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) have tended to dominate elections. ARENA candidates won four consecutive presidential elections until the election of Mauricio Funes of the FMLN in March 2009.
The flag of El Salvador was inspired by the flag of the Federal Republic of Central America, and by the flag of Argentina, the country that sent one of the first fleets to help consummate the independence of Central American republics from Spain. The center of the Coat of Arms consists of a triangle, in which five volcanoes rise out of the sea. They symbolize the five member states of the United Provinces of Central America.
Natural resources of El Salvador are gold, silver, limestone as well as gypsum.
El Salvador borders the North Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, with Guatemala to the north-northwest and Honduras to the north-northeast. In the southeast, the Golfo de Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua. El Salvador is the smallest Central American country and is the only one without a coastline on the Caribbean Sea.
El Salvador is a member of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Central American Common Market (CACM), the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN), and the Central American Integration System (SICA).
Crime/violence is the number one topic of concern in late 2006 in El Salvador.
Republic of Kiribati
Kiribati or officially the Republic of Kiribati is an island nation in the central Pacific Ocean. The nation comprises 33 atolls and reef islands and one raised coral island; Banaba. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 811 km2 (186th) | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 103,500 (197th) | 5.Currency | Kiribati dollar | 3.Language | Gilbertese | 6.GDP rate | $599 million |
The President of Kiribati is the head of state and head of government of Kiribati.
Politics of Kiribati takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Kiribati is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
There are four political parties in Kiribati, Boutokaan Te Koaua (BTK Government), Maurin Kiribati Party (MKP), Maneaban Te Mauri Party (MMP) and Kiribati Tabomoa Party.
The islands which now form the Republic of Kiribati have been inhabited for at least seven hundred years, and possibly much longer. The initial Micronesian population, which remains the overwhelming majority today, was visited by Polynesian and Melanesian invaders before the first European sailors visited the islands in the 17th century. For much of the subsequent period, the main island chain, the Gilbert Islands, was ruled as part of the British Empire. The country gained its independence in 1979 and has since been known as Kiribati.
The flag of Kiribati is red in the upper half with a gold frigatebird flying over a gold rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean and the three groups (Gilbert, Phoenix and Line Islands). The 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba (former Ocean Island).
Kiribati is a full member of The Commonwealth, the IMF and the World Bank, and became a full member of the United Nations in 1999. Kiribati hosted the Thirty-First Pacific Islands Forum in October 2000. Kiribati has Least Developed Country Status and its interests rarely extend beyond the region. Through accession to the Cotonou Agreement, Kiribati is also a member of the African Caribbean and Pacific Group.Kiribati maintains good relations with most countries and has particularly close ties to Pacific neighbours Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Kiribati established diplomatic relations with Taiwan in November 2003.
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses – that of the North Island, and the South Island and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometers (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometers (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 268,021 km2 (75th) | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 4,596,700 (123rd) | 5.Currency | New Zealand Dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $165.987 billion |

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although its constitution is not codified. Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and the head of state. .
The politics of New Zealand take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. The basic system is closely patterned on that of the Westminster System, although a number of significant modifications have been made. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor-General and the head of government is the Prime Minister who chairs the Cabinet drawn from an elected Parliament.
Natural resources of New Zealand are natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone.
Traditionally the two largest, and oldest, parties are the Labour Party (centre-left progressive, formed in 1916) and the National Party (centre-right conservative, formed in 1936). Other parties represented in Parliament as of 2016 are ACT (right-wing, free market), the Greens (left-wing, environmentalist), the New Zealand First Party (centrist, nationalist),United Future (centrist, family values) and Māori Party (ethnic).
The flag of New Zealand is a defaced Blue Ensign with the Union Flag in the canton, and four red stars with white borders to the right. The stars' pattern represents the asterism within the constellation of Crux, the Southern Cross.
New Zealand differs from most countries in that the sale of liquor for drinking on the premises is to a considerable degree tied to the provision of accommodation on those premises.
The foreign relations of New Zealand are oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies.
Republic of South Sudan
South Sudan officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011.Its current capital is Juba, which is also its largest city. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north ,Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic to the west. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 619,745 km2 (42nd) | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 12,340,000 | 5.Currency | South Sudanese pound | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $23.546 billion |
Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is the President of South Sudan. Prior to independence, he was President of the Government of Southern Sudan, as well as First Vice President of Sudan, from 2005 to 2011.
The politics of South Sudan concern the system of government in the Republic of South Sudan, a country in East Africa, and the people, organizations, and events involved in it.
African People's Progressive Alliance, Sudan People's Liberation Movement, Sudan People's Liberation Movement - Democratic Change, Labour Party South Sudan - LPSS, United Democratic Front are the some political parties of South Sudan.
Natural resources of South Sudan are petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, and hydropower.
Southern Sudan was an autonomous region of the Republic of Sudan from 2005, after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army,to 2011, when South Sudan gained independence.
The flag bears striking similarities with both the flags of Sudan (from which Southern Sudan seceded in 2011), and Kenya. It shares the black, white, red, and green of the Sudanese flag (though different symbolism is given to the colours), in addition to having a chevron along the hoist.
The foreign relations of South Sudan are the relations between the Republic of South Sudan and sovereign states and international organizations. The establishment of the relationships followed the formation of the South Sudanese state on 9 July 2011.

Belize
Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central America. It is the only country in Central America whose official language is English, though Belizean Creole (Kriol) and Spanish are also commonly spoken. The capital of Belize is Belmopan. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 22,966 Square km | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 347,366 | 5.Currency | Belize Dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP Rate | $8,321 | A wreath of leaves encircles the Coat of Arms. The Coat of Arms embodies an important aspect of the history of Belize, as the mahogany industry formed the basis of our economy in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The main resources of Belize are arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower etc.

The national symbols of Belize are Baird's tapir (a large, browsing, forest-dwelling mammal), keel-billed toucan, Black Orchid.

The economy is dependent on agriculture and fishing. Sugar, bananas, and citrus fruits are the main cash crops. Until a recent depletion, the country's main export had been forest products, especially mahogany. Belize continues to import most of its consumer goods, including much of its food and all of its petroleum requirements. The tourism industry, fishing industry, and the garment manufacturing industry grew up well in Belize.

Belize is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The structure of government is based on the British parliamentary system, and the legal system is modelled on the common law of England. The symbolic head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title Queen of Belize.
The bicameral National Assembly of Belize is composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate. The 31 members of the House are popularly elected to a maximum five-year term and introduce legislation affecting the development of Belize. The Governor-General appoints the 12 members of the Senate, with a Senate president selected by the members.
The Supreme Court (Chief Justice) hears murder and similarly serious cases, and the Court of Appeal, hears appeals from convicted individuals seeking to have their sentences overturned. Defendants may, under certain circumstances, appeal their cases to the Caribbean Court of Justice.
Republic of Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a country located in Central Africa. The capital of this country is Malabo. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 28,050 Square km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 722,254 | 5.Currecncy | Central African Franc | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP Rate | $25,929 | The flag of Equatorial Guinea was officially adopted on October 12, 1968. The blue triangle represents the sea, the green represents the country's farmland, and red symbolizes the country's independence. A silk cotton tree is centered on a silver shield.
The current president of Equatorial Guinea is Teodoro Obiang Nguema. The Prime Minister, Vicente Ehate Tomi was appointed by Obiang and operates under powers designated by the President.
The natural resources of Equatorial Guinea are petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel and clay.
With a population of almost three quarters of a million, it is the richest country per capita in Africa, and its gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranks 69th in the world; however, the wealth is distributed very unevenly and few people have benefited from the oil riches. The country ranks 144th on the UN's 2014 Human Development Index.
Reporters without Borders rank President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo among its "predators" of press freedom. Human trafficking is a significant problem, with the US Trafficking in Persons Report, 2012, stating that "Equatorial Guinea is a source and destination for women and children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking." The report rates Equatorial Guinea as a "Tier 3" country, the lowest (worst) ranking: "Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so."
The country is a member of the African Union, Francophonie and the CPLP.

Republic of South Korea

South Korea, officially known as the Republic of South Korea is commonly reffered as Korea. The capital of South Korea is Seoul. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 100,210 Square km | 4.Religion | Budhdhism | 2.Population | 51,529,338 | 5.Currency | South Korean Won | 3. Language | Korean | 6.GDP Rate | $36,528 |

The president of south korea is Park Geun-hye and the prime minister is Hwang Kyo-ahn.
South Korea's flag pictures a red and blue Yin-Yang symbol, red (yang) on top, blue (yin) on the bottom, in the center of a white field. Four groups of three long and short black bars (called kwae) surround the central circle.
South Korea was one of the few developed countries that were able to avoid a recession during the global financial crisis. Its economic growth rate reached 6.2 percent in 2010 (the fastest growth for eight years after significant growth by 7.2 percent in 2002), a sharp recovery from economic growth rates of 2.3% in 2008 and 0.2% in 2009, when the global financial crisis hit. The unemployment rate in South Korea also remained low in 2009, at 3.6%.
South Korea is relatively poor in natural resources. Once heavily forested, it has been largely stripped of trees, especially near urban areas. However, a program of reforestation is being carried out. The country's sparse mineral resources include coal, tungsten, iron ore, molybdenum, limestone, and graphite.
Korea is known for high quality brands like Samsung, the world's leading smartphone and TV maker, LG and Hyundai-Kia, Korea was named the world's most innovative country in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, ranking first in business R&D intensity and patents filed per GDP. It has the world's fastest Internet speed and highest smartphone ownership, ranking first in ICT Development, e-Government, 4G LTE coverage and IoT devices online.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. The capital of North Korea is Pyongyang. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 120,540 Square km | 4. Religion | Buddhism | 2.Population | 24,895,000 | 5.Currency | North Korean Won | 3. Language | Korean | 6.GDP Rate | $1.800 |

The North Korea flag was officially adopted on September 9, 1948. The two blue stripes signify sovereignty, peace and friendship. The white stripes signify purity, red represents the Communist revolution and the red star is the recognized symbol of Communism.
The supreme leader of the government is Kim Jong-un and Chairman of the
Assembly Presidium is Kim Yong-nam.
Natural resources of north Korea is coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnetite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower.
North Korea has the structural profile of a relatively industrialized country where nearly half of the Gross Domestic Product is generated by industry and human development is at medium levels. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is estimated at $40 billion, with a very low per capita value of $1,800. In 2012, Gross national income per capita was $1,523, compared to $28,430 in South Korea. The North Korean won is the national currency, issued by the Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The DPRK officially describes itself as a self-reliant socialist state and holds elections. However, critics regard it as a totalitarian dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family. International organizations have also assessed human rights violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world. The Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members.
North Korea follows Songun, or "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India. It also possesses nuclear weapons.
The Republic of Nicaragua
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus. The capital of Nicaragua is Managua. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 1,30,370 | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 5,90,788 | 5.Currency | Cordoba | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP Rate | $5,069 |
The colours of the Nicaraguan flag originate from the flag of the former federation of the United Provinces of Central America. The two blue stripes represented the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea ; while white symbolizes peace.
The main resources of Nicaragua are gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish.
The national symbol of Nicaragua is Eagle.
Although constitutionally defined as a democracy, Nicaragua was ruled by the Somoza family from 1934–79; they did not hesitate to suppress political opponents with violence. The last of the constitutions promulgated during the Somoza period, effective 3 April 1974, provided for a bicameral congress, a president elected for a six-year term, and guaranteed political rights.
Legislative power is vested in a 93-member unicameral National Constituent Assembly elected under a system of proportional representation for six-year terms. The electoral process in Nicaragua is said to be one of the most complicated in the Americas as it forces voters to select candidates for the office of president, National Assembly posts, and local municipalities from a vast number of political parties. Further, vote counting is still a tedious, manual process.
Nicaragua's traditional two parties were the National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacionalista—PLN) and the Nicaraguan Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Nicaragüense—PCN). The PLN favored separation of church and state, some social legislation, no foreign interference in the political process, and limited land reform. It was supported by government employees, the National Guard, and large segments of the middle and lower classes. The PCN desired government cooperation with the Catholic Church (but also advocated freedom of religion), less government interference in private business, and a regressive tax structure.
Nicaragua has long had, in effect, two economies: an export segment, producing mainly cotton, meat, coffee, and sugar, and a subsistence segment, tying a majority of both urban and rural Nicaraguans to an impoverished existence. Nicaragua has been one of the poorest countries in the western hemisphere, partially due to enormous external debt, low per-capital income, massive unemployment, and one of the most unequal income distributions in the world. Some 50% of the population lived below the poverty line.
The Kingdom of Spain

The Spain officially known as the Kingdom of Spain. Its Capital is Madrid. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 1,30,370 | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 5,90,788 | 5.Currency | Cordoba | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP Rate | $5,069 |

Spain's flag was officially adopted on December 19, 1981. The Spanish coat of arms depicts two crown-topped pillars of Hercules (with red banners displaying the motto in Latin, "PLUS ULTRA," meaning "More Beyond," alluding to Columbus' discovery of the New World).
Agriculture, livestock, and mining—the traditional economic mainstays—no longer occupy the greater part of the labor force or provide most of the exports. In order to offset the damage suffered by the industrial sector during the Civil War and to cope with the problems created by Spain's post-World War II isolation, the Franco regime concentrated its efforts on industrial expansion. Especially after 1953, the industrial sector expanded rapidly. In terms of per capita income, Spain's economy stands at 80% of the four largest West European economies, with an estimated GDP (purchasing power parity) of $23,300 per person in 2004.
Between 1966 and 1978, Spain was governed under the Organic Law of the Spanish State. A new constitution, approved by the Cortes on 31 October 1978 and by the electorate in a national referendum on 6 December, and ratified by King Juan Carlos I on 27 December 1978, repealed all the laws of the Franco regime and confirmed Spain as a parliamentary monarchy. It also guaranteed the democratic functioning of all political parties, disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, and recognized the right to autonomy of distinct nationalities and regions.
The Falange, known officially as the Nationalist Movement, was the only legally functioning party in Spain during the Franco regime. Founded in 1933 by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, it dated in its later form from 1937, when various right-wing groups were united under Gen. Franco. Nationalists, monarchists, and national syndicalists (Fascists) were the leading groups within the Falange. It lost some of its former power and much of its prestige during the last decades of Franco's regime. On 21 December 1974, the Franco government passed a law conferring a limited right of political association. On 9 June 1976, after Franco's death, the Cortes voted to legalize political parties; by the 1977 parliamentary elections, no fewer than 156 political parties were organized into 10 national coalitions and 12 regional alliances.

The Commonwealth Of Bahamas
Bahamas, officially the commonwealth of Bahamas is a Iceland country. The Bahamas became an independent commonwealth realm from the united kingdom in 10 July, 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth 2 as its monarch: it is a country located in Southeast of the USA of Florida. The capital city of Bahamas is Nassau. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 13,878 km | 4. Religion | Christian | 2.Population | 321834 | 5. Currency | Bahamian Dollar | 3.Language | English | 6. GDP rate | 11.055 Billion |

In Bahamas Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy there. The Governor
General is Dame Marguerite piddling and the Prime Minister is Perry Christie.
In addition, the Bahamas has a two party system dominated by the Centre-Left Progressive LIBERAL PARTY and the Centre-Right Free National Movement. These parties have included the Bahamas democratic movement.
Bahamas is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy headed by Queen Elizabeth 2 in her role as
Queen of the Bahamas. In here, Political and legal traditions closely follow those of the UK and this Westminster system. Legislative power is vested in bicameral parliament, which consists of a 38 members House of Assembly (the lower house), with members elected from single – member districts, and 16 – member Senate, with member appointed by the government- general. The Prime Minister is the Head of the government.
Bahamian flag symbolize the image and aspirations of the people of the Bahamas. The design reflects aspects of the natural environment (sun, sand and sea). In the flag the black represents The vigor, the rich resources of sun and sea symbolized by gold and aquamarine respectively.
Interesting thing is that by the term of GDP per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the America. The Bahamas relies on tourism to generate most of its economic activity. It accounts for over 60% of the Bahamian GDP. Banking and international financial services, accounting for some also take part in 15% of GDP of Bahamas. In Bahamas economy agriculture representing 5 – 7% of total GDP.
Bahamas is an independent country and it became a British Crown colony. Its whole economy is based on tourism and finance. Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the America for its GDP per rate and its culture also rich with beliefs, traditions, folklore and legend.

Republic of Djibouti

Djibouti officially the republic of Djibouti is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south and Somaliland in the southeast. Arabic and French constitute the country‘s official language. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 23200 km | 4. Religion | Islam | 2. Population | 810178 (2014) | 5. Currency | Djiboutian Franc (DJF) | 3. Language | French, Arabic | 6. GDP rate | $ 2700 Billion (2014) |

Politics of Djibouti takes place in a frame work of a semi presidential republic, where by the executive power exercised by the government. The President, currently Islam Ian, Oman, guelleh is the head of the state and commander- in- chief. The Prime Minister currently Abdul Qader Kamal.
The executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and parliament. Government is headed by the Prime Minister and there is 65 member chambers of deputies, where representatives are popularly elected for terms of five years.
The Republic of Djibouti is a one party dominates state with the Peoples Rally for Progress currently in power. There are currently no opposition members in the National Assembly because of the rule that the party or coalition with a majority vote in each district wins all of that district seats.
The National Assembly is the country‘s legislature, consisting of 65 members elected every year. The last election was held on 12 February, 2013. In hear the opposition parties are allowed to limited freedom. The government is dominated by the Somali Issa, Dir clan.
The flag of Djibouti was adopted on 27 June, 1977. The light look represent the Issa Somalis, and the green represent the Affairs the five pointed star in its center represent the Somali inhabited territories in Grater in Somalia.
Djibouti economy is largely concentrated in the service sector. The GDP (PPP) in 2013 was esteemed at $ 2.505 billion, with a real growth rate of 5% annually. Per capital income is around $ 2874 (PPP).
Djibouti is a poor but developing country and its identity as a nation is a compromise between the political and social aspirations of communities. Unemployment poverty and social insecurity are the main obstacles in the way of its developing.

Jamaica
Jamaica is an Island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, comprising the third- largest island of the Greater Antilles. It remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered the Island and renamed it Jamaica. Jamaica is the third most populous Anglophone country in the American. The capital city of Jamaica is Kingston. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 10990 sq km | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 2950210 | 5. Currency | Jamaican Dollar | 3. Language | Jamaican | 6. GDP rate | $ 25317 Billion |
Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth –ii serving as the Jamaican monarch. The Governor General is nominated by the Prime Minister of Jamaica. The present governor- general is Sir Patrick Allen and the Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller.
Politics in Jamaica takes place in the frame work of a representative parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy. There is a largest national movement which is appointed a senate. The entire cabinet appointed by monarch.
Jamaica has traditionally had a two party system, with power often alternating between The Peoples National Party (PNP) and Jamaica Labor Party (JLP). The with current administrative and legislative power is the Peoples National Party, with a two-third parliamentary majority as of 2012.
Jamaica is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private section business. Major sections of the Jamaican economy include agriculture mining, manufactioning, tourism, financial and insurance services. Tourism and miming are the leading earner of foreign exchange.
As per 2012 estimate GDP (PPP) total $ 25317 billion, per capita $ 9199 and GDP (nominal) total $ 15-569 billion, per capita $ 5657.
Jamaica is the third most populous Anglophone country in the Americas and Jamaica has mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector business. Though a small nation Jamaica has a strong global culture.

Republic of Mozambique.
Mozambique officially the Republic of Mozambique is a country in Stoutest Africa border by the Indian Ocean to the east. The capital and the largest city is Maputo. Mozambique is one of the poorest and most under develops countries in the world. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 801590 km2 | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 24692144 (2014) | 5. Currency | $ Mozambican Metical | 3. Language | Portuguese | 6. GDP rate | $ 26.257 billion |
Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution the president of Mozambique is the head of the state and who is Filip Nyusi and the Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho Do Rosario. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies.
Mozambique has a two party system, which means that there are two dominate political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner any other party. The executive power is exercised by the government.
The last 25 years of Mozambique‘s history have encapsulated the political developments of the entire 20th century when independence was proclaimed in 1975, The lenders of FRELINO‘s military campaign rapidly established a one – party state allied to the Soviet bloc.
The flag of Mozambique was adopted on 1 May, 1983. It is the only national flag in the world to feature such a modern rifle. Green stands for the richest of the land, the white fimbriations. Signify peach, black represents the African continent, yellow symbolizes the country‘s minerals‘ and red represent the struggle for independents.
The official currency is the New Metical which replaced old Medicals at the rate of a thousand to one. The minimum legal salary is around US $ 60 per month. More then 1200 state-own enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized, in 2012 large natural gas reserve where discorred Mozambique revenue.
Mozambique is a under develop country. Its economy and financial condition are very poor and its economy depends much on tourism. It has fascinated natural beauty and a huge wild life. It has a great magical history.

Slovak Republic
Slovakia officially the Slovak Republic is a country in Central Europe. It is border by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east. The capital and largest city is Bratislava. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 49035 km | 1. Religion | Islam | 2. Population | 5415949 (2013) | 2. Currency | EURO | 3. Language | Slovak | 3. GDP rate | $ 158. 428 billion |

Slovak is a parliamentary democratic republic. The Slovak head of state is the president currently Andrej (KISKA). Most executive power lies with the head of government, the prime minster currently Robbert Fico. The prime minister is appointed by the president.
The Slovak President election held by direct popular vote for five years term. Slovakia’s highest legislative body is the 150 seat unicameral National Council of The Slovak Republic delegates are elected for a four- years terms on the basis of proportional representation.
The Slovak political center supports a white spectrum of political parties including the communities (KSS) and the nationalists (SNS). Major parties are members of the European political parties.
The constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September, 1992 and become effective 1 January, 1983. The president is the head of state and the formal head of the executive. Slovakia has been a member state of the European Union and NATO since 2004 Slovakia is also a member of WTO, OECD, OSCE and other international organizations.
Slovakia’s flag was adopted by Slovakia’s Constitution which came into force on 3 September, 1992. The flag in common with other Slavic National uses the colors white, blue and red.
The Slovak economy is a developed, high-income economy with the GDP per capital equaling to 76% of the average of the European Union in 2014. The nation of government Debt to GDP in Slovakia reached 1.58% by the end of 2013. Unemployment peaking at 19% at the end of 1919.
Slovakia is a developed country because of its high income advanced economy and its great foreign relationship with many renowned international organizations. As a democratic country the government of Slovakia generally respected human rights of citizens and also give them the freedom of religion.

Republic of Chile
The official name of Chile is Republic of Chile. It is a South American Country occupying along narrow strip of land between the Andes to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 7.56.096.3 kml | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 18,006407 (62th) | 5. Currency | Chilean peso | 3. Language | Spanish | 6. G.D.P rate | $ 258.0 Billion |

In addition Chile has two major political parties: The Independent Democratic Union and Christian Democratic Party (CDP). Both were funded in 1973 of after Chilean military dictatorship collapsed. Michelle Bache let is the president of Chile and head of government.
The Chilean flag is one of the most attractive symbolized flag in the world. The flag is a red, white and blue banner with a white star. The blue square represents the sky. The white stripe represents Anders Mountains and red symbolizes the blood of freedom fighters.
Interesting face is that, Chile is a unique country in regard to its location and climate zone. It has a natural protection from the neighbors. It is wised by the Pacific Ocean in the east. The government of Chile bans and import of agricultural output, trying to support own stock raising and agricultural.
Chile has many natural resources. They are copper, iron, sea resources, agricultural production etc. Chile is the largest copper producer in the world. With 5.5 million tons produced in 2010. They are now the number two exporter of salmon.
The Republic of Chile was founded after independence from Spain in 1818. Democratic rule predominated in the 20th century until 1973. The father of Chilean democracy is Bernadoo’ higgins.
Chile is one of the most popular tourist destinations in South America. Chile has largest recorded dry spells, recorded in the Atacama Desert. It did not rain for 40 years. Largest national library of a Spanish-speaking country outside of Spain. It has also amazing coastline, mountains and in the south, awesome ice bergs and in lets. As a result tourists went to visit Chile every year.
The center of modern Chile is Santiago. It is the political, commercial and financial heart of the nation. Much of Chile’s industry is distributed among others Cities, but Santiago is an active manufacturing center. Santiago has a nearly perfect climate warm days and cool nights.

Vatican City State Vatican City is the smallest internationally recognized independent state in the world by both area and population. It is a walled enclave and sovereigns state within the city of Rome. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 0.44 kml (251st) | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2. Population | 842 | 5. Currency | Euro | 3. Language | Italian | 6. G.D.P | - |

It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome. The pope and president of the government are Giuseppe Bertillon and the secretary of state petro paroling.
The flag of Vatican City was adopted on June 7, 1929; the year pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy. The Vatican flag is modeled on the flag of the earlier popper states.
Interesting fact is that Vatican is covered by Italy but it is in independent City. It has its own Euros, prints its own stamps. Issues of passports and license plates. One government function it lacks taxation museum administration fees, stamps and souvenir sales and contributions generate the Vatican revenue.
Vatican City is a popular destination for tourist especially Christians wishing to see the pope. The main attritions in Vatican City include the Basilica of St. Peters, Saint Peters square. The Vatican Museum and Sistine chapel.

Republic of Mali
Mali, Officially the Republic of Mali is a landlocked country in west Africa. It is bordered by Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger and Burkina Faso. The only fertile area is the south. Where the Niger and Senegal rivers provide water for irrigation. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 1,240,192 sq.km (24th) | 4. Religion | Manda | 2. Population | 16,455,903 (67th) | 5. Currency | west African CFA Franc | 3. Language | BamBara/Off: France | 6. G.D.P | $ 10.319 billion |

In addition, Mali has a multi party system with numerous political parties. In which no one party offer has a chance of gaining power alone and parties must work with each other to from coalition government. Ibrahim Boubacar keita is the president and head of the government of Mali. The Mali has a meaningful flag. The flag is designed vertical tri color of green, gold and red with a human sick figure in black with arms rained to the sky centered in the gold band. In
Interesting fact is that. Mali is the biggest country in West Africa. It is roughly twice the size of Texas. Mali is one of the poorest nations in the world. Around 70% of Mali’s population ears less than a Dollar per day and less that 10% of Malians earn more than $ 2 a day.
Mali does not have so many natural resources. The country’s economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali’s prominent natural resources in clouding gold. Being the 3rd largest producer of gold in African continent.
One June 20, 1960, Mali became independent from France and under the name of Sudanese- Republic was joined with the Republic of Senegal. One Aug 20, 1960 Sudanese Republic changed its name to the Republic of Mali.

Saint Kitts and Nevis

The official name of St. Kitts and Nevis is the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis is a two island country in the West Indies. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 261 Sk.kml | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 54,961 | 5. Currency | East Caribbean Dollar | 3. Language | English | 6. G.D.P | $ 1.087 billion |

The polities of Saint Kitts and Nevis take place in the frame work of a federal parliamentary democracy. Saint Kitts and Nevis is an independent common wealth realm with Elizabeth II as its head of state. Samuel Weymouth Tapley Seaton as a government and Timothy Harrris as a prime minister.
The flag of St. Kitts and Nevis has three colors. The green color is said to be symbolic of the fertile land, black recalls the African heritage and red the overall struggle. The two stars indicate hope and liberty.
St. Kitts and Nevis was once known as the Gibraltar of the West Indies. Its volcanic vantage point offering lines of sight to nearby Nevis. St. Eustatius and Saba. Caribbean Sea at ometers is the lowest point in the region.
Tourism is a major and growing source of income of the island because there are awesome mountains; see beach and green shade trees everywhere.
The capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis is Basseterre and it is the largest island of Saint Kitts. The city lies within the parish of Saint George Basseterre and the southern part of the parish of Saint Peter Basseterre.

Tuvalu
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, in a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 26 kms (236th) | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 10.837 | 5. Currency | Tuvaluan Dollar | 3. Language | Tuvaluan English | 6. G.D.P | $ 3400 million |

The politics of Tuvalu Takes place in a frame work of a parliamentary representative Democratic monarchy where by the Monarch is the head of state. Queen Elizabeth II and Governor General Iakoba Heledi is the representation Enele Sopoage in the prime minister of Tuvalu.
The flag of Tuvalu was officially adopted on October 1, 1978. The Union Jack (Upper left) reflects Tuvalu’s long association with Great Britain. The nine gold stars are symbolized of the nine islands.
In 1974 Ellice islanders wanted separate states from the Gilbert Island in October 1975. The Ellice Island became separated British Dependency and gained independent as Tuvalu.
Interesting fact is that in Tuvalu have separate networks for deferent groups. Keeping contact for used each other. This could be having separate networks for deferent groups of friend’s family member’s organization as well as using professional environment having separate networks for different clients or customers.
The capital and the biggest city of Tuvalu is Funafuti but sometimes the capital of Tuvalu’s Fongafale or Vaiaku causes of some environmental problem.

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh
People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a country in South Asia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 147610 Sq Km | 4. Religion | Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, and Other 0.9% | 2 Population | 16,01,12,333 | 5. Currency | Bangladesh Taka (BDT) | 3 Language | Bengali | 6. GDP Rate | USD 21 Billion |

Bangladesh has several official national symbols including a historic document a flag, an emblem, an anthem, memorial towers as well as several national heroes.
Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
Current head of State- President: Mr. Abdul Hamid,
Current head of Government- Prime Minister: Sheikh Hasina
Political system of Bangladesh takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the Prime Minister is the head of Government and of a multi-party system. Executive power exercised by the government, legislative power vested in parliament and there is a separate judicial system. There are four major political parties and many smaller communist, democratic and Islamist parties. Four major political parties are: (a) Bangladesh Awami Leage, (b) Bangladesh Nationalist Party, (c) Jatiya Party (d) Bangladesh Jamat-e-Islami
Bangladesh is a country of communal harmony. It is the highest troops contributing country in UN peace mission. Bangladesh is the world 2nd largest apparel exporting country.
Bangladesh’s role in regional and international politics is commendable. The main goal of Bangladesh foreign policy is Friendship to all and enmity to none.

Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic is a country in Caribbean region.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 48,442 Sq Km | 4. Religion | Christianity | 2 Population | 99,80,243 | 5. Currency | Dominican Peso (DOP) | 3 Language | Spanish | 6. GDP Rate | USD 66.199 Billion |

The President of the Dominican Republic is both the head of State and the head of Government. The current President: Danilo Medena.

Government of the Dominican Republic takes place in a framework of a repetitive democracy, whereby the President is both head of State and head of Government , and of a multiparty system. Executive power exercised by the government. Legislative Power to national congress, the judiciary is independent.
The major political parties of Dominican Republic are: (a) Dominican Liberation Party (b) Dominican Revolution Party (c) Reformista Social Cristano (d) Alianza pais.
Dominican Republic forms part of the Islands Hispaniola. Independent from Spain in 1821 and from Haiti in 1844.

Dominican Republic maintained very limited relations with countries of Africa, Asia, Middle East and East Europe. The Dominican Republic concentrated its diplomatic activities in four critical arenas: The Circum Caribbean, Latin America, United State and Western Europe. It belongs to the Organization of American States (OAS), The United Nation (UN) and other international bodies.

The Hashemite kingdom of Jordan
The Hashemite kingdom of Jordan is and Arab Kingdom in Western Asia, on the east bank of Jordan River. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 89341 sq km | 4 Religion | Muslim 92% Christian 6% Others 2% | 2 Population | 95,31712 | 5 Currency | Jordanian Dinar | 3 Language | Arabic | 6 GDP Rate | USD 83991 Billion |

Jordan is a country of Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy having King Abdullah bin Al-Hussein as the King who is the head of state and Abdullah Ensour is the present Prime Minister.
The politics of Jordan take place in a framework of a parliamentary monarchy, hereby the Prime Minister is head of government, and of a multiparty system. Jordan is a constitutional monarchy based on the constitution promulgated on Jan 8, 1958.
The main Political parties are: (a) The Islamic Action Front, b)The Jordanian Communist party, c) Jordanian Arab Socialist Baath Party, d)Jordanian Democratic Peoples Party.
The colors of Jordanian flag are the pan-Arab Colors representing the Abbasid (Black Band), Umayyad (White Band), and Fatimid (Green band) Caliphates. The red chevron is for the Hashemite dynasty and the Arab Revolt.
Jordan is classified as a country of “High human development” Jordan enjoys advanced status with the EU since 2010.

The Republic of Nauru
The republic of Nauru is an island country of Micronesian the central pacific. It is a oval shaped island of pacific ocean. Main resource is the phosphate deposits that originates from the dropping of sea birds. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 21 Sq Km | 4. Religion | Christianity | 2 Population | 10,500 | 5. Currency | Australian Dollar (AUD) | 3 Language | Nauruan, English | 6. GDP Rate | $72 Million |

Nauruan’s descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers. The main religion practiced on the island is Christianity. The constitution provide freedom of religion. The symbol of the Republic of Nauru originated in 1968 following the declaration of independence and it began to be used officially in 1970s. The Nauru economy is almost dependent on phosphate deposits. The President is both head of State and Government of Nauru. The present President: Baron Waqa.
Nauru does not have any formal structure of political parties, and candidates typically stand for office as independents; fifteen of the 19 members of the current parliament are independents.
Four parties have been active in Nauruan Politics, They are:- (a) The Nauru Party, b) The Democratic Party, c)Nauru First, d)Centre Party
From 1992 to 1999 Nauru had a local government system known as Nauru Island Council (NIC). Nauruan had 17 changes in administration between 1989 to 2003. Supreme court headed by chief justice, is paramount of constitutional issues.

Solomon Islands
Solomon Island is a sovereign country consisting of six major island and over 900 smaller Islands in Oceania. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 28,400 sq km | 4 Religion | Christianity | 2 Population | 5,52,438 | 5 Currency | Solomon Island Dollar (SBD) | 3 Language | English | 6 GDP Rate | USD 840 Million |

Governor General of Solomon Islands is the head of state. Present Governor General Sir Frank Kabul. The Prime Minister is the head of government. Present Prime Minister: Manasseh Sogavare
Solomon Islands has a parliamentary representative democratic, constitutional monarchy, where executive power is exercised by the government and legislative power is vested with government and a multi party parliaments. The head of state (The monarchy) is represented by the Governor General.
The head of government is the Prime Minister. The Judiciary is independent of executive and legislature.
Following are the active political parties in Solomon Island. (a) Democratic party (b) National Party (c) Peoples Alliance Party (d) Party of Rural Advancements (e) Liberal Party (f) United Party
Diving and Fishing are the special features of Solomon Islands. It is a diver’s paradise. The waters of Solomon Islands are also renowned for big game, reef, wreck, beach and estuary fishing.

Republic of Cape Verde
Cape Verde, officially the Republic of Cape Verde is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Cape Verde is Praia. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 4,033 Square km | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.Population | 525,000 | 5.Currency | Cape Verdean escudo | 3.Language | Portuguese | 6.GDP Rate | $6,569 | The rectangle of the flag is seen as a large blue field symbolizing the infinite space of the sea and sky. The ten yellow stars represent the 10 islands. The circle of the stars symbolizes the Cape Verdean Nation and its unity.

The national emblem of Cape Verde contains a circle within which is written the name of the nation in Portuguese. Within the circle are a torch and triangle, symbols of freedom and national unity. At the top of the shield is a plumber, a symbol of righteousness; three chain links are at the bottom. This emblem replaces the earlier variant with the seashell that had been in use since independence. The current emblem was adopted in 1992.

Cape Verde’s economy is vulnerable to external shocks and depends on development aid, foreign investment, remittances, and tourism. The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and depends on conditions in the euro zone countries. Although about 40% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low.

Cabo Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants; remittances as a share of GDP are one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy and mitigate high unemployment. The government’s elevated debt levels have limited its capacity to finance any shortfalls.

Cape Verde is a stable semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is among the most democratic nations in the world, ranking 31st position in the world, according to the 2014 Democracy Index. The president is the head of state and is elected by popular vote for a 5-year term. The prime minister is the head of government and proposes other ministers and secretaries of state. The prime minister is nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president. Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote for 5year terms.

The judicial system consists of a Supreme Court of Justice — whose members are appointed by the president, the National Assembly, and the Board of the Judiciary — and regional courts. Separate courts hear civil, constitutional, and criminal cases. Appeal is to the Supreme Court.
GRENADA
Grenada is a Caribbean country comprising a main island, also called Grenada, and 6 smaller surrounding islands. Grenada is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela. St. George's is the capital of Grenada. The town is surrounded by a hillside of an old volcano crater and is on a horseshoeshaped harbor. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 344 sq kilometers’ | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 105,897 | 5.Currency | East Caribbean dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $1.467 billion | The flag of Grenada symbolizes-The six stars in the red border represent the country's six parishes, with the middle star, encircled by a red disk, representing Carriacou and Petite Martinique
As a Commonwealth realm, Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of Grenada and Head of State. The Crown is represented by a Governor-General, currently Cécile La Grenade
An intriguing mixture of African, East Indian, French and British influences can be seen in Grenada’s folklore, dialect, music (calypso and reggae), dance, and way of life
One of the interesting fact bar Grenada is being on the southern edge of where hurricanes usually pass through, Grenada has only experienced three hurricanes in the last 50 years
Grenada Known as the Spice Island, Grenada grows more spices per square mile than any other place in the world.
Grenada has a largely tourism-based, small, open economy. Over the past two decades, the economy has shifted from one of agriculture-dominant into that of services-dominant, with tourism serving as the leading foreign currency earning sector.
The 580-foot ocean liner known as “the Titanic of the Caribbean,” and admiring the soft corals and sea horses off sister island Carriacou, you may be ready for a change of pace. the rainforest and scenic trails of Grand Etang National Park, which offers some of the best hiking in the Caribbean. Also worth seeing is St. George’s, with its colorful buildings, such as a pink 18th century church.

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Luxembourg is a tiny European country, bordered by Belgium, France and Germany. It’s mostly rural, with dense Ardennes forest and nature parks in the north, and the Moseley river valley in the southeast. The rocky gorges of the eastern Mullerthal region earned it the nickname “Little Switzerland.” Its capital, Luxembourg City, is famed for its fortified medieval old town perched on sheer cliffs. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 2,586.4 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Populatio n | 562,958 | Currency | Euro | Language | Luxemburgish, German, French | GDP rate | $56.577 billion[ |
The politics of Luxembourg takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is under the constitution of 1868, as amended, exercised by the government, by the Grand Duke and the Council of Government (cabinet), which consists of a prime minister and several other ministers. Usually the prime minister is the leader of the political party or coalition of parties having the most seats in parliament. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, elected directly to five-year terms.
The Luxemburg flag has three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the colouring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
The economy of Luxembourg is largely dependent on the banking, steel, and industrial sectors. Luxembourgers enjoy the second highest per capita gross domestic product in the world (CIA 2007 est.), behind Qatar. Luxembourg is seen as a diversified industrialized nation, contrasting the oil boom in Qatar, the major monetary source of the southwest Asian state. Luxembourg is the least populated country in the European Union, with only 465,000 inhabitants. It is also the 20th smallest of the 194 independent countries in the world.
As of 2006, there were 181,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 39.6% of the total population. 15% of the country's inhabitants (over 1/3 of all immigrants) are of Portuguese origin Luxembourg has won five times the Eurovision Song Contest (in 1961, 1965, 1972, 1973 and 1983), a feat only surpassed by Ireland.

Republic of Poland Poland officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north. The 8th most populous country in Europe and the sixth most populous member of the European Union, as well as the most populous postcommunist member of the European Union. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 312679 sq kilometers | Religion | The Greek Orthodox | Population | Around 38.5 million | Currency | | Złoty (PLN) | | | | | | | | Language | Greek | GDP rate | | $1.051 trillion | | | | | | | | Politics of Poland takes place in the framework of a representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government of a multi-party system and the President is the head of state. The president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, which can be overridden by a majority of three fifths, and can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions; presidential elections occur every 5 years, if none of the candidates receives the most votes on the first round, a runoff election will be held with the two most voted candidates. The political system is defined in the Polish Constitution, which also guarantees a wide range of individual freedoms..
While there are a number of religious communities operating in Poland, the majority of its population adheres to Christianity. Within this, the largest grouping is the Roman Catholic Church - with 87.5% of Poles in 2011 identifying as Roman Catholic Nevertheless, only 65% of Polish believers attend church services on a regular basis.
Poland has substantial agricultural and mineral resources. It has the world's fifth-largest proven reserves of hard and brown coal, in addition to deposits of copper, sulphur, zinc, lead, silver, magnesium, and rock salt. There is natural gas and also potentially useful deposits of chalk, kaolin, clays, and potash. Poland's main agricultural crops are wheat and other cereals, potatoes, sugar beets and fodder crops. Poland is a leading exporter of apple concentrate and is among the world's leading producers of berries, cabbages, and carrots
The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red. The two colors are defined in the Polish constitution as the national colors. A variant of the flag with the national coat of arms in the middle of the white stripe is legally reserved for official use abroad and at sea. A similar flag with the addition of a swallow-tail is used as the Poland. White and red were officially adopted as national colors in 1831. They are of heraldic origin and derive from the tinctures (colors) of the coats of arms of the two constituent nations of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, i.e. the White Eagle of Poland and the Pursuer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a white knight riding a white horse, both on a red shield. Prior to that, Polish soldiers wore cockades of various color combinations. The national flag was officially adopted in 1919.
Republic of Togo
Republic of Togo is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 57000 sq. kilometers | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | | 7,552,318 | | 5.Currency | CAF France | | | | | | | 3.Language | French | 6.GDP rate | | $6.910 billion | | | | | | | | Togo is a small West African nation. It borders the Bight of Benin in the south; Ghanalies to the west; Benin to the east; and to the north, Togo is bound by Burkina Faso. Togo lies mostly between latitudes 6° and 11°N, and longitudes 0° and 2°E.

In the north the land is characterized by a gently rolling savanna in contrast to the centre of the country, which is characterized by hills. The south of Togo is characterized by a savanna and woodland plateau which reaches to a coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes. The land size is 56,785 km2 (21,925 sq mi), with an average population density of 98/km2 (253/sq mi).

Togo's transition to democracy is stalled. Its democratic institutions remain nascent and fragile. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, who ruled Togo under a one-party system, died of a heart attack on 5 February 2005. Gravely ill, he was being transported by plane to a foreign country for care. He died in transit while over Tunisia. Under the Togolese Constitution, the President of the
Parliament, Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba, should have become President of the country, pending a new presidential election to be called within sixty days.

Natchaba was out of the country, returning on an Air France plane from Paris.The slave trade began in the 16th century, and for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast".Independence for French Togoland came in 1960 under Silvanus. He was assassinated in a military coup on 13 January 1963 by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Etienne Eyadéma Gnassingbé. Opposition leaderNicolas Grunitzky was appointed president by the "Insurrection Committee", headed by Emmanuel Bodjollé.

Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade centre. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures, has stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity.

The Albanian Republic
Albania is a country in southeastern Europe. The country’s capital, Tirana, represents its financial and industrial heartland. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 28748 sq. kilometers | 4.Religion | Islam and Christianity | 2.Population | 2.774 million | 5.Cureency | Lek | 3.Language | Albanian | 6.GDP rate | $32.259 billion |

Political system of Albania is Democratic Republic. The Albanian republic is a parliamentary democracy established under a constitution renewed in 1998.Albania has two major political parties: Socialist Party and Democratic Party. The current President of Albania is Bujar Nishani and Prime minister is Edi Rama.
There are many symbol of Albania such as-Mother Albania, Flag of Albania and so on. The meaning flag of Albania: The red stands for bravery, strength and valor, while the double-headed eagle represents the sovereign state of Albania located in the Balkans.
Albania is rich in mineral sources, notably petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel and salt. The economy is bolstered by agriculture, food processing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydro power and petroleum extraction.
Tourism in Albania is characterized by archaeological heritage from Greek, Roman and Ottoman times, delicious traditional Albanian cuisine, unique traditions and hospitality, low prices and the wild and peculiar atmosphere of the countryside. The bulk of international tourists going to Albania are mostly ethnic Albanians from Kosovo, Greece, Italy and from the larger Albanian diaspora.
Albania gained the EU candidate status on June 24th, 2014. Albania, a formerly closed, centrally planned state, is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy.

Union of the Comoros
The Comoros officially the Union of the Comoros are located at the northern entrance of the Mozambique Channel, between the eastern shore of the African continent and the island of Madagascar. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2170sq kilometers | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.Population | 768000 | 5.Currency | Comorian franc | 3.Language | Comorian | 6.GDP rate | $887.4 million | Political system of Comoros is Federal presidential republic. The Political situation in Comoros has been extremely fluid since the country” s independence in 1975, subject to the volatility of coups and political insurrection. Political parties in Comoros: Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros, Camp of the Autonomous Islands. The current President of Comoros is Ikililou Dhoinine.
The symbol of Comoros is the national flag, the national anthem-Udzima wa Masiwa(“Island Unity”) and the motto-“Unity, Justice and Progress”. The flag has four stripes, representing four islands of the nation: yellow is for Moheli, white is for Mayotte, red is for Anjouan and blue is for Grande Comore. The star and crescent symbol stands for Islam, which is the nation’s major religion.
There are many resources of Comoros. There are hydroelectric power plants, the islands still suffer from an unreliable supply of water and power. The economy of the Comoros is agriculture-based, and dependent on trade and foreign assistance.
Mosques, palaces, public squares, stone and coral archways called the doors of peace, and tombs decorated with domes and pillars are examples of stone-built monuments.
The relatively stable political situation and resumption of major external funding favored growth. Even so, in 2014 the century saw arrears accumulate: both internal and external.

Republic of Iceland
Iceland also called the Republic of Iceland is a Nordic island country between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The capital and largest city is Reykjavik. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 39699sq mi | 4.Religion | Church of Iceland | 2.Population | 331000 | 5.Currency | Icelandic krona | 3.Language | Icelandic | 6.GDP rate | $17.216 billion |

Iceland is a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. In March, 2006 the USA announced it was withdrawing its armed forces from Iceland. Political parties in Iceland are: “Bright Future”, “Progressive Party”, “Independence Party” and so on. The current President is Olafur Ragnar Grimsson. The Prime Minister is Sigmundur Davio Gunnlaugsson.
There are many symbol of Iceland like “Lady of the mountain”, “Flag of Iceland”. The meaning flag of Iceland: The color red is said to symbolize the island’s active volcanoes; white the ice and snow that covers most of the country, and blue is symbolic of the surrounding Atlantic Ocean.
Iceland has three main natural resources. Icelandic water is pure, and plentiful. Iceland has extensive resources of hydroelectric power and geothermal energy. Iceland is surrounded by some of the richest fishing grounds. Iceland has mixed economy with high levels of free trade and government intervention.
The geography of Iceland entails the geographic features of Iceland, an island country at the confluence of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. One of the world’s most sparsely populated countries the republic of Iceland’s boundaries are almost completely the same as the main island-the world’s 18th largest in area and possessing almost all of the country’s area and population.
Despite the initial pushback from the international community, Iceland’s “great escape “should serve as a model for all nations.

Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Mauritania, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghred region of western North Africa. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 1030700sq kilometers | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.Population | 3.89 million | 5.Currency | Ouguiya | 3.Language | Arabic | 6.GDP rate | $7.824 billion |

Mauritania is the Islamic Republic Country. A committee of military officers governed Mauritania from July 1978 to April 1992.A referendum approved the current constitution in July 1991.Political Parties in Mauritania: “Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal”, “Action for Change” etc. The present President is Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz and Prime Minister is Yahya Ould Hademine.
There are many symbol of Mauritania such as-Coat of Arms, Flag of Mauritania etc. The meaning flag of Mauritania: The green and gold in the Mauritania Islands’ flag are considered Pan-African colors. Green also symbolizes Islam, and the gold also represents the stands of the Sahara desert. The crescent and star are also symbols of Islam, which is the major religion in Mauritania.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. The nation’s coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world. A majority of the population of Mauritania depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood.
Approximately three-fourths of Mauritania is desert or semi desert. Belts of natural vegetation, corresponding to the rainfall pattern extend from east to west and range from traces of tropical forest along the Senegal River to brush and savanna in the southeast.
Mauritania has made progress in reducing poverty by strengthening the social safety net and investing in key projects to fill the infrastructure gap, but much remains to be done.

Independent State of Samoa
Samoa officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa is a sovereign state in Polynesia. The capital city, Apla, and Faleolo International Airport are situated on the island of Upoiu. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2944sq km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 193471 | 5.Currency | Samoan tala | 3.Language | Samoan | 6.GDP rate | $825 million | Samoa is parliamentary representative democratic state. From independence until the 1970s, Fono debate was conducted in the typical ‘consensus’ style manner of the faamatai system in the villages. Political parties in Samoa: Human Rights Protection Party and Samoan Democratic United Party. The present Prime Minister of Samoa is Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi.
The symbol of Samoa is The Banar of Freedom, Flag of Samoa and so on. The symbolic flag display the white stars of the Southern Cross. The blue is said to represent freedom; red is representative of courage, as well as being a traditional Samoan color.
There are many natural resources in Samoa like hardwood forests, fish, hydropower, pumice etc. The economy of Samoa is dependent on agricultural exports, development aid and private remittances from overseas. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms.
Samoa has always been a popular vacation destination among international celebrities. Even before the days of modern stardom, Samoa was frequented by artists. The beautiful plantation home Vailima (“Five Rivers”) is open to the public.
Samoa has a small and developing economy that has generally performed well in recent years. Key domestic sectors are services, tourism and agriculture.

The Nation of Brunei
Brunei, officially known as the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace’ is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo; the remainder of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. The capital and the largest city if this country is Bandar Seri Begawa. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 5,765km(172nd) | 5.Currency | Brunei dollar (BND) | 2.Population | 413,000 | 6.GDP Rate | 2015 estimate $25.245 billion (116th) | 3.Language | Malay, English Chinese | 7.Religion | Sunni Islam 78%,8% Christian, 7% Buddhist | 4.Government System | Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy | 8.Life Expectancy | 76 years (men), 81 years (women) |
Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984.
Interesting fact is that, during reign of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, the leader of the state, exploitation of the rich Syria oilfield had made the sultanate wealthy. Brunei has one of the highest per capita incomes in Asia, and the sultan is believed to be one of the richest men in the world. In Aug. 1998, Oxford-educated Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah was inaugurated as heir to the 500-year-old monarchy.
The Brunei flag was officially adopted on September 29, 1959.The flag features the country's national emblem. Yellow represents the Sultan of Brunei, and the black and white stripes represent the country's chief ministers.
Brunei Darussalam is still very much dependent on revenues from crude oil and natural gas to finance its development programs. Aside from this, Brunei Darussalam also receives income from rents, royalties, corporate tax and dividends. Due to the non-renewable nature of oil and gas, economic diversification has been in Brunei Darussalam's national development agenda. In the current Seventh national Development Plan, 1996-2000, the government has allocated more than $7.2 billion for the implementation of various projects programs and Brunei Darussalam is the third largest oil producer in Southeast Asia and it produced 163,000 barrels per day. It is also the fourth largest producer of liquefied natural gas in the world.

Republic of the Gambia
The Gambia is one of Africa's smallest countries and, unlike many of its West Africa neighbors, it has enjoyed long spells of stability since independence. It situated on either side of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the center of the Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 10,689 km2 | 5.Government System | Dominant-party presidential republic | 2.Population | 1.8 million | 6.GDP Rate | 488.57 USD | 3.Language | English (official), Mandinka, Wolof | 7.Currency | Dalasi | 4.Religion | Islam, Christianity | 8.Life Expectancy | Male 59.7, female 62.8 |

The Gambia achieved independence on 18 February 1965, as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, with Elizabeth II as Queen of The Gambia, represented by the Governor-General. Shortly thereafter,
Following independence in 1965, the Gambia conducted freely contested elections every five years. Each election was won by The People's Progressive Party (PPP), headed by Dawda Jawara. The PPP dominated Gambian politics for nearly 30 years.
The Gambia has a liberal, market-based economy characterized by traditional subsistence agriculture, a historic reliance on groundnuts (peanuts) for export earnings, a re-export trade built up around its ocean port, low import duties, minimal administrative procedures, a fluctuating exchange rate with no exchange controls, and a significant tourism industry
Despite the presence of the Gambia River, one-sixth of the land is arable and poor soil quality has led to the predominance of one crop - peanuts.
The Gambia has very few exploited mineral deposits. Some amounts of clay, sand, and gravel are excavated for local use. Foreign investors have been granted licenses to explore offshore blocks for potential petroleum and natural gas reserves, but these actions have not yet yielded any production.
The flag of the Gambia consists of three horizontal red, blue and green bands separated by two thin white fimbriations. Adopted in 1965 to replace the British Blue Ensign defaced with the arms of the Gambia Colony and Protectorate, it has been the flag of the Republic of the Gambia since the country gained independence that year.

The Kingdom of Lesotho
Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho is an enclave, landlocked country in southern Africa completely surrounded by South Africa. It is made up mostly of highlands where many of the villages can be reached only on horseback, by foot or light aircraft. The capital and largest city of the country is Maseru. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 30,355 km2 (140th) | 5.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 2.2 million | 6.Currency | Lesotho loti (LSL) | 3.language | Sotho, English | 7.GDP Rate | $4.277 billion | 4.Government system | Unitary parliamentary | 8.Life expectancy | 50 years (men), 48 years (women) |

In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody South African military intervention. Constitutional reforms have since restored political stability; peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002. However Lesotho is one of three remaining monarchies in Africa.
In addition, the Lesotho Government is a parliamentary or constitutional monarchy. The Prime Minister, Pakalitha Mosisili, is head of government and has executive authority. The King of Lesotho, Letsie III, serves a largely ceremonial function; he no longer possesses any executive authority and is prohibited from actively participating in political initiatives.
The current flag of Lesotho, designed by Sergeant Retšelisitsoe Matete, was adopted on January 20, 1987, following a military coup which ousted the Basotho National Party after 20 years in power. A light brown traditional Basotho shield along with an assegai (lance) and knobkierrie (club) replaced the Basotho hat as the primary emblem. The triangular white field stands for peace and the bottom diagonal contained a blue strip for rain and a green triangle for prosperity.
It has resources like diamonds, minerals and annual internal renewable water resources. It sells water to South Africa and is self-sufficient for its electricity needs through hydro-electric schemes.
The spectacular scenery of Lesotho's rugged mountains, massive gullies (called dongas), and sparkling waterfalls create a tourist's dream destination. Picturesque villages, herd boys with their flocks, men on horseback, and women wearing the national dress of Moshoeshoe depicted in the angora wool wall hangings and rugs of Basotho fame.
Republic of Panama
The southernmost of the Central American nations, Panama, Officially called the Republic of Panama is a country in Central America situated between North and South America. The Panama Canal bisects the isthmus at its narrowest and lowest point, allowing passage from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the country's Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 74,177.3 km 28,640 sq mi | 5.Currency | Balboa United States dollar(PAB, USD) | 2.population | 3,608,431 | 6.GDP Rate | 2015 estimate Total $83.421 billion | 3.languge | Spanish (official), English 14%, many bilingual | 7.Government system | Unitary presidential constitutional republic | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15% | 8.life Expectancy | 78.3 |
Panama proclaimed its independence with U.S. backing in 1903 after a U.S. proposal for canal rights over the narrow isthmus was rejected by Colombia.
Panama's politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The flag of the Republic of Panama is a red, white and blue quartered flag. There are two white rectangles, one blue rectangle and one red rectangle with a red and a blue star in the white quarters.The white in the flag represents peace, the blue star stands for purity and honesty and the red star symbolizes authority and law.
Panamanians regard their country's location and narrow geography as its most valuable asset, making it appropriate for rail, road, pipeline, and canal crossings. Other natural resources include arable land (7 percent of the territory is regularly farmed), grazing lands, and forests (39 percent of land area). Forested lands yield significant exports of hardwood logs. Panama has manganese and iron-ore deposits, the world's ninth largest reserves of copper ore, and working gold mines. Its rich fish catch in the Pacific (especially for prawn and shrimp) is being supplemented with shrimp farming in ponds.
Syrian Arab Republic
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia. De jure Syrian territory borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest, but the government's control now extends to approximately 30–40% of the de jure state area and less than 60% of the population. The capital city of the country is Damascus and the largest city is Aleppo. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 185,180 km2 (89th) | 5.Currency | Syrian pound (SYP) | 2.Population | 17,064,854 (2014 est.)(54th) | 6.GDP Rate | $107.831 billion | 3.Religion | Islam (87%), Christianity (10%) Druzism (3%) | 7.Language | Arabic | 4.Government system | Unitary dominant-party | 8.Life Expectancy | Male – 73.4 female – 78.3 |
Bashar Al Assad is the president and Wael Nader al-Halqi is the prime minister. In Syria estimated 200 political parties have been established to present itself as the best alternative to Bashar Al Assad’s government.
The outbreak of Anti-government demonstrations began in March of 2011, part of the Arab Spring. But the peaceful protests quickly escalated after the government's violent crackdown, and rebels began fighting back against the regime.
In addition, Syria's economy continues to deteriorate amid the ongoing conflict that began in 2011, declining by 62% from 2010 to 2014. The government has struggled to address the effects of international sanctions, widespread infrastructure damage, diminished domestic consumption and production, reduced subsidies, and high inflation, which have caused dwindling foreign exchange reserves, rising budget and trade deficits, a decreasing value of the Syrian pound, and falling household purchasing power.
The present situation in Syria is suffering bloodbath and killings of innocent people as well as militants. The country has been divided into three regions: the rebel’s control Sunni dominated Syria, Basher al Assad regime's Shia forces control the main cities and major border region of Syria with Turkey are controlled by ISIS. It has become a global and international issue a battle ground for world powers USA, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, Iran due to their views on supporting opposite regimes in the country.
The flag of Syria is horizontal tricolor of red, white, and black; charged with two green stars at the center. Red symbolizes blood for struggle, white represents bright peaceful future, green stars represent Syria and Egypt, two constitutes of the short lived United Arab League and black symbolizes oppression.
The natural resources of Syria are petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower.
Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history. The Syrian's taste for the traditional arts is expressed in dances such as the al-Samah, the Dabkeh in all their variations and the sword dance. Marriage ceremonies are occasions for the lively demonstration of folk customs.
REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI
Burundi, which is officially known as the Republic of Burundi is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa. Its capital and largest city is Bujumbura. 1. Size | 27,834 km2 | 4. language | French, Kirundi | 2. Population | 11,178,921 million | 5. currency | Burundian franc | 3. religion | Christian | 6. GDP Rate | $2.715 billion | The national flag of Burundi was adopted on June 28, 1967. It consists of a white saltier which divides the field into alternating red and green areas. The center of the saltier merges into a white disk, on which there are three red solid six-pointed stars outlined in green. The three stars represent the three ethnic groups that live in the country; the Hutu, Tutsi and the Twa. The red in the flag stands for the independence struggle, the green for hope and the white for peace.
The coat of arms of Burundi, adopted in 1966, consists of a shield surrounded by three spears. On the shield is the motto of the nation, as well as the head of a lion. Behind the shield there are three crossed traditional African spears. Under the shield the national motto of Burundi appears on a scroll: Unité, Travail, Progrès (French, "Unity, Work, and Progress")
Burundi's political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. the current president is Pierre Nkurunziza who belongs to National Council for the Defense of Democracy party. apart from this there are five other political parties.
Burundi resources poor countries with underdeveloped manufacturing sectors. The economy is predominantly agricultural; agriculture accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP.
Burundi is a producer of columbium (niobium) and tantalum ore, tin ore, and tungsten ore, and some deposits of gold which are designated for export. Burundi has resources of copper, cobalt, nickel, feldspar, phosphate rock, quartzite, and rare reserves of uranium, and vanadium.
In addition to poverty, Burundians often have to deal with corruption, weak infrastructure, and poor access to health and education services, and hunger. Burundi is densely populated and has had substantial emigration as young people seek opportunities elsewhere.

THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC
Greece, which is officially known as the Hellenic Republic is located in southeastern Europe. the CapitaLand largest city of Greece is Athens. 1. Size | 131,957 km2 | 4. language | Greek | 2. Population | 10,955,000 million | 5. currency | Euro | 3. religion | Eastern Orthodoxy | 6. GDP Rate | $242.2 billion | The flag of Greece, officially recognized by Greece as one of its national symbols, is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white.The cross is symbolic of the Greek religious faith and the nine stripes represent the nine syllables in the cry "Freedom or Death," one commonly used during the Greek war of independence. The white is said to reflect the purity of that struggle.
Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic. The nominal head of state is the President of the Republic, who is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term. The current president of Greece is Prokopis Pavlopoulos and he belongs to 'New Democracy' political party. apart from this, there are five other political parties in Greece.
According to World Bank statistics for the year 2013, the economy of Greece is the 43rd largest by nominal gross domestic product at $242 billion and 52nd largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) at $284 billion. Additionally, Greece is the 15th largest economy in the 27-member European Union. In terms of per capita income, Greece is ranked 38th or 40th in the world at $21,910 and $25,705 for nominal GDP and PPP respectively.
Greece has many mineral deposits. These are marble, clay, nickel, coal, bauxite, ore, and chromate. The country only has one major petroleum deposit in the Aegean Sea near Thasos. These minerals have been used throughout history as is well witnessed in the structure of the acropolis and other ancient monuments.
Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OIF, OSCE and the WTO. Greece, which is one of the world's largest shipping powers, middle powers and top tourist destinations, has the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania, officially known as the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Its capital is Vilnius. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 65,300 Square km | 4.Language | Lithuanian | 2.Population | 2,888,582 | 5.Currency | Euro | 3.Religion | Roman Catholic | 6.GDP rate | $29,380 | Lithuania's flag was officially adopted on March 20, 1989. Long a part of the former Soviet Union, the Lithuanian flag was reprised after it gained independence in 1991. Yellow is symbolic of the country's wheat fields; green symbolic of the forests, and red symbolizes patriotism.
The coat of arms of Lithuania, consisting of an armor-clad knight on horseback holding a sword and shield, is also known as Vytis. It is one of very few containing symbolism adopted from ducal portrait seals rather than from coats of arms of dynasties, which is the case for most European countries. The Coat of Arms of the State shall be a white Vytis on a red field". Heraldic shield features the field Gules (red) with an armored knight on a horse salient Argent (white). The knight is holding in his dexter hand a sword Argent above his head. A shield Azure hangs on the sinister shoulder of the knight with a double cross or (yellow) on it. The horse saddle, straps, and belts are Azure. The hilt of the sword and the fastening of the sheath, the stirrups, the curb bits of the bridle, the horseshoes, as well as the decoration of the harness, are Or (gold).
The current Lithuanian head of state, Dalia Grybauskaitė was elected on 17 May 2009, becoming the first female President in the country's history and the second female head of state in the Baltic States.
Politics of Lithuania takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Lithuania is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president and the government, which is headed by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the unicameral Seimas (Lithuanian Parliament). Judicial power is vested in judges appointed by the President of Lithuania and is independent of executive and legislature power. The judiciary consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Court of Appeal.

Republic of Philippines
Philippines, officially known as the Republic of Philippines is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia. It contains almost 7500 islands. Its capital is Manila. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 300,000 Square km | 4.Language | Filipino | 2.Population | 102,810,900 | 5.Currency | Peso | 3.Religion | Christianity | GDP Rate | $7,846 |
The three five-pointed stars represent the three main island groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The white equilateral triangle stands for equality and fraternity. The blue stripe means peace, truth and justice while the red stripe represents the Filipino's patriotism and valour.
The Coat of Arms of the Philippines (Filipino: Eskudo de armas ng Pilipinas) features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac) which were placed under martial law by Governor-General Ramón Blanco during the Philippine Revolution, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. On the blue field on the Dexter side is the American bald eagle of the United States, and on the red field on the sinister side is the lion rampant of the coat of arms of Castile and León, both representing the country's colonial past. The Flag of the Philippines is essentially an armorial banner of the simplified version of the arms.
Under the constitution of 11 February 1987 the Philippines is a democratic republican state. Executive power is vested in a president elected by popular vote for a six-year term, with no eligibility for re-election. The president is assisted by a vice president, elected for a six-year term, with eligibility for one immediate re-election, and a cabinet, which can include the vice president. Legislative power rests with a bicameral legislature. Congress consists of a senate, with 24 members elected for six-year terms (limited to two consecutive terms). Senators are chosen at large. Senators must be native-born Filipinos and at least 35 years old. A house of representatives is elected from single-member districts for three-year terms (limited to three consecutive terms). Districts are reapportioned within three years of each census. In 2004, 212 members were elected. Up to 52 more may be appointed by the president from "party lists" and "sectored lists," but the constitution prohibits the house of representatives from having more than 250 members. Representatives must be native-born Filipinos and at least 25 years of age. Presidential and legislative elections are next scheduled for May 2007.
Efforts to transform the Philippine economy from a primarily agricultural producer of crops for subsistence and export to a more diversified growth economy led by manufactured exports commanding more favourable terms of trade like its Asian tiger neighbours have been repeatedly hindered by natural disasters and external economic shocks. In 1990–91 the islands suffered the triple blow of earthquake, super-typhoon, and volcanic eruption. In succession, there were the even more devastating typhoon of 1995, the Asian financial crisis of 1997, and the global economic slowdown of 2001.

The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
East Timor, officially known as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia. Its capital and largest city is Dili. Category | Facts | Category | Facts | 1.Size | 15410 Square km | 4.Language | Tetum | 2.Population | 1,201,542 | 5.Currency | US Dollar | 3.Religion | Roman Catholic | 6.GDP Rate | 5,479 | The new East Timor flag was officially adopted on May 20, 2002. The yellow triangle represents its prior colonial history, the black triangle represents the prior obscurantism, while red is symbolic of the struggle for liberation, and the white star is symbolic of peace.
The coat of arms of East Timor (officially: Timor-Leste) was introduced on 18 January 2007 under the Law 02/2007. It is based on a design first used when the country unilaterally declared independence on 28 November 1975.The motto in Portuguese is "Unidade, Acção, Progresso" ("Unity, Action, Progress").
A parliamentary system of government with a largely ceremonial president was established in 2001. In the elections for the Constituent Assembly held 30 August 2001, Fretilin took 55 of the 88 seats. Twenty-three of the candidates, or 27% of the total, were women. The assembly was charged with drafting a constitution for East Timor. On 22 March 2002, the Constituent Assembly approved East Timor's constitution, which was modelled largely on that of Portugal, although the German and US constitutions were consulted as well. Key components of the constitution include a ban on the death penalty, and the provision for fundamental political rights and civil liberties, including due process rights. The Constituent Assembly was transformed into the National Legislative Assembly, or National Parliament, in May 2002. The unicameral National Legislative Assembly is composed of a minimum of 52 and a maximum of 65 members, serving five-year terms. Thirteen of the members are district representatives, corresponding to East Timor's 13 districts. For its first term of office, the parliament was comprised of 88 members on an exceptional basis.The first presidential elections were held on 14 April 2002. José Alexandre "Xanana" Gusmão defeated Xavier do Amaral for the presidency, winning with 82.7% of the votes cast. Mari Alkatiri was chosen as East Timor's first prime minister. The next presidential election was scheduled to be held in April 2007. A Council of State advises the president. It is composed of former presidents who were not removed from office, the prime minister, the speaker of parliament, five members elected from parliament, and five members appointed by the president. A Council of Ministers is comprised of the prime minister, any deputy prime ministers, and the ministers of state. East Timor's Catholic Church led prolonged demonstrations in Dili during 2005, resulting in the signing of an agreement on social issues by the government.
Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda is a very small country lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The islands became an independent state within the common wealth of Nations on 1 November 1981.The country is nicknamed ‘Landof 365 beaches’. The capital city of St. John's had a population of 28,000. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.SIze | 440sq km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 93890 | 5.Currency | East Caribbean dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $ 1.176 billion |

The politics of Antigua and Barbuda take place within a framework of a unitary, parliamentary, representative democratic monarchy. Elizabeth II is the present Queen of Antigua and Barbuda.

The 7 point golden sun of the Antigua and Barbuda flag represents the dawn of new era. The colors have different meanings, the black for the African ancestry of the people, the blue for hope, the red for energy. The successive coloring of yellow, blue and white also stands for the sun, sea and sand.

Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the United Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the common wealth of nations, the Caribbean Community, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, the Organization of America States, the World Trade Organization and the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security system. Antigua and Barbuda is also a member of the International Criminal Court.

Few of the islands have mineral resources, which included line stone, building stone, clay, and barite, were exploited until recently.

The largest library is the Antigua Public Library located in the St. John's with 50,000 volumes. The Museum of Antigua and Barbuda is at St. John's as is Betty's Hope, a historic sugar plantation. Tourism is the main source of revenue in Antigua and Barbuda.

Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran is an Islamic republic on the Persian Gulf with historical sites dating to the Persian Empire. Comprising the land area, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th largest country in the world and it is the world’s 17th most populous country. It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean Coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 1,648,195sq km | 4.Religion | Shia Islam | 2.Population | 78.4 million | 5.Currency | Riyal | 3.Language | Persian | 6.GDP rate | $419.643 billion |

Tehran is the country’s capital and largest city, as well as its leading cultural and economic center. Iran is a major regional and middle power, exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largest natural gas supply is the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves. Iran’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the fourth largest number in Asia and 12th largest in the world.

The flag of Iran was officially adopted on July 29, 1980. The colors of the flag date to the mid-18th century; green represents Islam; white represents peace, and red means courage. The centered symbol is said to symbolize the five principles of Islam.
Iran is a founding number of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC and OPEC.

The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution, and comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Leader of the Revolution is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general politics of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The legislature of Iran is a unicameral body.

Federated State of Micronesia
The Federated States of Micronesiais an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states.Together, the states comprise around 607 islands. The country is known for palm-shaded beaches. In 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. The capital of the state is Palikir. Peter M. Christian is the 8th President of the Federated States of Micronesia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 702sq km | 4.Riligion | Roman Catholic, protestant | 2.Population | 103,549 | 5.Currency | United State dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $310 million | The FSM was formerly a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), a United Nations Trust Territory under U.S. administration. Other neighboring island entities, and also former members of the TTPI, formulated their own constitutional governments and became the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau (ROP). The FSM has a seat in the United Nations.
The Federated States of Micronesia is governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers. The unicameral Congress has fourteen members elected by popular vote.The President and Vice President are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve four-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections. There are no formal political parties.In international politics, the Federated States of Micronesia has often voted with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions.
The flag of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) was adopted on 30 November 1978. The blue field represents the Pacific Ocean, while the four stars represent the states inthe federation: Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Yap.
The natural resources of FSM are timber, marine products, deep-seabed minerals, phosphate.The main attraction for visitor in the FSM is world class dive site.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. Known as the birthplace of Islam,it’s home to the religion’s 2 most sacred mosques: Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, destination of the annual Hajj pilgrimage, and Medina’s Masjid an-Nabawi, burial site of the prophet Muhammad. Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2,149,690sq km | 4.Riligion | Sunni Islam | 2.Population | 30,770,375 | 5.Currency | Saudi riyal | 3.Language | Arabic | 6.GDP rate | $1.668 trillion |

Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. The king must comply with Sharia (Islamic law) and the Quran, while the Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution. No political parties or national elections are permitted.
The flag of Saudi Arabia has a green field with large white Arabic writing above a white horizontal sword (the tip of the sword points to the hoist side of the flag). The Arabic writing is the Islamic statement of faith, "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet." Green is the traditional color of Islam.
Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945and is a founding member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organization of Islamic Cooperation), and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization. Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit.Since 1960, as a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market. The consequences of the 2003 invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region.
Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk'(idolatry), and the most significant historic Muslim sites (in Mecca and Medina) are located in the western Saudi region of Hejaz.
Commonwealth Of Australia
Australia officially known as the commonwealth of Australia is an Oceanic country comprising the mainland of Australian Continent,the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.It is the worlds sixth largest continent by total area. The capital and the largest city of Australia is respectively Canberra and Sydney.

Category | Fact | Catogory | Fact | 1.Size | 7,692,024 sq.km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 23,988,900 | 5.Currency | Australian Dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP | $1.137 trillion |

According to the Australian constitution the current Australian monarch(currently Queen Elizabeth II) is the head of state.Malcolm Turnbull is the Prime Minister of Australia.And the other duties of state are carried out by the person duly appointed as Governor General Sir Peter Cosgrove.Parliament is the Legislature of Australia.The state got independence from UK.
Australia has mild two party system.The Australian Labor Party and The Liberal National Coalition.The flag of Australia has blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist side quadrant known as the common wealth of federation of colonies of Australia in 1901.
The natural resources of Australia include-bauxite, coal, ironore, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineralsands, lead, zinc, diamonds, naturalgas, petroleum.
The total GDP ofAustralia is $47,318 according to 2015 estimate.The currency of Australia is Australian dollar.The calling code is +61.
Racism in Australia traces both historical and contemporary vary racist community attitudes and incidents in Australia.More than 60% of Australians identify them as Christian,the majority of Christian,the majority of Christian in Australia are Roman Catholic.Australias national symbols represent what is unique about the nation,reflecting different aspects of our cultural life and history.
Australia is the member of UN,G20,Common Wealth of Nations,ANZUS,OCED,Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation and The Pacific Islands Forum.

The Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus officially The Republic of Cyprus is an island country in the Eastern basin of Mediterranean Sea off the coasts of Syria and Turkey.It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean.Cyprus is close to the Western Asia ,Southern Europe , Northern Africa. It was placed under British administration in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 9251 sq.km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 1141166 | 5.Currency | Euro | 3.Language | Greek and Turkish | 6.GDP | $23.263 billion |

Cyprus is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean and a member state of the European Union. The states official language is Greek and Turkish. And the minority language are Armenian and Cypriot Arabic.
The government of Cyprus is Unitary Presidential Constitutional Republic. The President of this country is Nicos Anastasiades. Its legislature is The House of Representatives. The state got independence from UK.Its independence day is in 1 october 1960.It follows the full presidential system of government.
Cyprus has a multi-party system, with 3 or 4 strong parties who generally dominate the political landscape. DemocraticRally, Progressive Party of working people Democratic Party etc. are some of the political parties.
Christians make up 78% of the Cyriot population. Most Greek Cyriots and thus the majority of the population of Cyprus are the members of Autocephalous, Greek orthodox church of Cyprus, whereas most Turkish Cypriots are officially Sunni Muslims.
The natural resources of Cyprus include: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay, earth pigment. The Flag features a map of the entires of the island with two olive branches below on white. The branches singnify peace between Turks and Greek. The map on the flag symbolizing the large deposits of copper ore on the island.
The economy of Cyprus is Classified by the world Bank as a high income, economy and was included by the IMF and in its list of advanced economies in 2001.With an advanced high income economy and a very high Human development Index the Republic of Cyprus is a commonwealth since 1961. Its per capita $26109. On 1 january 2008 the Republic of Cyprus joined the Eurozone. Calling code is +357.

State Of Israel
Israel officially the state of Israel is a country in the middle east, situated at the south eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red sea. It shares the land borders with Lebanoon to the north, Syria in northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories comprising the west bank and Gaza stripto the east and west respectively and Egypt to the southeast. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 20770 sq.km | 4.Religion | Jewish | 2.Population | 8462000 | 5.Currency | Israeli New Shekel | 3.Language | Hebrew & Arabic | 6.GDP | $281.757 |

The country got independence in 14 may1948. It got the membership of UN in 11 may 1949.
The capital of Israel is Jerusalem.The official name of Israel is State of Israel and local name Madinat Israel. ReuvenRivlin the President, is head of Israel. The government of this state is Unitary Parliamentary Republic. The Prime Minister is Benjamin Netanyahu. The legislature is Knesset. The President’s position is largely a ceremonial figure heal hole, with executive power effectively being exercised by the Prime Minister.
The Israeli system of government is based on parliamentary democracy. Executive power is exercised by the government. Israel doesnot have a written constitution. The current political parties are Likuel , Zionis Union(labour party), Joint List, TheJewis home etc. The former are agriculture and development, Ahi, AhdutHaAvoda, Ahva etc.
Its per capita is $33,658. Its currency is Israeli new Shekel. Israels financial and technology centre is Tel Aviv,while Jerusalem is its self designated capital.
Its time zone is Israel Standard Time(UTC +2).Calling Code is+972.
The flag of Israel was adopted in October 28 1948.It depicts a blue Hexagram on a white background , between two horizontal blue stripes on it.The flag was designed for the Zionist movement in 1891.

MONGOLIA

Mongolia is a landlocked country in east central Asia.It is bordered by Russia to the north and china to the south east and west.Mongolia is the 19th largest and one of the most sparsrly populated independent countries in the world.It is the world’s second largest landlocked country.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 1564116 sq.km | 4.Religion | Buddhist | 2.Population | 3042511 | 5.Currency | Torgor | 3.Language | Mongolia | 6.GDP | 12.02 billion US dollar |

Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city ,is home to about 45% of the population. The states total area is 1564116 sq.km..The official language is Mongolia.
Approximately 30%of the population is no madic or semi-nomadic, housecultore is still integral. The major of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second largest grup.Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic kazakhs.
The president of Mongolia, TSAKHIAGIINEl begdorj is the head of the state and embodiment of the unity of the Mongolian people. ChimediiSaikhanbileg is the prime Minister of Mongolia. The Government of Mongolia is unitary parliamentary constitutional Republic. The Legislature is state Great khural. Formation of current constitution is on 13 February 1992.
There are 3 kinds of political system in Mongolia parliamentary election, presidentativeelection. Some current political parties are Democraticparty, Mongolian people’s party, Justice coalition, Independent candidates ect.
The flag of Mongolia, blue color symbolizes the land of blue sky. The red symbolizes the freedom and advancement,the ability of Mongolia to thrive in its harsh environment.Soyombo is columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation of fire, moon , sun , water, and yin-yang symbol.
The natural resource of Mongolia include. Oilcoal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, ironetc. The currency of Mongolia is Togror(MNT). And calling code is + 976.

Republic of Seychelles
Seychelles, officially the Republic of Seychelles is an archipelago in the Indian ocean The 115-island country, whose capital is Victoria, lies 1500 km east of mainland of east Africa. Victoria is the largest city of this state. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 459 sq.km | 4.Religion | Roman Catholic | 2.Population | 90024 | 5.Currency | Seychellois rupee | 3.Language | Seychellois creole | 6.GDP | $2.304 |

Seychelles has the smallest population of any independent African state. The official language is French, English ,Seychellois creole.The vernacular language is Seychellois creole.
The 2002 census estimated that the population of Seychelles is 82% Roman Catholic and 6% Anglican . Other Christian groups such as Baptists, Seventh- day Adventists, Assebies of God. Orthodox church and Jehovah’s witnesses etc.
The natural resources of Seychelles include fish, copra, cinnamontrees etc.
The government of this state is Presidential Republic. The name of the President is James Michel. The president of Seychelles is both head of state and head of government and of a multi-party system. The legislature is National Assembly. The state got independence on 29 june 1976.
The economy of Seychelles is based on fishing,tourism,the processing of coconuts and vanilla , coi , rope, beverages. The public sector comprising the government and state owned enterprised terms of employment and gross revenew, employing two thirds of the labor force. Government consumption absorbs over one-third of the GDP. According to 2014 estimate the total GDP is per capita is 424,522.
The states flag oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future. Blue represents sky and sea; yellow represents the sun giving light and life; red represents the determination to work for future in unity and love: white for social justice and harmony; green for the land and natural environment.
The state is amember of UN, ECA, UNESCO, ILO, IMF, WHO, IOS, IFAD etc. Its calling code is +248.

CANADA
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It the world's second largest country by total area and the fourth largest country by land area. It border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The capital is Ottawa and the largest city is Toronto. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 9,984,670 sq.km | 4. Religion | Christian, Roman Catholics, others. | 2. Population | 35,985,751 | 5. Currency | Canadian dollar | 3. Language | English, French | 6. GDP rate | $1.628 trillion |

The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II and the Governor General of Canada is David Johnston. The prime minister is Justin Trudeau and the chief justice is Beverley McLachlin. Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy. The parliament is divided into two classes, upper class senate and lower class house of commons.
The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Maple Leaf is a flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11 pointed maple leaf. It was designed by George F.G. Stanley. The flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965, the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.
Canada is the world's eleventh largest economy. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization.
Canada has 13% share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. It is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead.
According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is the most educated country in the world. It ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada spends about 5.3% of its GDP on education.
The Canadian music industry is the sixth largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.

GUINEA-BISSAU
Guinea-Bissau is officially known as republic of Guinea-Bissau ,is a country in West Africa. It was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. The country is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. The capital and the largest city is Bissau. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 36,125 sq. km | 4.Religion | Isalm, Animism | 2.Population | 1,693,398 | 5.Currency | West African CFA franc | 3.Language | Portuguese | 6.GDP rate | $1.040 billion |

Guinea-Bissau is a republic. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. The president is Jose Mario Vaz and prime minister is Carlos Correia. At the legislative level, a unicameral National People's Assembly is made up of 100 members.
The flag of Guinea-Bissau was adopted in 1973 when independence from Portugal was proclaimed. The flag features the traditional Pan-African colors of gold, green, red and also the Black Star of Africa. The flag's design is heavily influenced by the flag of Ghana. The colors have the same meanings the red is for the blood of martyrs, green for forests, and gold for mineral wealth.
Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line. The economy depends mainly on agriculture, fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports. The nation was described by a United Nations official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state".
Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala (English: My Voice) and Gomes's Mortu Nega (Death Denied) was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau.
Child labor is very common. In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3%. In 2010, Guinea Bissau had the 7th highest maternal mortality rate in the world. The WHO estimates there are fewer than 5 physicians per 100,000 persons in the country.
Approximately 10% of the country's population belong to the Christian community, and 40% continue to hold Indigenous beliefs.

MALAWI
Malawi is officially known as Republic of Malawi which is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. The country is separated from Tanzania and Mozambique by Lake Malawi. The capital and the largest city is Lilongwe. The country is also nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa". Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 118,484 sq. km | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.Population | 16,407,000 | 5.Currency | Kwacha | 3.Language | English, Chichewa | 6.GDP rate | $4.212 billion |

Malawi is a democratic, multi-party government, currently under the leadership of Peter Mutharika and the vice president is Saulos Chilima. There are currently nine political parties, with the Democratic Progressive Party acting as the ruling party and the Malawi Congress Party and the United Democratic Front acting as the main opposition parties in the National Assembly.
The flag of Malawi was officially adopted on 6 July 1964 when the colony of Nyasaland became independent from British rule and renamed itself Malawi. The flag resembles the Pan-African flag designed by Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association, with the red and black bands reversed and a red sun in the top. It also resembles the flag of the now-defunct Republic of Biafra.
Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries. The economy is based on agriculture, and more than one-third of GDP and 90% of export revenues come from this. Malawi was ranked the 119th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.
The main industries are tobacco, tea and sugar processing, sawmill products, cement and consumer goods. Malawi is known for growing "the best and finest" cannabis in the world for recreational drug use. In Malawi infant mortality rates are high, and life expectancy at birth is 50.03 years. There is a high adult prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in the country. At least 70% of Malawi's hospital beds are occupied by HIV/AIDS patients.

ROMANIA
Romania is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. It also borders Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest and it is the sixth largest city in the EU. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 238,391 sq. km | 4.Religion | Secular state | 2.Population | 19,511,000 | 5 Currency | Romanian leu | | 3.Language | Romanian | 6.GDP | $203.340 billion |

The president is Klaus Iohannis and the prime minister is Dacian Ciolos. Parliament is divided into two classes, Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Unitary semi-presidential republic form of government.
The national flag of Romania is a tricolor with vertical stripes, beginning from the flagpole: blue, yellow and red. 26 June is the Day of the National Flag of Romania.
According to CIA's The World Factbook, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy. The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania. Romania is part of the EU single market. Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP.
With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe, it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union and is looking to further expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. In 2013 Romania ranked 5th in the world and 2nd in Europe in terms of internet connection speed.
In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, then it joined the Allied powers after being occupied by the Red Army forces. Romania was a main source of oil for the Axis powers in World War II.
With a rich cultural history, Romania has been the home of influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportspeople, and features a variety of tourist attractions. The oldest surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung".

TUNISIA
Tunisia is officially known as the Republic of Tunisia which is the northernmost country in Africa. It is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. The capital and the largest city is Tunis. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 163,610 sq. km | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.Population | 10,982,754 | 5.Currency | Tunisian dinar | 3.Language | Arabic | 6.GDP rate | $45.276 billion |

The president is Beji Caid Essebsi and the prime minister is Habib Essid. Tunisia is the only democracy in the Arab World. Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state, prime minister as head of government, a unicameral parliament, and a civil law court system.
The red and white flag of Tunisia, adopted as national flag in 1959, has its origins the naval ensign of the Kingdom of Tunis adopted in 1831 by Al-Husayn II ibn Mahmud. It is an indication of Tunisia's history as a part of the Ottoman Empire.
Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum. Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP. Tunisia has managed to attract many international companies such as Airbus and Hewlett-Packard. Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner.
Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by 2019. Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy. Oil production of Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day. The main field is El Bourma.
Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of quality of the higher educational system and 21st in the category of quality of primary education in The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-9, released by The World Economic Forum.

The Republic of Belarus The republic of Belarus, formerly the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic of the USSR and then Byelorussia, is a hilly lowland with forests, swamps, and numerous rivers and lakes. There are wide rivers emptying into the Baltic and Black seas. Its forests cover over one-third of the land and its peat marshes are a valuable natural resource. Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 207,595 Sq Kilometers | 4. Religion | Eastern Orthodoxy (42.3%), Irreligion (31.1%) | 2. Population | Around 9.5 million | 5. Currency | Belarusian ruble | 3. Language | Belarusian, Russian | 6. GDP rate | $17,767 Per capita |

The Belarusian flag consists of a large red horizontal stripe on top of a smaller green horizontal stripe. The left side of the Belarusian flag features a vertical white stripe with red borders and red diamond shape ornaments inside of it, which is a traditional Belarusian pattern. The green stripe symbolizes the future. Green is the color of hope, spring and revival and the color of Belarus' lands forests and fields. The red represents Belarus' past and the blood of the country's defenders. The Belarusian flag's decorative pattern symbolizes Belarus' rich cultural heritage, its spiritual continuity, and the unity of its people.
Being part of KyivanRus, Belarus was gradually taken over by Lithuania in the 14thcentury and became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Grand Duchy. It was to be 400 years before Belarus came under Russian control, a period during which Belarusians became linguistically and culturally differentiated from the Russians to the east and the Ukrainians to the south.
At this time, trade was controlled by Poles and Jews, and most Belarusians remained peasants-poor and illiterate. After the Partitions of Poland (1772, 1793 and 1795-96), Belarus was absorbed into Russia and faced intense Russification policies.
During the 19th century Belarus was part of the Pale of Settlement, the area where Jews in the Russian Empire were required to settle, so Jews formed the majority in many cities and towns.

The Arab Republic of Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is the most populous country in the Arab World belonging one of the world’s oldest cultures, descending from an ancient civilization that emerged in the 10th millennium BC. The country is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, The Red Sea to the south and Libya to the West. Egypt is meant to be a regional power with significant cultural, political and military influence in North Africa, Middle East and Muslim World.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 1,010,407.87 Sq Kilometers | 4. Religion | Muslim (90%), Christian (10%) | 2. Population | Around 90.5 million | 5. Currency | Egyptian pound | 3. Language | Arabic | 6. GDP rate | $11,194 Per capita |

The Egyptian flag that was adopted on October 4, 1984, contains three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white and black. A shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic, which is Egypt’s national emblem,is centered in the white band. The white band symbolizes peace and honesty, Red symbolizes hardiness, bravery, strength and valour and the black band symbolizes determination. The emblem on the Egyptian flag pictures the National Emblem.
Egypt, the North African country on the Mediterranean Sea, is among the oldest civilizations on earth. The name ‘Egypt’ comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the Egyptian name ‘Hwt-Ka-Ptah’ that means ‘House of the Spirit of Path’, who was a very early God of the Ancient Agyptians. The Early Dynastic Period saw the unification of the north and south kingdoms of Egypt under the king Menes of the south who conquered the North. ‘Menes’ is an honorific title meaning “he who endures” and not a personal name and so could have been used to refer to more than one king.
Geographical designation in Egypt follows the direction of the Nile River and so ‘Upper Egypt’ is the southern region and ‘lower Egypt’ the northern area closer to the Mediterranean Sea.Narmer ruled from the city of Heirakonopolis and then from Memphis and Abydos. Trade increased significantly under the rulers of the Early Dynastic Period and elaborate mastaba tombs, precursors to the later pyramids, developed in ritual burial practices which included increasingly elaborate mummification techniques.
The Republic of Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa with coastline on the Indian Ocean. It encompasses savannah, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, mountain highlands and abundant wildlife such as lions, elephants and rhinos. From Nairobi, the capital, safaris visit the Maasai Mara reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and Amboseli National Park, offering views of Tanzania's 5,895m Mt. Kilimanjaro. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 581,309 Sq Kilometers | 4. Religion | Christians | 2. Population | Around 45 million | 5. Currency | Kenyan shilling | 3. Language | English, Swahili | 6. GDP rate | $3,238Per capita |

The flag of Kenya originates from the Kenya African National Union. Known as the KANU, it is a political party that ruled Kenya for almost 40 years.The colors symbolizes the black majority, red for the blood that was shed during the struggle for independence, and the color green for the nation’s land. The color white fimbriation was added after a while. It signifies peace. The colors black, red and white traditionally is a Maasai shield and two spears symbolize the protection of all the things that is catastrophic.The flag of Kenya symbolizes that the country is strong against colonizers.

Paleontologists believe people may first have inhabited Kenya about 2 million years ago. In the 700s, Arab seafarers established settlements along the coast, and the Portuguese took control of the area in the early 1500s. More than 40 ethnic groups reside in Kenya. Its largest group, the Kikuyu, migrated to the region at the beginning of the 18th century.
The land became a British protectorate in 1890 and a Crown colony in 1920, called British East Africa. Nationalist stirrings began in the 1940s, and in 1952 the Mau movement, made up of Kikuyu militants, rebelled against the government. The fighting lasted until 1956.On December 12, 1963, Kenya achieved its full independence.

Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Netherlands is a constituent country located in western Europe and with territories in the Caribbean. It is bordered by Belgium and Germany. The Netherlands is mostly low-lying, located at the mouths of three major European rivers Rhine, Meuse and Schelde. The government system is constitutional monarchy. The chief of state is the king, and the head of government is the prime minister. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 41,543 Sq Kilometers | 4. Religion | No religion(55%), Roman catholic(23.7%), PKN(10%) | 2. Population | Around 17 million | 5. Currency | Euro(EUR) | 3. Language | Dutch, English | 6. GDP rate | $49,094 Per capita |

The flag of Netherland has three equal horizontal bands of red(top), white and blue.In the 16th century, William I, Prince of Orange, led the Dutch revolt against Spain. He used a tribandflag (“Prince’s Flag”) with Orange, White and Blue colors, the colors of the Prince’s Nassau coat of arms. The flag was introduced as state banner in 1572.The flag’s colors are officially described as bright vermilion, silver and cobalt blue. The flag proportions are 2:3. The top band color was originally orange but as the orange dye was particularly unstable and tended to turn red after a while, it was substituted with red in the mid-17th century. The flag was reaffirmed by royal decree on Feb. 19, 1937.
The Netherlands has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Netherlands is a member of the European Union.
The Netherlands is a low-lying country with around a quarter of its territory at or below sea level. Many parts of The Netherlands are protected from flooding by dykes and sea walls and much of the lands has been reclaimed from the sea. The most important sectors of the Netherlands’ economy in 2014 were public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities(22.4%), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services(19.8%) and industry(16.9%). The Netherlands’ main exports partners are Germany, Belgium and The UK, while its main import partners are Germany, China and Belgium.

The Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is located on the southern tip of the African continent, bordered by northern neighbours Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. It encompasses the independent mountain kingdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland and is flanked by the Atlantic Ocean on the west and the warm Indian Ocean on the east, giving the country its spectacular range of biodiversity. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is among the highest number of any country in the world. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 1,221,037 Sq Kilometers | 4. Religion | Christians | 2. Population | Around 55 million | 5. Currency | South African Rand | 3. Language | Africans | 6. GDP rate | $13,215Per capita | The national flag South Africa was designed by a former South African State Herald, Mr. Fred Brownell, and was first used on 27 April 1994. The design and colors are a synopsis of principal elements of the country's flag history. Individual colors, or color combinations represent different meanings for different people and therefore no universal symbolism should be attached to any of the colors. The central design of the flag, beginning at the flagpost in a 'V' form and flowing into a single horizontal band to the outer edge of the fly, can be interpreted as the convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity. The theme of convergence and unity ties in with the motto Unity is Strength of the previous South African Coat of Arms.
South Africa was settled by the Dutch in 1652. The Dutch first settled the area that was to become Cape Town and with time expanded across the entire tip of southern Africa. After the Napoleonic wars in 1815, South Africa changed hands and became a British colony. Many of the Dutch went north to get away from the English.During the 90’s, with the release of Nelson Mandela (who eventually became president) and the abolition of the Apartheid laws, South Africa went through an amazing transformation. South Africa has journeyed through great obstacles to become a nation whose dream of unity and common purpose is now capable of realization for all its people.

KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

Cambodia, officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Phnom Penh is the capital city. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 181,035 km2 (88th) | Currency | Riel | Population | 15,458,332 (65th) | GDP Rate | $54.035 billion | Language | Khmer | Religion | Theravada Buddhism | The Cambodian People's Party formerly the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP), is the current ruling party of Cambodia. The Prime Minister of Cambodia, serves as the party's President. The Prime Minister of Cambodia, Hun Sen is the head of government, while the King of Cambodia (currently Norodom Sihamoni) is the head of state. The Cambodian flag has featured a depiction of Angkor Wat in the centre. This is a famous temple site, which dates from the 12th century, was built by the Mahidharapura monarchs. It has five towers, but these were not always all depicted in the stylised version used on flags. The flag, with a blue border and red central (the stripes are in the ratio 1:2:1) was adopted following Cambodia's independence in 1948. Red and blue are traditional colours of Cambodia. Interesting fact is, according to the World Bank, “Over the seven years from 2004 through 2011, Cambodian economic growth was tremendous, ranking amid the best in the world. Moreover, household consumption increased by nearly 40 percent. As a result, the poverty rate dropped from 52.2 to 20.5 percent, surpassing all expectations. However, the majority of these people escaped poverty only slightly: they remain highly vulnerable-even to small shocks-which could quickly bring them back into poverty.” The identified mineral resources in Cambodia were bauxite, carbonate rocks, natural gas, gemstones, gold, manganese, petroleum, phosphate rock, salt, silica, and zircon.
Tourism is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry. Angkor, Banteay Srei, Koh Ker, Kratié, Bokor Hill Station, Silver Pagoda, Siem Reap are some of the most popular places of Cambodia. Most famous of all is the Angkor which was the capital city of Khmer Empire.
Presently, the country faces numerous challenges and sociopolitical issues, including widespread poverty, pervasive corruption, lack of political freedoms, low human development, and a high rate of hunger.
Cambodia has been described by Human Rights Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "vaguely communist free-market state with a relatively authoritarian coalition ruling over a superficial democracy."

REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA

Guatemala officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America and is the most populous state of it. It is called the “Heart of the Mayan World.” Guatemala's capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 108,889 km2 (107th) | Currency | Quetzal (GTQ) | Population | 15,806,675 (66th) | GDP Rate | $124.941 billion | Language | Spanish | Religion | Roman Catholicism |

Guatemala is a constitutional democratic republic whereby the President of Guatemala is both head of state and head of government. Jimmy Morales is the current president of Guatemala.
The flag of Guatemala features two colors: sky blue and white. The two sky blue stripes represent the fact that Guatemala is a land located between two oceans, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean sea); and the sky over the country. The white color signifies peace and purity. In the centre of the flag is the Guatemalan coat of arms. It includes the resplendent quetzal, the national bird of Guatemala that symbolizes liberty; a parchment scroll bearing the date of Central America's independence from Spain, 15 September 1821; crossed rifles, indicating Guatemala's willingness to defend itself by force if need be; a bay laurel crown, the symbol for victory; and crossed swords, representing honor.
Guatemala is the largest economy in Central America, Guatemala faces many social problems and is one of the poorest countries in Latin America as distribution of income is highly unequal with more than half of the population below the national poverty line and just over 400,000 (3.2%) unemployed. The CIA World Fact Book considers 54.0% of the population of Guatemala to be living in poverty.
Guatemala has abundant mineral reserves that include uranium, sand and gravel, nickel, limestone, petroleum, coal, gold, copper, iron ore and cobalt.
Tikal, Lake Atitlán, Pacaya, Santa Maria are some of the famous places of Guatemala. It also is the home to three UNESCO World Heritage sites: the colonial city of Antigua, the Archaeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua and the Tikal National Park. The arrival of cruise ships and airplanes to the country also increased with the development of the tourism industry.
Guatemala is widely known for its rich and distinct culture, which is characterized by a fusion of Spanish and Indigenous influences. It’s abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems, which includes a large number of endemic species, contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot. It is often called “The Land of Eternal Spring.”

REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Macedonia officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country located in the central Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia which is located on a major north-south Balkan route between Belgrade and Athens. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 25,713 km2 (148th) | Religion | Eastern Orthodoxy | Population | 2,069,162 (146th) | Currency | Macedonian denar (MKD) | Language | Macedonian | GDP Rate | $22.147 billion |

The Republic of Macedonia has a multi-party system. Gjorge Ivanov is the current President and Emil Dimitriev is the acting Prime Minister of Macedonia. Prime Minister is the head of government.

The national flag of the Republic of Macedonia depicts a stylised yellow sun on a red field, with eight broadening rays extending from the centre to the edge of the field. The designer was Pr. Miroslav Grčev. Red and yellow have always been considered the main colours representing Macedonia, probably because of the colors of the historical coat of arms of Macedonia. The new eight-rayed sun represents "the new sun of Liberty" referred to in the national anthem of Macedonia.

Ranked as the fourth "best reformatory state" out of 178 countries ranked by the World Bank in 2009, Macedonia has undergone considerable economic reform since independence. It has developed an open economy with trade accounting for more than 90% of GDP in recent years. Despite these reforms, as of 2005 Macedonia's unemployment rate was 37.2% and as of 2006 its poverty rate was 22%. Many Macedonians lost their jobs with the collapse of Yugoslavia.
Low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos and gypsum are some of the natural resources of Macedonia .
Tourism is an important part of the economy of the Republic of Macedonia. It receives about 700,000 tourists annually. Skopje, Ohrid, Bitola, Štip are some of the cities that have many attractions of their own. Ohrid is an UNESCO World Heritage Site, is located in the south-western part of the country on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid.
Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites. Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga Poetry Evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, International Camera Festival in Bitola etc.

PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC

Portugal officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in south-western Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe. Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 92,212 km2 (111th) | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 10,427,301 (83rd) | Currency | Euro | Language | Portuguese | GDP Rate | $197.510 billion(45th) |

The Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party-are the two dominant parties in Portugal. The current President of Portugal is Aníbal Cavaco Silva (19th) and the current Prime Minister is António Costa (119th).
The flag of Portugal is rectangular bicolor with a field unevenly divided into green on the hoist, and red on the fly. The lesser version of the national coat of arms is centered over the color boundary. The two colors represent the hope of the nation (green) and the blood (red) of those who died defending it, as a means to endow them with a more patriotic and dignified, therefore less political sentiment. Since the country's foundation, the national flag developed from the blue cross-on-white armorial square banner of King Alfonso to the liberal monarchy's arms over a blue-and-white rectangle.
In the second decade of the 21st century the Portuguese economy was about to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund but it somehow exited the bailout in May,2014. Most imports come from the European Union (EU) countries of Spain, Germany, France and the United Kingdom, while most exports also involve other EU member states.
Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power. In 2006, the world's largest solar power plant at that date, the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating near Moura, while the world's first commercial wave power farm, the Aguçadoura Wave Farm, opened in the Norte region(2008).
Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 13 million foreign tourists each year. The main tourist areas are-the Greater Lisbon, the Algarve, Greater Porto and Northern Portugal, city of Coimbra and Alentejo. In 2014, Portugal was elected The Best European Country by the USA Today.
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent. Portugal is widely known for football and is home to fifteen UNESCO World Heritage Sites, ranking it 17th in the world. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so.

91. KINGDOM OF TONGA

Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 177 islands of which 52 islands are inhabited. Nukuʻalofa is the capital city of Tonga located on the north coast of the island of Tongatapu. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 748 km2 (186th) | Religion | Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga | Population | 103,036 | Currency | Paʻanga (TOP) | Language | Tongan | GDP Rate | $763 million |

Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King is the Head of State. Tupou VI is the present king and ʻAkilisi Pohiva is the current Prime Minister.

The flag of Tonga consists of a red field with a white canton charged with a red couped cross. The colors and symbols of the flag carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The red couped cross alludes to Christianity, the religion practiced by approximately 97% of the country's population. The white epitomizes purity, while the red evokes the sacrifice of the Blood of Christ, which he shed during his Crucifixion.
Tonga's economy is characterized by a large nonmonetary sector and a heavy dependence on remittances from the half of the country's population that lives abroad, chiefly in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Tonga was named the sixth most corrupt country in the world by Forbes magazine in 2008.Tonga was ranked the 165th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.
Tonga doesn't have many metal deposits on land, but experts say its waters might be a rich source. Different exploration companies have begun looking for high-grade copper, gold, zinc and silver deposits in Tonga's waters. Tonga is involved in Pacific Deep Sea Minerals Project which is funded by the European Union.Tonga has no proven commercially exploitable oil and gas resources.
The Tonga Tourism Authority (TTA) was established in July 2013 and is expected to positively boost travel and tourism in Tonga. Alaki, Lifuka, Faleloa,Vava’u, Neiafu, Lulunga islands, ‘Eua are some of the best places to visit. Tonga continues to contribute significantly to the popularity of Tonga as a tourist destination. It’s one of only three destinations globally in which travelers are able to swim with humpback whales.
‘‘God and Tonga are my inheritance’’-is the motto of the kingdom of Tonga. Humans have lived in Tonga for nearly 3,000 years, since settlement in late Lapita times. The Tongan Diaspora retains close ties to relatives at home, and a significant portion of Tonga's income derives from remittances to family members who prefer to remain in Tonga.

Federative Republic of Brazil Brazil is the largest country in South America and Latin American region as well. In fact, it is the fifth largest country in the world. Brazil is officially known as Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil). Brasília is the capital of Brazil and the largest cities are Säo Paulo and Reo de Janeiro. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 3,286,470 sq mi | Religion | Christianity | Population | 3,286,470 sq mi | Currency | Brazilian real | Language | Portuguese | GDP | $ 3.208 trillion | The Brazilian flag contains green color with a yellow diamond in the middle. There are 27 stars in the flag, which represents Federal States of the country. There is a white banner that reads, “Ordem E Progresso,” means to Order and Progress in English. The green color stands for amazing tropical landscape- Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Jungle, and the Panama. Yellow represents the gold reserves of the country. Brazil is federal republic, adopted its constitution in 1988 by abolishing monarch in Brazil and established separate state powers. The head of the government and state is the president of Federative Republic of Brazil; current President of Brazil is Dilma Rousseff. The main political parties in Brazil are the Brazilian Democratic Movement party, the Liberal Front party (now known as the Democrats party), the Democratic Labor party, the Brazilian Social Democracy party, and the Workers party. The armed forces of Brazil are the second largest by active personnel and the largest by the level of military equipment in Latin America. The GDP value of Brazil represents 3.78 percent of the world economy. Brazil is world’s one of the largest economies. Roughly one-fifth of the work-forces is involved in agriculture. Brazil has a vast mineral wealth and mining reinforces its economy also. Brazilian foreign policy aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the U.N. and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America. As of 2011, Brazil does not recognize Kosovo and Taiwan. Brazil provides aid to various African and latin American countries through Brazilian Agency of Cooperation. In recent days, Brazil has become a point of discussion for the outbreak of Zika virus. Football is the most popular sport in Brazil. The Brazilian national football team has won the FIFA World Cup a record five times, in 1958,1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Brazil is the only team to succeed in qualifying for every World Cup competition ever held.

Gabonese Republic Gabon is a state situated on west coast of Central Africa. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, and on Congo in the south and east, on Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in the north. It’s officially recognized as Gabonese Republic. Gabon got its independence from France in August 17, 1960. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 103,346 sq. mi | Religion | Christianity | Population | 1,475,000 | Currency | Central African CFA franc | Language | French | GDP | $32.682 billion | The flag of Gabon has Three equally sized horizontal shades of green, yellow and blue color. This was officially adopted by Gabon in August 1960.Green represents green of the forest, blue represents the sea and yellow represents natural resources and equator line which passes through the sea. Gabonese Republic has unitary multiparty republic a Parliament comprising two legislative houses. The head of the state is president Ali Bongo Ondimba and the head of the government is Prime Minister Daniel Ona Ondo. Major political parties in Gabon are Gabonese Democratic Party, National Woodcutters Rally, Gabonese Progress Party, Social Democratic party. Gabonese Democratic Party is current ruling party of Gabon. Gabon has an approximately 5000 professional military personnel divided into army, navy, air-force and police. The economy of Gabon is reliant on oil for about 50% of its GDP, about 70% of revenues, and 87% of goods exports in 2010. Gabon Has a GDP ( purchase power parity) of $32.682 billion billion (2014 est.). According to World Bank, Gabon is a major oil producer but a third of its population lives in poverty .The main products of industrial sector of Gabon are include refined petroleum, chemicals, food and beverages, textiles, and wood products. Main exports of Gabon are crude petroleum, forest products, manganese and uranium ores, and cocoa; the principal imports are machinery and equipment. Gabon follows a non-aligned policy, advocating dialogue in international politics and recognizing both parts of divided countries. Gabon has diplomatic relations with China since 1974. Relations between United States and Gabon are good. former U.S. secretary of the state Colin Powell made a historic visit to Gabon in September, 2002 to promote environmental protection and conservation of central african region. Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965), a world-famous clergyman, physician, philosopher, and musicologist and the 1952 winner of the Nobel Prize for peace is one of the notable Gabonese ever lived.

Lebanese Republic Lebanon, officially known as Lebanese Republic, is a small, war-torn country on the east coast of Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon gained independence in 1943 after being ruled by the Ottoman Empire and the French. Beirut is the capital of Lebanon. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 4,036 sq. mi | Religion | 54% Muslim, 40.5%Christianity | Population | 5,851,000 | Currency | Lebanese Pound | Language | Arabic | GDP | $81.122 billion |

The Lebanese flag is compose of three equal size horizontal stripes composed of two red bands and a white band in the middle with green cedar tree with its top touching the upper red stripe and its base touching the lower red stripe. Red symbolizes martyrdom of Lebanese people in the struggle for independence. Withe indicates peace, purity and the snow capped mountain peaks. The Cedar tree indicates immortality, tolerance, strength and prosperity of the nation. Lebanese Republic is a parliamentary democratic republic. Constitution of Lebanon was adopt in 1926. The Head of the state Is President and the head of the government is Prime Minister. Prime Minister Tammam Salam is head of the government and acting head of the state of Lebanese Republic since Michel Suleiman term ended in 2014 and a presidential election was held in Lebanon on 23 April 2014.and no candidate reached a two-thirds majority vote in the first round and subsequent rounds failed to gain a quorum. From 1975 to 1990 Lebanon has been in a civil war in which regional players- Israel, Syria and Palestine Liberation organization and used the country as a battle ground. Civil war ended in1990. But Lebanon was embroiled in war with Israel in 2006 over Hezbollah. Syrian civil war has spilled over border. Syrian civil war overshadowed peace in Lebanon. According to UNHCR 1,835,840 Syrian refugees was in Lebanon in December, 2015. The economy of Lebanon is a developing economy with 75% contribution of private sector. Lebanon has a competitive and free market policy. Major industrial sectors of Lebanon are agriculture, metal products, banking, chemicals and transport equipments. It has a GDP(nominal) of $49.92 billion (2014 est.). Lebanon is a good sector for Bangladesh to export manpower. In a interview with The Daily Star in 2014 Bangladeshi Ambassador to Lebanon stated that around 60000 Bangladeshi workers are in Lebanon. Lebanese people has a good taste for cultural work. Lebanon has a strong connection with visual art, contemporary art, poetry, literature and cuisine.

Republic of Palau Palau is an island country located in western Pacific Ocean. The island was first visited by Europeans in 16th century and in 1574, it was made a part of Spanish East Indies. Official name of Palau is Republic of Palau. Palau became independent in 1994, after being part of a United Nations trust territory administered by the United States for 47 years.Palau is an island chain consists of more than 200 islands. Ngerulmud is the capital of Palau. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 179.75 sq. mi | Religion | Christianity: 49.4% Roman Catholic, 30.9% Protestant | Population | 17,948 | Currency | United States Dollar | Language | Palauan, English | GDP | $288 million | The flag of Palau contains light blue color with a yellow list in the mid left of the surface. The blue color represents the ocean and yellow moon (disk) is the symbol of peace, love and tranquility and it also represents the optimum time for human activity. The flag was adopt ed on January 1, 1961. Republic of Palau is a presidential representative democratic republic. The uppwe house of the legislature branch is called Senate and the lower branch is called House of Delegates. President is the head of the state and head of the government as well. Tommy Remengesau is the 6th president of Palau. Palau has no political parties now. The economy of Palau is agriculture and fishing based. Palau relies heavily on the financial assistance of United States. Tourism is the main industry in Palau. It mainly focuses on scuba diving and snorkeling at islands rich marine environment. Major trading partners of Palau are U.S., Japan, South Korea. Palau has natural resources like minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep seabed minerals etc. Palau joined United Nations on December 15, 1994. In 1999 Palau established relations with Taiwan instead of People’s Republic of China.Taiwan, Japan, Philippines and United States has embassy in Palau and Palau maintains embassy on those countries. Palau has maritime delineation and continuous negotiations with Philippines and Indonesia. Palau is a piece of tropical paradise, one of the unspoiled destinations of earth. Palau has more than 200 volcanic islands and many of them are surrounded by single barrier reef.

Swiss Confederation Switzerland is a mountainous landlocked country situated in western and central Europe, with its border Germany in the north, Italy in the south, France in the west and Austria in the east. Switzerland officially known as the Swiss Confederation. Bern is the de facto capital of Switzerland. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 15,940 sq mi | Religion | Roman Catholic 38.2%, Protestant 26.9%, other Christian 5.6% | Population | 8,211,700 | Currency | Swiss franc | Language | German, French, Italian and Romansh | GDP | $ 480.938 billion | he national flag of Switzerland consists of a white cross with a red background. White cross symbolizes Christianity and the red represents blood spilled to uphold the faith. The flag was adopted on December 12, 1889. Switzerland is divided into three major geographical areas: Alps ("Alpen"): 60% ; Middle land ("Mittelland"): 30%; Jura: 10%. Switzerland hosts nearly 20% of Alps with 100 peaks close to or higher than 4000 meters. Ethnic groups of Switzerland are: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%. Though Switzerland is Swiss Confederation for historical reason but its a federal multi-party directorial republic (with through elements of Direct Democracy). Swiss Confederation was established on 1 August 1291. It has 26 cantons. For centuries Switzerland has been a neutral state, which means it doesn’t take part in armed conflict unless its attacked and its forces are used only for internal security and self defense. Switzerland joined UN in 2002. Though its surrounded by EU, it hasn't joined it. The chief of the state and head of the government is the President of the Swiss Confederation Johann N. Schneider-Ammann (since 1 January 2016). Major political parties in Switzerland: Swiss People’s Party, Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party. Swiss armed forces consists of land force and Swiss Air Force. 19-26 years of age for male compulsory military service; every Swiss male has to serve at least 260 days in the armed forces. Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous country with on of the highest per capita GDP among the world. The country has a GDP (purchasing power parity) of $473.3 billion (2014 est.) with a industrial production growth rate of 2%. Swiss are famous fro their precision in mechanics. Machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, insurance are the major industries in Switzerland. Swiss Bank Corporation is a large financial corporation with over 300 billion of assets.
Switzerland is known for its landscape beauty. Another best part of Switzerland is almost all of the world famous watch brands (like Breitling, Hublot, Omega and many other local brands) are from Switzerland.
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
China, officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is a sovereign state in East Asia. The capital city of china is Beijing. Xi Jingping, the president of china is the head of the state. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 9,596,961 km | 4. Religion | Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism | 2 Population | 1.35 billion | 5. Currency | Yuan. | 3 Language | Chinese | 6. GDP Rate | 19.510 trillion |

The PRC is a one party state governed by the communist party, with it’s seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercise jurisdiction over 22 province, five autonomous regions, four direct control municipalities, two mostly self governing special administrative regions(Hong Kong, Macau) and claims sovereignty over Taiwan.
China flag contains red and five stars. The red represents the communist revolution. The five stars represent the relationship and the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of Chinese government
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, china is the world’s largest country by land area. The Himalayan, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate china from south and central Asia
China is a cradle of civilization with it’s know history beginning with an ancient civilization, one of the earliest that flourish in the fertile basin of the yellow river in the north china plain. The Republic of China replaced the last dynasty in 1912. After Second World War the communist party defeated the nationalist Kuomintang in mainland China and established the People’s Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to Taiwan with its present capital in Taipei.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.

Republic Of Honduras
Honduras, officially the Republic Of Honduras, is a republic in Central America. Tagucigalpa is the capital of Honduras. Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 43,278 sq mi | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2 Population | 8,249,574 | 5. Currency | Lempira. | 3 Language | Spanish | 6. GDP Rate | $19.567 billion |

The flag consists of three horizontal bands of equal width with an overall length: width ratio of 2:1. The two outer cerulean bands represent the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and also represent the blue sky and brotherhood. The inner white band represents the land between the ocean and the sea, the peace and prosperity of its people, and purity of thoughts. The five cerulean five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band represent the five nations of the former and the hope that the nations may form a union again.
Honduras became independent from Spain in 1821 and was for a time part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823 when it became part of the United Provinces of Central America federation. Since 1838, it has been an independent republic and held regular elections Comayagua was the capital of Honduras until 1880, when it moved to Tegucigalpa.
Honduras traditionally had a two-party system, dominated by the Liberal Party of Honduras and the National Party of Honduras. Politics of Honduras takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Honduras is both head of state and head of government. Juan Orlando is the president of Honduras.
Timber, gold, silver, zinc, lead is the main resource of Honduras. Mining, which was a big source of income for Honduras, brought in gold, silver, zinc, lead and cadmium.

Republic of Malta
Malta, officially the Republic of Malta, is a southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The capital of Malta is Valletta, is the smallest national capital in the European Union. It lies 80 Km south of Italy, 284 km east of Tunisia,333 km north of Libya. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 122 sq. mi | 4. Religion | Catholicism | 2 Population | 445,426 | 5. Currency | Euro | 3 Language | English and Maltese | 6. GDP Rate | $10.582 billion |

The flag of Malta is a basic bi-colour, with white in the hoist and red in the fly. A representation of the George Cross, awarded to Malta by George VI of the United Kingdom in 1942, is carried, edged with red, in the canton of the white stripe.
Malta is classified as an advanced economy together with 32 other countries according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).Until 1800 Malta depended on cotton, tobacco and its shipyards for exports. Once under British control, they came to depend on Malta Dockyard for support of the Royal Navy, especially during the Crimean war of 1854.
Thepolitics of Malta takes place within a framework of a parliamentary In 1971, the Malta Labor Party led by Dom Mintoff won the General Elections, resulting in Malta declaring itself a republic on 13 December 1974, whereby the President of Malta is the constitutional head of state. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Malta which consists of the President of Malta and the unicameral House of Representatives of Malta with the Speaker presiding officer of the legislative body. Marie Louise Colerio Preca is the president of the Malta government.
Energy in Malta describes energy production, consumption and import in Malta. Malta has no domestic resource of fossil fuels and no gas distribution network
Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, and architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage site. Saflieni Hypogeum ,Valletta and seven Megalithic Temples, which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.

Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the eastern Caribbean sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique. Castries is the capital city of Saint Lucia. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 238.23sq mi | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2 Population | 183,600. | 5. Currency | East Caribbean dollar | 3 Language | English | 6. GDP Rate | $1.239 billion |

The flag of Saint Lucia consists of a cerulean blue field charged with a yellow isosceles triangle in front of a white-edged black arrowhead. Adopted in 1967 to replace the British Blue Ensign defaced with the arms of the colony, it has been the flag of Saint Lucia since the country became an Associated State of the United Kingdom that year. Although the overall design of the flag has remained unchanged, specific aspects of it have been altered over the years.
Politics of Saint Lucia takes place in the framework of an independent parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, represented by a Governor General, who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party of the house, and the cabinet conducts affairs of state. The Governor General exercises basically ceremonial functions, but residual powers, under the constitution, can be used at the governor general's discretion. The actual power in St. Lucia lies with the prime minister and the cabinet, usually representing the majority party in parliament.
Forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential are the main resources of Saint Lucia. The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 St. Lucia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $866.0 million. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
St. Lucia's physical features are notable. Dominated by high peaks and rain forests in the interior, the 616-square-kilometer (238-square-mile) island is known for the twin peaks of Gross Piton and Petit Piton on the southwestern coast.

Republic of Uganda
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the democratic Republic of Congo, to the southwest by Rwanda and to the south by Tanzania. Kampala is the capital of the Uganda. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1 Size | 93,065 sq mi | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2 Population | 37,873,253 | 5. Currency | Uganda Shilling | 3 Language | Swahili | 6. GDP Rate | $21.002 billion |

During the colonial era the British used a British Blue ensign defaced with the colonial badge, as prescribed in 1865 regulations. Buganda, the largest of the traditional kingdoms in the colony of Uganda, had its own flag. However, in order to avoid appearing to give preference to one region of the colony over any other, the British colonial authorities selected the crane emblem for use on the Blue ensign and other official banners.
Uganda’s government is dominant-party semi presidential republic. Democratic party became the first chief Minister. Yoweri Museveni is the president and Ruhakana Rotunda is the prime minister of Uganda government. Yoweri Museveni is the chairperson of the Commonwealth of Nations. His political party is National resistance movement.
Uganda gained independence from Britain in October 1962 as a Commonwealth realm with queen Elizabeth as head of state. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained in the Commonwealth of Nations. The first election held in 1962.
Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it is thought that Uganda could feed all of Africa if it were commercially farmed. The economy of Uganda has great potential, and it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development. Chronic political instability and erratic economic management since self-rule has produced a record of persistent economic decline that has left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries. The national energy needs have historically been more than domestic energy generation, though large petroleum reserves have been found in the west. Since assuming power in early 1986, Museveni's government has taken important steps toward economic rehabilitation.

Kingdom of Bahrain
Bahrain officially the kingdom of Bahrain is a small island country in the middle East. Bahrain is the site of ancient Dilmun Civilisation. It was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam, Saudi Arabia lies in the west and is connected to it. category | Fact | category | fact | 1. size | 295.37sqm | 4.Rcligion | Islam | 2. population | 1,343,000 | 5. currency | dinar | 3. Language | Arabic | 6. GDP Rate | $ 34.90 billion | the king of Bahrain is the monarch and head of the state. Malik Al Bahrain is sheik Hamad bin Isa Al khalifa. Manama is the capital of it. It declared independence in 14 August 1971 Bahrain is an absolute Monarchy It has a bicameral National Assembly with 40 seats. The members are elected by majority vote. political parties are illegal in Bahrain, but operate as de facto political parries under the term political societies.
The national flag of Bahrain consists of a white band on the left separated from a red area by five triangles. It symbolises the 5 pillars of Islam. It is sometimes mistaken for the flag of Qater.
Islam is the state religion of Bahrain. It has a very conflicted relationship between Sunni and shi’i. shi’i is the religion of the majority of the people. or Sunni is the religion of the elite. Religious freedom is secured by the constitution.

Dominican Republic
Dominica officially the common wealth of Dominica, is an Island Country. The capital is Roseau located on the leeward side. It gained independence in 1978. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 750 Km2 | 4. Religion | Catholic | 2. Population | 72,337 | 5. Currency | Dollar | 3. Language | English | 6. GDP Rate | $ 1.002 billion |
Dominica is a parliamentary democracy. The commonwealth is one of the Caribbeans few Republics. The President is the head of the state. Charles Saverin is the present president and Roosvelt Skerrit is the Prime Minister of the state.
It has two-party system who have dominant power. The two majore political parties are Dominical Labour party (DLP) and United Workers Party (UWP). The house of Assembly is the legislature of Dominica.
The flag of Dominica was adopted on November 3. The flag was designed by Alwin Bully. A green field with a central cross of three bands (yellow, black and white). The field represents the lush vegetation of the Island. A red disk superimposed at the center.
About 80% of the population is roman catholic, though in recent years a number of protestant churches have been established. There is also a small Muslim community in Dominica.
It is an Island in the Caribbean Sea the country has one of the most rugged landscapes in the sea. This is protected by an extensive natural park system.

Japan
Japan is an Island country in east Asia. It located in the pacific ocean. It often called the land of the rising sun. Tokyo is the capital city of Japan. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 1,45,925 Sm | 5. Religion | Shinto | 2. Population | 126,919,659 | 6. Currency | Yen | 3. Language | Japanese | 7. GDP Rate | 843 trillion |
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of the government. He was appointed by the Emperor. The current Prime Minister is Shinzo Abe who took office on December 26, 2012.
The politics of Japan is conducted in a famework. Legislative power is vasted in the national Diet. Parliamentary constitution is monarchy. Majore political parties of Japan are communist party, Komeito, Innovation etc.
The national flag of Japan is a white rectangular flag with a large red disc in the center. The flag is commonly representing the sun known as Hinomaru. It plays an important role in Japanese mythology.
Sinto and Buddism are Japans two majore religions. Shinto is old while Buddism was imported in 16th Century. Religion does not play a big role in the Japanese people life.
Mount fugi is Japanese highest peak and the most beautiful mountain. About 3,00,000 people make the climb every year realizing their dreams to get to the top at least once in their lifetime.

Republic of Namibia
Namibia officially the Republic of Namibia is a country in southern Africa. It shares land borders with zambia and Angola. Its capital and largest city is win hock. It is a member state of the UN. category | fact | category | fact | 1. size | 825,615 km2 | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. population | 2,113,077 | 5. currency | dollar | 3. language | English | 6. GDP Rate | 18.800 billion |
Namibia is a unitary semi- presidential representative democratic republic. The president of it is elected to a five year tern and the head of the state of Government. Hage geingob is the present president of it.
In Namibia polities plays a significant role in party affiliation. There are 16 political parties with the electroral commission. It has a bicameral parliament with national assembly as lower house.
The flag of Namibia was adopted on March 21. the flag of the SWAPO. It comprises diagonal stripes of blue-red-green. the gold pointed sun, represents life & energy.
More than 90 percent citizens identify themselves as Christian. The constitution group is the lutheran. the constitution provides for freedom of religion. other Buddhism and the Bahaifaith.
The Namib is a coastal desert consisting of sand, plains. The highest mountain in namibia the Brandberg is located in the inner Namib. Etosha is classified as a saline desert.

Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia officially the republic of Slovenia is a nation state in southern central Europ. It covers 20,273 square Kilometers and has a population of 2.06 milion. The capital is Ljublijana. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 20,273 Km2 | 4. Religion | Christianity | 2. Population | 2,063,077 | 5. Currency | Euro | 3. Language | Slovene | 6. GDP Rate | 65.512 billion |
The President is the head of the state. He is directly elected by universal Adult suffrage once every five years. Any Slovenian citizen can run for President. Borut Pahor is the present President.
Slovenia has a multi-party system with numerous political parties. They must work with each other form coalition government. The major parties are party of Miro Cerar, Democratic party, Social Democrats etc.
The national flag of Slovenia features three equal horizontal bands of white, blue and red. (It was officially adopted on June, 27, 1991) the metres use the flag as an ensign. The navel jack uses colours of the coat of arms.
The most regional beauties and special features of it is the sight of a church perched on hiltop. It is a land of countless attractions, that surprises you at every step.
Christianity is the largest religion in Slovenia. It played a vital role in the development of the Slovene nation.

BURMA Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 678,500 sq. kilometers | Religion | Buddhism | Population | Around 53.897 million | Currency | Kyat | Language | Burmese | GDP rate | $269.996 billion |

Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country located in Southeast Asia. It is the southernmost country in the Balkan Peninsula. The capital city of Myanmar is Naypidaw. Some governments recognize Yangoon (Rangoon) as the national Capital.

Myanmar has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres which is the 40th largest country of the world by area. It has a population of 53.897 million, as of July 1, 2015. It is the 25th most populous country in the world.

In addition, Myanmar has four major political parties: The National League for Democracy, National Democratic Force and two backed by the military: the National Unity Party and the Union Solidarity and Development Party. The current President of Myanmar is Thein Sein. The president is the head of the state and also the head of the government. It is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. For a long period of time (1962-2011) Myanmar was under the rule of an oppressive military junta.
The design of the new flag comprises of three stripes of yellow, green, and red horizontally positioned to feel the area of the flag. In the centre is a large white five pointed star. The meanings behind the colours are the virtues of solidarity, peace, and tranquility. The white star in the middle replaces the green peacock from the Japanese occupation, it represents the Union of Burma.
Myanmar produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires, pearls and jade. 90% rubies of the world’s produced in Myanmar. Myanmar’s “Valley of Rubies” is famous for its rare pigeon’s blood rubies and blue sapphires.

Myanmar has over 135 ethnic tribes making it one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. The dominance of the largest ethnic group, the Burman or Bamar people, over the minorities has been fueling series of long-running rebellions.

GHANA Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 238,535 sq. kilometers | Religion | Christian | Population | Around 27.41 million | Currency | Ghana cedi | Language | English | GDP rate | $148.599 billion |

Ghana, officially known as Republic of Ghana, is a country located in the sub-region of West Africa. It is bordered by the Ivory Coast in west, Burkina Faso in north, Togo in east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in south. The capital city of Ghana is Accra.

Ghana has a total area of 238,535 square kilometers which is the 82nd largest country of the world by area. It has a population of 27.41 million, as of July 1, 2015. It is the 48th most populous country in the world.
Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with parliamentary multi-party system with former alternating military occupation. It is ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt countries in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. The current President of the Republic of Ghana and Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces is John Dramani Mahama.

The Ghana flag makes use of the Pan-African colors - the red stripe represents the blood spilt during Ghana's struggle for independence; the yellow stripe symbolizes the mineral wealth of the country; and the green stripe represents the vegetation and fertility of the nation. The black five-pointed star symbolizes African freedom and the African people. Ghana was the first African nation to feature these colors.

Ghana is very rich in resources. It has precious metals like gold, diamond, silver, bauxite etc. Also it produces cocoa, timber, huge water bodies and recently the discovery of Oil. It is the Second largest producer of Cocoa in the world.

Almost 98% of Ghana’s population are Black Africans. Its largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. As of 2010 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% were Muslims.

LIECHTENSTEIN Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 160 sq. kilometers | Religion | Roman Catholicism | Population | Around 37,340 | Currency | Swiss franc | Language | German | GDP rate | $3.545 billion |

It is officially known as Principality of Liechtenstein. It is a doubly landlocked German microstate in Central Europe. It is bordered by Switzerland in west and south, Austria in north and east. Its Capital is Vaduz and largest city is Triesenberg.

Liechtenstein has a total area of 160 square kilometers which is the 219h largest country of the world by area. It has a population of 37,340, as of 2014. It is the 215th most populous country in the world.
Lichtenstein has a constitutional monarch as Head of State, and an elected parliament which enacts law. It is also a direct democracy, where voters can propose and enact constitutional amendments and legislation independent of the legislature. Its current Prince is Hans-Adam II and the prime minister is Adrian Hasler.

Blue is the color of a radiant sky, red the color of the embers in the fireplace during evening gatherings; gold of the crown shows that our people, our country and our princely House are united in heart and spirit. Blue and red are the country's national colors. The gold crown, outlined in black, is the symbol of Princely authority and symbolizes the bond between Liechtenstein's prince, the state and the people.

Despite its limited natural resources, Liechtenstein is one of the few countries in the world with more registered companies than citizens; it has developed a prosperous, highly industrialized free-enterprise economy and boasts a financial service sector as well as a living standard that compares favorably with those of the urban areas of Liechtenstein's large European neighbors.

Almost 85.8% of the population of Liechtenstein are Christian and 5.4% are Muslims.

PERU

Peru officially the Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 1,285,216 sq. kilometers | Religion | Catholic | Population | Around 31.15 million | Currency | Nuevo sol | Language | Spanish | GDP rate | $403.322 billion |
Peru has a total area of 1,285,216 square kilometers which is the 20th largest country of the world by area. It has a population of 31.15 million, as of July 1, 2015. It is the 42th most populous country in the world.

In addition, Peru has four major political parties: Alliance for the Future, APRA, National Unity, Possible Peru, Peruvian Nationalist Party, Popular Action, Union for Peru. The current President of Peru is Ollanta Humala. The president is the head of the state and also the head of the government. It is a Presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70. The current president is Ollanta Humala and the current prime minister is Pedro Cateriano Bellido.

The flag of Peru was adopted by the government of Peru in 1824. It is a vertical triband with red outer bands and a single white middle band. The red stripes represent the blood spilt for Peruvian freedom; while the white stands for peace.

Natural resources in Peru includes copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, natural gas, hydro-power.

Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by the combination of different groups spanning over five centuries.
One of the seven wonders of earth, Machu Picchu is situated in Peru. It attracts millions of tourists every year.

THAILAND Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 513,120 sq. kilometers | Religion | Buddhism | Population | Around 67.96 million | Currency | Baht | Language | Thai | GDP rate | $1.107 trillion |

It is officially known as Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam. It is a country at the center of the Indochinese peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its Capital is Bangkok.

Thailand has a total area of 513,120 square kilometers which is the 51st largest country of the world by area. It has a population of 67.96 million, as of 2015. It is the 20th most populous country in the world.

The politics of Thailand is currently conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, where the Prime Minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is the head of state. Its current Monarch is Bhumibol Adulyadej and the prime minister is Prayut Chan-o-cha.

The red stripes represent the blood spilt to maintain Thailand's independence. The white stands for purity and is the color of Buddhism which is the country's main religion. Blue is Thailand's national color and it represents the Thai monarchy. The blue is also used to honor Thailand's World War I allies, Great Britain, France, United States and Russia, who all had red, white and blue flags.

A number of mineral deposits have been found in Thailand. Among them tin, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, lead, zinc, gold, iron and stibnite are the most important metallic minerals. Feldspar, clay minerals, fluorite, barite, potash and rock salt are also important non-metallic minerals.
Almost 95% of the population of Thailand are Theravada Buddhism. The literacy rate is 93.5%.
Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in 2013. Also Bangkok is the world’s most visited city. It is the world’s largest exporter of rice.

Republic of Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso, formerly known as Upper Volta, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Its neighbors are Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, and Ghana. The country consists of extensive plains, low hills, high savannas, and a desert area in the north. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 274,200 square km | 4.Religion | Islam, Christianity | 2.Population | | | 18,430,778 | 5.GDP rate | $28 billion | 3.Currency | West African CFA franc | 6.Language | French |

Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (December 21, 1949 – October 15, 1987) was a Burkinabe military captain, Marxist revolutionary, pan-Africanist theorist, and President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987. He is commonly referred to as "Africa's Che Guevara".
The current territory of Burkina Faso has been occupied since 500 years B.C. The first French exploration dates back to 1888. The colonization of the country by France started in 1896 and ended in 1904 with the integration of the territory of Upper Volta Niger colony of French West Africa as part of the reorganization of the French West African colony.
The climate of Burkina Faso is generally sunny, hot, and dry. Two principal climate zones can be distinguished. Temperatures dropping to about 60 °F (16 °C) at night; a hot season from mid-February to June. A rainy season, which lasts from June to September and an intermediate season which lasts from September until mid-November.
The population as a whole is unevenly distributed among the different regions. The eastern and central regions are densely settled and contain about half the total population. In the remaining regions the population is scattered. About three-fourths of the people are rural and live in villages.
Why would a country have two names Burkina and then Faso? Or even simply two names in its history: Upper Volta and then Burkina Faso? Well, the country named Upper Volta was given a new name in 1984 by then President Thomas Sankara, who chose the name Burkin Faso.
The flag of Burkina Faso is formed by two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green, with a yellow five-pointed star resting in the center. The flag was adopted on 4 August 1984. Red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth.
Slightly larger than Colorado, Burkina Faso, formerly known as Upper Volta, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Its neighbors are Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, and Ghana.

-------------------------------------------------
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mountainous country. The name of the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Sarajevo. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 51,129 sq km | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2. Population | 38,71,643 | 5. Currency | Changeable Mark | 3. Language | Bosnian | 6. GDP rate | $ 17.85 billion |

There is a democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The name of the president is Dragan Covic and the name of the prime minister is Denis Zvizdic. Two major political parties of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) and Party of Democratic Action Stranka (SDA). Bosnia and Herzegovina got it’s independent in late 1995 according to Dayton Accords.
The flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina contains a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow right triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag. The reminder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle.
These three points of the triangle are understood to stand for the three constituents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is also representing the territory which is looking like a triangle. The stars representing Europe are meant to be infinite in number and they contribute to top to bottom. The flag features colors often associated with neutrality and peace.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a lot of natural resources like coal, iron, ore, bauxite, nickel, lead, copper, zinc, manganese, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber and hydropower.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has some attractive tourist spot like sarajevo’s bascarsija, mostar’s stari most, neum, sutjeska national park etc.

FIJI
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand’s North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Suva is the capital of Fiji. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 18,274 km2 | 4. Religion | Christian, Hindu,Islam | 2.Population | 858,038 | 5.Currency | Fijian Dollar | .3.Language | English, Fijian, Hindi | 6.GDP (PPP) | $4.250 billion | Politics of Fiji take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. Fiji has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji as head of government. The executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji.
The current flag of Fiji was officially adopted on October 10, 1970.The Union Jack (upper left), is representative of the country's long association with Great Britain. The flag's blue field is symbolic of the surrounding Pacific Ocean. The coat of arms display a golden British lion holding a cocoa pod, as well as panels displaying a palm tree, sugar cane, bananas and dove of peace.

Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product, although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001.
Fiji’s mineral industry chiefly produced cement, gold, and silver. It was also involved in offshore oil exploration activities. Gold is the country’s second most valuable export.
Fiji is famous for tourism.
Fijians are very friendly and hospitable people. There was a time in the past, though, when Fijians practiced cannibalism as part of a war tradition.

Republic of Lithuania

Lithuania officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest.
The Lithuanian head of state is the President, elected directly for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms. The post of president is quite ceremonial; main policy functions include foreign affairs and national security. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 65,300km2 | Religion | Catholic | Population | 2,888,582 | Currency | Euro | Language | Lithuanian | GDP rate | $85.304 billion |

The flag of Lithuania consists of a horizontal tricolor of yellow, green and red. It was re-adopted on March 20, 1989, almost two years before the re-establishment of Lithuania's independence and more than three years before the collapse of the Soviet Union.
This article lists political parties in Lithuania. Lithuania has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. As of 2008, there are 37 political parties registered with the Ministry of Justice.There are currently eight parties represented in the Seimas.
The current government is a centre-left one, formed between the Social Democratic Party of Lithuania, the Labour Party, Order and Justice and the Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania under the leadership of the Social Democrats AlgirdasButkevičius.
Politics of Lithuania takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Lithuania is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.Executive power is exercised by the president and the government, which is headed by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the unicameral Seimas (Lithuanian Parliament).

Switzerland

Switzerland is a mountainous landlocked country situated in western and central Europe, with its border Germany in the north, Italy in the south, France in the west and Austria in the east. Switzerland officially known as the Swiss Confederation. Bern is the de facto capital of Switzerland.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 15,940 sq mi | Religion | Roman Catholic 38.2%, Protestant 26.9%, other Christian 5.6% | Population | 8,211,700 | Currency | Swiss franc | Language | German, French, Italian and Romansh | GDP | $ 480.938 billion |

he national flag of Switzerland consists of a white cross with a red background. White cross symbolizes Christianity and the red represents blood spilled to uphold the faith. The flag was adopted on December 12, 1889.
Switzerland is divided into three major geographical areas: Alps ("Alpen"): 60% ; Middle land ("Mittelland"): 30%; Jura: 10%. Switzerland hosts nearly 20% of Alps with 100 peaks close to or higher than 4000 meters. Ethnic groups of Switzerland are:German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%.
Though Switzerland is Swiss Confederation for historical reason but its a federal multi-party directorial republic (with through elements of Direct Democracy). Swiss Confederation was established on 1 August 1291. It has 26 cantons. For centuries Switzerland has been a neutral state, which means it doesn’t take part in armed conflict unless its attacked and its forces are used only for internal security and self defense.
Switzerland joined UN in 2002. Though its surrounded by EU, it hasn't joined it. The chief of the state and head of the government is the President of the Swiss Confederation Johann N. Schneider-Ammann (since 1 January 2016). Major political parties in Switzerland: Swiss People’s Party, Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party. Swiss armed forces consists of LandForce and Swiss Air Force. 19-26 years of age for male compulsory military service; every Swiss male has to serve at least 260 days in the armed forces.
Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous country with on of the highest per capita GDP among the world. The country has a GDP (purchasing power parity) of $473.3 billion (2014 est.) with a industrial production growth rate of 2%. Swiss are famous fro their precision in mechanics. Machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, insurance are the major industries in Switzerland. Swiss Bank Corporation is a large financial corporation with over 300 billion of assets.

Federal Republic of Germany
Germany is a Western European country with a terrain of vast forests, rivers and mountain ranges, and 2 millennia of history. Berlin, its capital, is home to thriving art and nightlife scenes, iconic Brandenburg Gate and many sites relating to WWII. Munich is known for its Oktoberfest and cavernous beer halls. Frankfurt, with its skyscrapers, houses the European Central Bank. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 357,022 square km | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.Population | 81.1 million | 5.Language | German | 3.Currency | Euro | 6.GDP Rate | . $3.7 trillion |

Unlike the American political system and the British political system which essentially have existed in their current form for centuries, the current German political system is a much more recent construct dating from 1949 when the American, British and French zones of occupation were consolidated into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). In 1990, the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic.
Like many countries - including Britain, France, and the USA - Germany has two major party groupings, one Centre-Right and the other Centre-Left. The Centre-Right grouping comprises two political parties that operate in different parts of the country so that there is no direct electoral competition between them.
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The national flag of Germany consists of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold and black. Black, red and gold colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Germany's struggle for a unified identity has a long history marked by numerous politically and religiously motivated wars. The new nation was consumed by a thirst for power and expansion which directly lead to the outbreak of World War I, defeat for both Germany and Austria and a disastrous peace agreement. Then Hitler able to turn general social disaffection into the focused lunacy of the Third Reich and World War II.
Germany’s natural resources include bituminous coal, lignite (brown coal), natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials and farmland. Since it has relatively few natural resources, Germany imports most of its raw materials.
Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP. Since the age of industrialization and beyond, the country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever more globalised economy.

State of Libya
Libya is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. Tripoli is the capital of Libya. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 1,759,540 sq km | 4. Religion | Islam | 2. Population | 6.202 million | 5. Currency | Libyan dinar | 3. Language | Arabic | 6. GDP rate | 74.2 billion |

Algiers, 04 June 2015 – Libyan political parties and political activists concluded their third meeting in Algiers on Thursday 4 June in a positive atmosphere that reflected a genuine desire to rise above their differences and the necessity of reaching a final solution to the crisis in Libya. Abdullah al-Thani is the prime minster of Libya.
Origin of the flag of Libya, the red represented the blood of the Libyan people who died under the Italian fascist rule, while the green represents the era of independence, freedom and a new start for the Libyan people and the religion of Islam. The crescent and star represent the main religion of Libya which is Islam.
Apart from petroleum, Libya's other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum. Its economy depends primarily on the oil sector, which represents over 95 per cent of export earnings. Moreover, the oil and gas sector accounts for about 60 per cent of total GDP.
Libya was under foreign rule for centuries until it gained independence in 1951. Soon after oil was discovered and earned the country immense wealth. Col Gaddafi seized power in 1969 and ruled for four decades until he was toppled in 2011 following an armed rebellion assisted by Western military intervention.
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary and politician who governed Libya as its primary leader from 1969 to 2011. Muammar Gaddafi was born in a tent near Qasr Abu Hadi, a rural area outside the town of Sirte in the deserts of western Liby.
The Economy of Libya depends primarily upon revenues from the petroleum sector. Libya's public finances, wracked by a dramatic loss in oil revenue that has been exacerbated by a power struggle between rival governments. Libya's economy is structured primarily around the nation's energy sector, which generates about 95% of export earnings, 80% of GDP, and 99% of government income.
Modern Greece is famous for its history, culture, politics .

Republic of Paraguay
Paraguay is a landlocked country between Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia, home to large swaths of swampland, subtropical forest and chaco, wildernesses comprising savanna and scrubland. The capital, Asunción, on the banks of the Paraguay River, is home to the grand Government Palace. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 406,752 square km | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.Population | 6.9 million | 5.Currency | Paraguayan guaraní | 3.Language | Guaraní, Spanish | 6.GDP rate | $61.167 billion |

Paraguay was governed by three dictators during the first 60 years of independence. The third, Francisco López, waged war against Uruguay, Brazil, and Argentina in 1865–1870, a conflict in which half the male population was killed. . The Chaco War (1932–1935) with Bolivia won Paraguay more western territory. Horacio Manuel Cartes Jara is a Paraguayan businessman, and current Paraguay's president, elected as of the April 2013 elections.
The flag of Paraguay is a vertical tricolor of red, white, blue. On the obverse (front) side, the centre of the white fess is charged by the national coat of arms. This consists of a yellow Star of May, recalling the month of independence in 1811. The current flag of Paraguay was officially adopted on November 25, 1842.
The recorded history of Paraguay began indirectly in 1516 with the failed expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís to the Río de la Plata estuary, which divides Argentina and Uruguay. After Solís's death at the hands of Indians, the expedition renamed the estuary Río de Solís and sailed back to Spain.
In 1887 Paraguay's two major political parties, the Liberal Party and the National Republican Association (Asociación Nacional Republicana; ANR), generally known as the Colorado Party, were born.
Government type of Paraguay is constitutional republic. Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
The primary resources of Paraguay are its fertile soil and its forests. It has few mineral resources; limestone, copper, clay, and petroleum are the most important. Paraguay's rivers, well suited for hydroelectric projects, are another important resource.
Paraguay is full of culture. There are two languages most common in Paraguay, one is Spanish and one is an Indian language called Guarani. The language of Guarani is completely different from Spanish.
Little-visited, little-known Paraguay is a country much misunderstood. Despite its location at the heart of the continent, it is all too often passed over by travelers who wrongly assume that a lack of mega-attractions means there's nothing to see. But it's ideal for those keen to get off the gringo trail for a truly authentic South American experience.

United Republic of Tanzania
Tanzania is in East Africa on the Indian Ocean. To the north are Uganda and Kenya; to the west, Burundi, Rwanda, and Congo; and to the south, Mozambique, Zambia, and Malawi. Its area is three times that of New Mexico. Tanzania contains three of Africa's best-known lakes—Victoria in the north, Tanganyika in the west, and Nyasa in the south. Mount Kilimanjaro in the north, 19,340ft.It is the highest point on the continent. The island of Zanzibar is separated from the mainland by a 22-mile channel. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 947,300 square km | 4.Languages | Swahili, English | 2.Population | 47.36 Million | 5.Currency | Tanzanian shilling | 3.Religion | Christian | 6.GDP rate | 48.06 billion |

All ministers are appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister, and must be members of parliament. The president in consultation with the prime minister, is also responsible for the appointment of the deputy ministers, and can appoint any number of deputy ministers required to assist the ministers. John Magufuli is the president of Tanzania. Tanzanian prime minister is Kassim Majaliwa .
The flag of Tanzania was adopted in December 1964. Tanzania flag is hoisted on all government and public buildings and institutions across Tanzania. The green alludes to the natural vegetation and "rich agricultural resources" of the country, while black represents the Swahili people who are native to Tanzania. The blue epitomizes the Indian Ocean, as well as the nations numerous lakes and rivers.
Tanzania is well established mining jurisdiction, being the third largest gold producer in Africa. Gold production is predominantly from the prolific Lake Victoria Gold Fields Region in the north of the country. Discovery of other natural resources apart from wealth in agriculture, forestry and wildlife land, Tanzania is also very rich in minerals such as diamond, iron, coal, nickel, tanzanite, uranium and natural gas.
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income. However, it has achieved high overall growth rates based on gold production and tourism. The economy depends on agriculture. Gross domestic product growth rate of 6-7 percent over the past decade. USAID is helping Maasai women in Tanzania gain literacy and numeracy skills so that they can obtain land rights, start businesses, and become involved in local government.
Tanzania has some world famous natural attractions. They include Mount Kilimanjaro, the Serengeti National Park , and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. However, access to these parks may be difficult, expensive, or both, and accommodation tends to be limited, if you are not camping.
A total of 128 languages are spoken in Tanzania, most of them are from the Bantu family. Swahili and English are the two official languages of Tanzania. However, Swahili is the national language.

Principality of Andorra
Andorra is a sovereign landlocked microstate in southwestern Europe,located in the eastern pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.It is the sixth smallest nation in Europe,having an area of 468 km2(181 Sq mi)It’s capital Andorra la vella is the highest capital city in Europe. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Area | 467.63km2 | 4.Religion | Roman catholic | 2.Population | 85,470 | 5.Currency | Eurod(EUR) | 3.Language | catalan | 6.Gdp rate | $4.510billion [2](155th) |
Joan Enric Vives Sicilia current episcopal co.prince of Andorra Sina 12 May 2003.Francoin Hollande current French co-prince of Andorra since 15 may,2012.Andorra is a parlia mentary co-principality with the president of France and the Bishop of Urgell (catalonia,spain)as co-princes.The politics of Andorra take place in a frame work of a parliamentary represative democracy.Whereby the Head of government is the chief executive,current Head of Government is Antoni Marti of the Denocrats for Andorra.
Andorra’s tourism services an estimated 10.2 million vistors annually .It is not a member of the European Union.But the Euro is the de facto currency.it has been a member of the United Nations since 1993.In 2013 the people of Andorra had the highest life expectorey in the world at 81 years.
Andorra does not have its own armed forces.Although there is a small ceremonial army.Responsibility for defending the nation rests primarily with France and Spain.Andorra has a small army.,which has a historically been raised or reconstituted of various dates.Being a landlocked country, Andorra has no Navy.
The national flag of the principality of Andorra was adopted in 1866.A vertical tricolour of blue,yellow and red with the national coat of arms centred on the middle stripe.The middle stripe is one eighth thicker than the outer bands.From 1806 to1866,Andorra’s flag was a vertical bi-colour of yellow and red.

Republic of Costa Rica
The Republic of Costa Rica is a country in central America,bordered by Nicaragua to the north,panama to the southeast,the Pacific Ocean to the west,the Caribbean sea to the east,and Ecuador to the south of Focus Island. Categories | Fact | Categories | Fact | 1.Area | 51,100km2 | 4.Religion | Roman catholicism | 2.population | 4,586,353 | 5.currency | Costa Rican Colon | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP rate | $ 74.324billion |
Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous people before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. It remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the short,lived first Mexican Empire,followed by membership in the United provinces of central America,from which it formally declared sovereignity in 1847. it permanently abolished it's army in 1949,becoming the first of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army.
President of Costa Rica is Luis Guillermo Solis.1st vice president Helio Falla's Venegas.2nd vice president Ana Helena Chacon Echeverria.
The politics of Costa Rica take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic,with a multi-party system.Executive power is exercised by the president and his cabinet,and the president of Costa Rica is both the Head of State and Head of Government.Voting is compulsory in Costa Rica but it's not enforced.
Costa Rica used to have a two party system,the Social Christian Unity Party and the National Liberation Party.After the 2002 elections and the strong showing of the brand new Citizens Action party. It was considered very likely that the old two party system was on the verge of giving way to a multi party system.
Current flag of Costa Rica in its origin design was created on September 29,1848.Five horizontal bands of blue,white,red,white and blue.The flag was officially adopted on November 27,1906.The flag of Thailand is similar to the Costa Rican flag.
Costa Rica is an active member of the international community and in 1983 claimed it was for neutrality .Due to certain powerful constituencies favoring its methods .It has a weight in world affairs for beyond it size.

Republic Of Indonesia
The Republic of Indonesia is a sovereign island country in southeast Asia and Oceania. it is the largest island country in the world by the number of islands,with more than fourteen thousand islands.It's the world most populous muslim majority country.The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of country's population.Indonesia republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president.Indonesia has 34 provinces of which five have special administrative status.It's capital city is Jakarta. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Area | 1,904,569km2 | 4.Religion | Islam | 2.population | 255,461,700 | 5.currency | Indonesian rupian | 3.language | Indonesian | 6.GDP rate | $2.840trillion |

President of Indonesia is Joko Widodo.Vice president is Jusuf Kalla.Sukarno, the founding father and first president of Indonesia.Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards an tho riparian is us,and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the pk.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century.when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India.Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural,religious and political models from the early centuries CE,and Hindu and Buddhist kingdom flourished.Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources.
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state,power is concentrated in the central government following the resignation of president Suharto in 1998,Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms.
Since 1999,Indonesia has had a multi party system. In the two legislative elections since the fall of the new order regime,no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats,resulting in coalition governments.
The national flag of Indonesia officially called Sang Merah Putin.Indonesia flag is similar to the flag of Monaco,which is shorter.

United Mexican States
The united Mexican states is a federal republic in north America.It is bordered on the north by the united States,on the south and west by the pacific ocean,on the southeast by Guatemala,Belize,and the Caribbean sea,and on the east by the gulf of Mexico.Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the13th largest independent nation in the world.It's eleventh most populous country and most populous Spanish speaking country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America.Mexico is a federation comprising thirty one states and a federal district,its capital and largest city. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Area | 1,972,550km2 | 4.Religion | Catholic Christianity | 2.population | 125,235,587 | 5.Currency | Peso | 3.Language | Spanish | 6.GDP rate | $2.224 trillion |

The united Mexican states are a federation whose govt is representative,democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 constituitio,Enrique Pena Nieto is the current president of Mexico.The executive is the president of the United Mexican States who is the head of state and government,as well as the commander in chief of the Mexican military forces.The president also appoints the cabinet and other officers.The president is responsible for executing and enforcing the law and has the power to veto bills.
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics.The National Action Party:a conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the christian Democrat Organization of America,the institutional revolutionary party, a center left party and number of socialist international that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics.
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the president of Mexico and managed through the Ministry of Foreign affairs.Mexico is one of the founding members of several international organization most notably United Nations,the organization of American States. In addition,it was the only Latin American member of the organization for economic co-operation and development since a joined in 1994 until Chile gained fall membership in 2010.
Mexico is considered a regional power .Hence its presence in major economic groups such as the G8+5 and the G-20.

Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
The Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe is a Portuguese speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea,off the western equatorial coast of central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands. sao time and Principe,located about 140 kilometres(87mi) a part and about 250 and 225 kiometres,respectively, off the north western coast of Gabon. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Area | 1,001km2 | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.population | 190,428 | 5.currency | Dobra | 3.language | Portuguese | 6.GDP rate | $402million |

President of Sao Tome and Principe is Manuel Pinto DA Costa in 1986.The president of the republic is elected to a five year term by direct universal suffrage and a secret ballot, and must gain an outright majority to be elected.The National assembly the supreme organ of the state and the highest legislative body,is made up of 55 members,who are elected for a four year and meet semiannually .
Sao Tome has functioned under a multiparty system since 1990,with regards to human rights in Sao Tome ,there exists the freedom of speech and the freedom to form opposition political parties.
Sao Time and Principe has embassies in Angola,Gabon,Portugal,Belgium,Taiwan and the USA. It also has a permanent mission to the UN in NewYork city and an international Diplomatic Correspondent office.
Almost all residents belong to the Roman Catholic. Evangelical protestant or seventh day adventist churches,which in turn retain close ties with churches in portugal .There is a small but growing Muslim population.
The Sao Tome and Principe flag was officially adopted on november 5,1975,shortly after gaining its independence from Portugal .The red triangle symbolizes that hard fought struggle for independence and the two black stars represent the country's two main islands.The green,yellow and black are the African colors.

Batwsna

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 58,730 km | Religion | Christianity | Population | 2,1551784 | Currency | Pula | Language | Setswana | GDP | 17.222 Billion |

Batswana is a landlocked country located in southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as Batswana. And it has ,mentioned a strong tradition of stable representative democracy, with a consistency record of uninterrupted democratic election. Batswana is a member of the African Union, the southern African development community. The commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations.

In the 19th century, hostility broke out between Tswana inhabitants of Batswana and Ndebele tribes who were making incursions’ into the territory from the north east.

When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 out of the main British colonies in the region the beehanaland protectorate in1964 the UK accepted proposals for a democratic self government in Batswana set of government was moved in 1965.

Batswana has diverse areas of wildlife habited in addition to the delta and desert areas there are grasslands where blue wild beers antelopes and other mammals and birds are found.

Northern Batswana one of the few remaining large population endangered African wild dog, chobe National park.

The constitution of Batswana is the ruled law which protects the citizens of Batswana and represents their rights. The politics of Batswana take place in a frame work of a representative democratic. Where by the President of Batswana is both head of state and head of government. Since independence was declared the party system has been dominated by the Batswana democratic party.

At the time of independence, Batswana had no armed force. It was only after the Rhodesian and south African military struck respectively against the Zimbabwe.

Republic of Finland Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 338,424 | Religion | Christianity | Population | 5,486,125 | Currency | Euro | Language | Sami | GDP | 230,8685 Billion |
Finland is the officially the Republic of Finland. It is a Nordic country in Northern Europe, Peninsula with gulf of Finland to the south and Gulf of Bothnia to the west. It has land borders with Sweden and Norway to the north and Russia to the east. Finland is port of the geographic region of Fennoscandia. Which also includes Scandinavia and port of Russia. Land area (sq km) in Finland was last measured at 303890 in 2014 (According to World Bank).Agricultural land is 22180 sqkm and Forest land is 72 (sqkm).As of January 2016, The Population of Finland was Estimated to be 5,430,232 people. This is on increase of 0.08% (4070) compound to population of 5.426 the year before. Due to external migration the population increased by 3364.There are many natural resource in Finland like timber, Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Chromites , Nickel, Silver, Limestone (S. CiA world Fact book)
Prior to Christianization. Finish Paganism was the Primary religion, worshipping a number of different deities. The Principal god was the god of thunder and the Sky, ukko today most of the people in Finland are, at least nominally members of a Christian church but since the 1980 s there has been a significant increase in the number of people without religious official as of 2011 about 17% of the population.
Coat of Alms: The original design first appeared in the 15805 on the movement of Gustavo vase in Uppsala, cathedral it was later adopted by the newly independent Finland as if national rnas in 1917.
Economy: Finland economy has had a torrid time since the onset of the financial crisis and the euro crisis that followed it.
Indeed, 2015 to be fourth consecutive year the economy has either contracted or ever as the recovery in the rest of the euro Anca (Excluding Greece) seems to be picking up pace.
GDP : The gross domestic Product GDP in Finland was worth 27222 billion us dollars in 204. The GDP value of Finland represent percent of the world economy GDP in Finland average 1.43 usd Billion from 960 until 2014 reaching on all time high 285.74 usd Billion in on record low of 5.22 usd Billion in 1960 GDP in Finland is reported by (The world Bank)
Juna Sipila is the Head of government or Prime minister of Finland.Politics of Finland take place in a frame work of a parliamentary representative democratic and a multi party system and President of Finland is the head of the state.In 1917, Finland declared independence. A civil war between the Finnish Red guards and the white guard ensued a few months later. During second world war. Finland fought twice against south union and defended its independence though in 1947 Peace settlement it ended up. Finland joined the Europian Union in 1005 and replaced Finish mankka with euro in 2002.

Republic of Latvia Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 64.587 | Religion | Christianity | Population | 2013 Milion | Currency | Euro | Language | Indo European | GDP | 30.96 Billion |

The government of Latvia is the Central government of the Republic of Latvia. Since early 2000s cabinet meeting in Latvia are open to the public in June 2013 Latvian government became one of the first in Europe to offer live internet broadcasts of the cabinet meetings. The prime minister of Latvia is Laimdota Straujuma.

The Latvia follows parliamentary representative, democratic republic, whereby the Prime minister is the head of government and of a multi party system. The President holds primarily ceremonial role as head of state Latvia has a multi-party system, where no one party has a chance of gaining power alone and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.
A Latvian National awakening ores in the ISSOS and confirmed to bear fear after world war. When often two years of struggle in the Russian civil war, Latvia won. Soveregn independence. Under restored independence Latvia has become a member of the united Nations centered Nato and Joined the European Union.
Latvia’s flag was officially adopted on February 27 1990. The Deep red rose color is representative of the blood shed bs a shed by wondered Latvian leader, and the white represents the cloth used to wrap his wounds.
Latvia become a member of the United nations on September 17, 1997 and sigrutony. It also operates missions to the United Nations in New Year city and Geneva to the European Union. Latvia has membership the OSCE, Nato, World Trade organization, and food agriculture organization.
The national flag of Latvia was used by independent Latvia from 1918 until the country was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940. Its use was suppressed during Soviet rule. After regaining its independence, Latvia re-adopted on 27 February 1990 the same red-white-red flag.
Though officially adopted in 1922, the Latvian flag was in use as early as the 13th century. The red color is sometimes described as symbolizing the readiness of the Latvians to give the blood from their hearts for freedom and their willingness to defend their liberty. An alternative interpretation, according to one legend, is that a Latvian leader was wounded in battle, and the edges of the white sheet in which he was wrapped were stained by his blood. The white stripe may stand for the sheet that wrapped him. This story is similar to the legend of the origins of the flag of Austria.

Pakistan Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 1796,095 | Religion | Muslim | Population | 182.1 Million | Currency | Rupee | Language | Urdu | GDP | 232.3 Billion |
Pakistan is a south Asia country sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 199m people.
Nawaz Sharif a president of the Pakistan and also presiding figure of the conservative Pakistan Muslim league.
Pakistan is an Islamic and federal parliamentary republic with Islam being its state religion stipulation set by the constitution to provide a delicate cheek and balance of sharing powers between executive parliament, and judicature are reserved as the federal government shares sovereignty with the provincial government.
Pakistan is a multi-party democracy that at times has been subject to military government. The country has many political parties and it is common for the country to be ruled by a coalition government. Pakistan national party, Jamat-e-Islam Pakistan, Jamat-e-Ulama-e-Islam people party.
Pakistan gained independence from the united Kingdom on 14 August 1947. The Pakistan movement as it came to be known, was based on the principal of two-nation theory after the independence, Liaquat Ali Khan became the first Prime minister and Jinnah became the first Governor General. Pakistan India have been fighting from their birth in 1971 Pakistan lost west part of Pakistan.
The nation flag of Pakistan is a green field with a white cresent moon and five –raised star as its center and vertical stripe at the hoist side.
Green represent Islam as it is believe to be a favorite color of and his daughter Fatema. Green is also mentioned several times in the Quran in relation to paradise.
White represents religious minorities and minority religious crescent symbolizes progress. Star represents light and knowledge.
The Kashmir which is called Heaven on earth situated in Pakistan and the biggest glaciers which is situated north part of Pakistan most undoubtedly the world most stunning mountain scenery.
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population and its status as a declared nuclear power being the only Islamic nation to have that status. Plays parts of is its International role.

Sweden Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 44,9964 sqkm | Religion | Christianity | Population | 5.53 Million | Currency | krona | Language | Swedish | GDP | 60.430 Billion |

The current Prime minister of Sweden is Stefan Lofven leader of the Swedish social democratic party. The Prime minister is the Head of the government in Sweden. All public power proceeds from the people. This is the foundation of parliamentary democracy in Sweden. Everyone has the same rights and is free to scrutinize how politicians and public agencies exercise their power.
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government led by the Prime minister of Sweden. Legislative power invented in both the government and parliamentary, elected within a multi-party system. The Judiciary is independent appointed by the government and employed until retirement.
After the death of the warrior King karl xii in 1718 and Sweden defaced in the great Northern war. The Swedish parliament (Riksdag) and council were strong enough to introduce a new constitution that abolished royal absolution and put a new power in the hands parliament.
1976 non-socialist government under the leadership of centre party chairman Thorbojorn Falldin.
2014 the social democrats and the greens won the election and formed a minority coalition led by Stefen lofven.
Blue with a golden yellow cross excluding to the edges of the flag, the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannerbrog. The colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms three gold crowns on a blue field.

Republic of Chad
Chad, officially the Republic of Chad is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the North. The capital city is N’Djamena. On August 11, 1960, Chad gained its independence from France. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 495,755 mile2 | Religion | Islam and Christianity | Population | 11039873 | Currency | CFA franc | Language | French, Arabic | GDP rate | $31.448 billion |
The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's para-statal firms. The president and the prime minister are Idriss Déby and Albert Pahimi Padacké.

The flag of Chad was officially adopted on November 6, 1959, and it combines two colours from the French Tricolour (red and blue), and two Pan African colours (red and yellow). Blue represents the sky, hope and agricultural strength of the southern part of the country. Yellow is representative of the country's northern desert and the sun. Red represents prosperity, unity and the bloodshed for independence.
Oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate) are the main resources of Chad. They export generally Cotton, cattle, gum Arabic etc.
Since independence from France in 1960, Chad has suffered instability stemming mostly from tension between the African-Christian south and the Arab-Muslim north and east. A border dispute with Libya over the Aozou Strip went to the United Nation's International Court of Justice for arbitration; in 1994 the court ruled in favour of Chad. One of Africa's poorest countries, the start of large-scale oil production in 2004 helps the economy.
Chad, this developing country, has gone through years of war and famine leaving its tourism industry very limited. Most visitors are attracted to the Zakouma National Park. Visitors must have valid passports and visas. Visitors must check in with the National Police within 72 hours of arrival and obtain a registration stamp. Vaccination for yellow fever is recommended. There were approximately 20,960 tourist arrivals in Chad in 2003, a decrease from 2002 by 35%. This decline may be attributed to ongoing rebellion and civil unrest. The country had 802 hotel rooms with 1,274 beds in 2002.
Social services were introduced in Chad very slowly and have been largely disrupted by warfare. Salaried workers are entitled to old age, disability, and survivorship benefits. There are no statutory benefits for sickness, but there is a 50% maternity benefit for employed women. Employed persons are covered by a work injury law that is funded by employer contributions. Family allowances are available for working parents, and there is a birth grant awarded for the first three births of the first marriage.
Republic of Haiti
Haiti is a Caribbean country that shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic to its east. Though it’s still recovering from a 2010 earthquake, many of Haiti's landmarks dating to the early 19th century remain intact. These include Citadelle la Ferrière, a mountaintop fortress, and the nearby ruins of Sans-Souci Palace, the baroque former royal home of King Henry I. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 27,750 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 10,604,000 | Currency | Haitian gourde | Language | * French, * Haitian Creole | GDP rate | $8.919 billion |
The Government of Haiti consists of a semi-presidential republic, pluriform multiparty system whereby the President of Haiti is head of state directly elected by popular vote. The Prime Minister acts as head of government, and is appointed by the President from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute this branch of government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti.]The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent..The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of March 29, 1987.
The flag of Haiti is a bicolour flag featuring two horizontal bands coloured blue over red, defaced by a white panel bearing the coat of arms. The coat of arms depicts a trophy of weapons ready to defend freedom and a royal palm for independence.
Haiti has a market economy Labour costs are lower than average for North America. Its major trading partner is the United States. Haiti has preferential trade access to the US market through the Haiti Hemispheric Opportunity though Partnership HOPE and Haiti Economic Lift Program Encouragement Acts {HELP} legislation, which allows duty-free access, for a variety of textiles, to the US market. Haiti has an agricultural economy. Over half of the world's vetiver oil (an essential oil used in high-end perfumes) comes from Haiti, and bananas, cocoa, and mangoes are important export crops. Haiti has also moved to expand to higher-end manufacturing, producing Android-based tablets and current sensors and transformers.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicentre near the town of Léogâne (Ouest Department), approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010.
Republic of Maldives
The Maldives is a tropical nation in the Indian Ocean composed of 26 coral atolls, which are made up of hundreds of islands. It’s known for its beaches, blue lagoons and extensive reefs. The capital, Malé, has a busy fish market, restaurants and shops on Majeedhee Magu and 17th-century Hukuru Miskiy (also known as Old Friday Mosque) made of coral stone. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 298km2 | Religion | Sunni Islam | Population | 393,500 | Currency | Maldivian rufiyaa | Language | Dhivehi | GDP rate | $4.920 billion |

The politics of the Maldives take place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the Head of Government. Executive power is exercised by the government. The President heads the executive branch and appoints the Cabinet; Like many presidential democracies, each member of the cabinet need to be approved by the Parliament. The President, along with the Vice President, is directly elected by the people to a five-year term by a secret ballot. He could be re-elected to second 5-year term, the limit allowed by the Constitution. The current President of the Maldives is former Senior Member of UNICEF, Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom, who was sworn into office on 7 February 2012 when his predecessor, Mohamed Nasheed resigned following weeks of protests led by police Nasheed reportedly resigned involuntarily to forestall an escalation of violence, and was placed under house arrest.
In ancient times the Maldives were renowned for cowries, coir rope, dried tuna fish (Maldive fish), ambergris and coco de mer. Local and foreign trading ships used to load these products in the Maldives and bring them abroad. Nowadays, the mixed economy of the Maldives is based on the principal activities of tourism, fishing and shipping.
Tourism is the largest industry in the Maldives, accounting for 28% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. It powered the current GDP per capita to expand 265% in the 1980s and a further 115% in the 1990s. Over 90% of government tax revenue flows in from import duties and tourism-related taxes.
The flag of the Republic of Maldives is red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag. It was adopted on July 25, 1965.

Republic of Rwanda
Rwanda is a landlocked East African country whose green, mountainous landscape has earned it the nickname “Land of a Thousand Hills.” Its renowned Volcanoes National Park is home to mountain gorillas and golden monkeys. Bordering Congo and Uganda, the park encompasses 4,507m-tall Mt. Karisimbi and 4 other forested volcanoes. Kigali, the nation's sprawling capital, has a vibrant restaurant and nightlife scene. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 26,338 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 11,262,564 | Currency | Rwandan franc (RWF) | Language | Kinyarwanda | GDP rate | $20.343 billion |

Rwanda gained its independence on July 1, 1962. Politics of Rwanda reflects Belgian and German civil law systems and customary law takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Rwanda is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. On 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution of 18 June 1991 as wsions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding.
The green is symbolic of the country's prosperity, the yellow is symbolic of potential and real economic development, and the blue is symbolic of happiness and peace. The sun and its rays are said to represent enlightenment. all Country Flags here! Map of Rwanda here
Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. By 1994, farm size, on average, was smaller than one hectare, while population density was more than 450 persons per square kilometer of arable land.
The Rwandan economy is based on the largely rain-fed agricultural production of small, semi-subsistence, and increasingly fragmented farms. It has few natural resources to exploit and a small, noncompetitive industrial sector. While the production of coffee and tea is well-suited to the small farms, steep slopes, and cool climates of Rwanda and has ensured access to foreign exchange over the years, farm size continues to decrease.

Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia bordered by the Caspian Sea and largely covered by the Karakum Desert. It’s known for archaeological ruins including those at Nisa and Merv, major stops along the ancient trade route the Silk Road. Ashgabat, the capital, was rebuilt in Soviet style in the mid-20th century and is filled with grand monuments honoring former president Saparmurat Niyazov. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 491,210 km2 | Religion | Islam | Population | 5,171,943 | Currency | Turkmen new manat (TMT) | Language | Turkic | GDP rate | $47.542 billion |
After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as a union republic, Turkmenistan declared its independence on 27 October 1991.President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov, a former bureaucrat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, ruled Turkmenistan from 1985, when he became head of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR, until his death in 2006. He retained absolute control over the country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 28 December 1999 the Mejlis (parliament) declared Niyazov President for Life. (The Mejlis itself had taken office only a week earlier in elections that included only candidates hand-picked by President Niyazov; no opposition candidates were allowed.)
The flag of Turkmenistan was officially adopted on February 19, 1997. The flagfeature a white crescent (symbol of Islam) and five stars; those stars represent the five regions of the country. Placed upon a green field is a symbolic representation of the country's famous carpet industry.
Turkmenistan is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. It is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated areas, and huge gas and oil resources. In terms of natural gas reserves, it is ranked 4th in the world
Turkmenistan culture is slightly different from the cultural traditions of the neighboring Muslim states of Central Asia. The reason to this is that the ancestors of the Turkmen were nomadic tribes whereas the lands of modern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were populated by settled tribes of farmers. The Turkmen people have traditionally been nomads and equestrians, and even today after the fall of the USSR attempts to urbanize the Turkmens have not been very successful. They never really formed a coherent nation or ethnic group until they were forged into one by Joseph Stalin in the 1930s. Rather they are divided into clans, and each clan has its own dialect and style of dress. Turkmens are famous for making Turkmen rugs often mistakenly called Bukhara rugs in the West. These are elaborate and colorful rugs, and these too help indicate the distinction between the various Turkmen clans.
REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
Armenia, situated along the route of the Great Silk Road, is a landlocked country of rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes, located in the southern Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. It is the smallest of the former Soviet republics, bounded by Georgia on the north, Azerbaijan on the east, Iran on the south, and Turkey on the west. The capital is Yerevan.

Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Serzh Sargsyan is the president and Hovik Abrahamyan is the prime minister. Category | Fact | category | Fact | 1. Size | 29,743 km2 | 4. Religion | Armenian Apostolic Church | 2. Population | 3,018,854 | 5. Currency | 3,018,854 | 3. Language | Armenian | 6. GDP rate | $10.325 billion |

21. 09. 1991 – Armenia’s independence referendum day. September 21 is marked as Independence Day in the Republic of Armenia. Prior to that, the ASSR Supreme Council adopted the Declaration of Independence on August 23, 1990.

The law 'On the State Flag of the Republic of Armenia was adopted on August 24, 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia. The national flag of the Republic of Armenia is of three colors in stripes of the same width - red, blue, orange respectively from top to bottom. The Red emblematizes the Armenian Highland, the Armenian people's continued struggle for survival, maintenance of the Christian faith, Armenia's independence and freedom. The Blue emblematizes the will of the people of Armenia to live beneath peaceful skies. The Orange emblematizes the creative talent and hard-working nature of the people of Armenia. The width-length ratio of the flag is 1/2.

One of the world's oldest civilizations, Armenia once included Mount Ararat, which biblical tradition identifies as the mountain that Noah's ark rested on after the flood. It was the first country in the world to officially embrace Christianity as its religion. Armenia has been invaded by a succession of empires.
Armenia presently maintains good relations with almost every country in the world. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union. The Nagorno-Karabakh War dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s.Armenia is a member of more than 40 international organizations.
Armenia's landscapes offer boundless beauty. Seven main landscape types are represented across the different altitudinal zones of Armenia. Across these desert, semi desert, dry steppe, steppe, woodland, sub alpine and alpine zones is geography as diverse as high mountain peaks, fertile valleys, picturesque land formations, basalt columns, rock sculptures, and waterfalls. More than 200 rivers are in Armenia.

CUBA
The largest island of the West Indies group, Cuba is also the westernmost—just west of Hispaniola, and 90 mi south of Key West, Fla., at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico. The island is mountainous in the southeast and south-central area. It is flat or rolling elsewhere. Cuba also includes numerous smaller islands, islets, and cays
The Republic of Cuba is one of the world's last remaining socialist countries following the Marxist-Leninist ideology. The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 109,884 km2 | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 11,238,3 | 5. Currency | peso | 3. Language | Spanish | 6. GDP rate | $78.694 billion |
Cuba's original inhabitants were the Carbone and Guanahatabey people. About a thousand years ago, the Taine people from Venezuela took over the island. In 1511, forces from Spain defeated the Taine and claimed the island as a Spanish territory. The Spanish forced many of the Taine people into slave labor. Most died from overwork and from diseases brought by the Europeans. Cuba had won independence. In 1959, communist revolutionaries, led by Fidel Castro, took control.
The flag consists of five alternating blue and white horizontal stripes penetrated from the hoist side by a red triangle containing a white five-pointed star. Three blue bands represent the three military districts of colonial Cuba. Two white bands stand for the purity of the patriotic cause. Red symbolizes the bloodshed in the struggle for independence. Triangle stands for equality.
Cuba is a member of the United Nations, having joined on 24 October 1945; it belongs to ECLAC and several specialized agencies, such as the FAO, IAEA, IFAD, ILO, UNESCO, UNIDO, and WHO. Cuba is a part of the ACP Group, G-77, the Latin American Economic System , the Alliance of Small Island States , the Association of Caribbean States, and the Latin American Integration Association.
Among Cuba's attractions are fine beaches; magnificent coral reefs, especially around the Isle of Youth; and historic sites in Old Havana (where some buildings date from the 17th century), Trinidad, and Santiago de Cuba.

IRELAND
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the European mainland, divided into two countries: Ireland, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland, west of Great Britain, and Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. This island is a strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe. Dublin is its capital city. Michael D. Higgins is the president and Enda Kenny is the prime minister. Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 70,280 sq km | 4. Religion | Christianity | 2. Population | 3,9 million | 5. Currency | peso | 3. Language | English | 6. GDP rate | $ 4.613 millions |

Ireland was first settled around the year 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers came from Great Britain and Europe, possibly by land bridge. They lived by hunting and fishing for about four thousand years. Around 4000 BC they began to farm, and the old hunter-gatherer lifestyle gradually died out.
The proportions of the flag are 1:2. The Irish government has described the symbolism behind each color as being that of green representing the Gaelic tradition of Ireland, orange representing the followers of William of Orange in Ireland, and white representing the aspiration for peace between them.

Ireland has an equable climate, because the prevailing west and southwest winds have crossed long stretches of the North Atlantic Ocean, which is warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the continental land masses.
As a small country in a changing world, Ireland remains firmly committed to collective approaches to international relations and security based on the primacy of the Charter of the United Nations. Key principles underlying this commitment are respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy and the rule of law. Ireland seeks to pursue these core objectives in cooperation with regional and bilateral partners and through its membership of international organizations, in particular its membership of the United Nations and of the European Union.

Among Ireland's numerous ancient and prehistoric sights are a restored Bronze Age lake dwelling near Quinn in County Clare, burial mounds at New grange and Knuth along the Boyne, and the palace at the Hill of Tara, the seat of government up to the Middle Ages. Numerous castles may be visited, including Blarney Castle in County Cork.

MONACO
Monaco is a tiny, hilly wedge driven into the French Mediterranean coast. It is 18 kilometers east of the French city of Nice, near the border with Italy. The second smallest independent state in the world and almost entirely urban, it forms an enclave in southeastern France, surrounded on the north, east, and west by the French department of Alps-Maritimes. The country is only 1.95 square kilometers in area.
Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger as Minister of State

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1. Size | 0.8 sq mi | 4. Religion | Roman Catholic | 2. Population | 30,508 | 5. Currency | Euro | 3. Language | French | 6. GDP rate | $4.694 billion |

The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but was not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Monaco’s independence is widely accepted to be the year 1419, when the House of Grimaldi became the permanent rulers of the nation.

The Monaco flag was officially adopted on April 4, 1881. The red and white are the heraldic colors of the Grimaldi family, one that has ruled here since the 13th century.

Monaco joined the United Nations on 28 May 1993 and is a member of the ECE and several no regional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, IMO, ITU, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, and WIPO. Monaco is also a member of the Council of Europe and the OSCE. The headquarters of the International Hydrographic Bureau is located in Monaco.
Gorgeous and glittering Monaco is a tiny royal principality on the French Riviera. Less than two square kilometers in size, it is perhaps the most glamorous little stretch of land on the planet. There is a seductive quality to the scenery, with its deep blue sea, graceful palm trees, and vibrant flowers. The most dramatic feature is the steep, rocky promontory jutting out into the Mediterranean, called "Le Rocher” which contains historic Monaco, also known as Monaco-Ville.

SERBIA
Serbia is situated on the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The total area was approximately 88,412 sq km (34,135 sq mi). The entire country is about the size of Maine. Total land boundary length is 2,114.2 km. There are territorial disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian-populated areas. Serbia’s capital is Belgrade, situated in north central Serbia.
Serbia is a parliamentary republic, with the government divided into legislative, executive and judiciary branches. Tomislav Nikolić is the current president and The current prime minister is Aleksandar Vučić. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 88,361 km2 | 4. Religion | Christian | 2. Population | 7,041,599 | 5. Currency | Serbian Dinar | 3. Language | Serbian | 6. GDP rate | $99.899 billion |
The Serbs, one of the large family of Slavic nations, first began settling in the Balkans around the 7th century in the areas now known as Bosnia, Kosovo, and Montenegro, straddling the line that since ad 395 had divided the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire.
The flag of Serbia was officially adopted in November 2010. It consists of the coat of arms against red, blue and white horizontal stripes, which are the same colors used throughout Serbia’s history. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted to the United Nations on 1 November 2000. Following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003, the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro. Following Montenegro's referendum on independence, Serbia became the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro on 5 June 2006, and thus retained its membership in international bodies, including the UN and the specialized UN agencies, such as the FAO, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, the World Bank, IAEA, and the WHO.

Rich architecture, museums, galleries, cathedrals, parks, and rivers, are just some of the attractions that bring visitors to Serbia. The largest two of Serbia's five national parks are Djerdap and Sar planina. In 2003, about 1.4 million tourists arrived in Serbia and Montenegro, of whom 93% came from Europe. Hotel rooms numbered 2,435 with 4,926 beds and an occupancy rate of 46%
Algeria
Algeria,officially people’s democratic republic of algeria ,is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.It’s capital and most populous city is Algiers,located in the country’s far north.For it’s area , Algeria is the tenth largest country in the world and the largest in Africa and the Arab World. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2,381,741 sq Kilometers | 4.Realigion | Islam | 2.Population | 39.1 million | 5.Currency | Diner(DZD) | 3.Language | Arabic | 6.GDP rate | $570.64 billon |

Algeria is an authoritarian regime, according to the Democracy Index 2014.Elected politicians are considered to have relatively little sway over Algeria.Instead,a group of unelected civilian and millitary “decideurs” actually rule the country.In addition , Algeria has three major political parties.They are the National Liberation Front,the military-backed National Rally for Democracy and the Islamist Green Algeria Alliance. The National Liberation Front was established in November 1, 1954. Next the National Rally for democracy was established in 21 February 1997 and then the Green Algeria Allince was foundend in 2012, the current President of Algeria is Abdel-Aziz Bouteflika and Prime Minister Abdel Malek Sellal.
The Algeriaan flag is one of the most recognizable of the world’s flags. The national flag of Algeria consit of two equal vertical bars, green and white, charged in the center with a red star and crescent. The white colour represents peace; the green represent Islam; the red, the blood of those killed fighting for independence in the Algerian War(1954-1962) and the star and crescent represent Islam.
Algeria is classified as an upper middle income country by the World Bank.In 2014, the Algerian economy expanded by 4%, up from 2.8% in 2013.Algeria is seeking more trade and foreign investment, in its foreign economic relations.
Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and largest defence budget on the continent;most of the Algeria’s weapons are imported from Russia,with whom they are a close ally. The Sahara Desert covers 80 per cent of Algeria. St Augustine of Hippo (354-430) was the most famous Algerian of all. Hippo is now Annaba.
The North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe and energy exports are the back bone of the country. According to OPEC Algeria has the 17th largest oil reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa.
After the Battle of Algiers, and up until the present day, the Algerians have been very unsuccessful in regaining the strength they once held. Today they are a minority in their own nation.Now-a-days the Algerians are trying to stand up for their rights. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab league, OPEC,the United Nation and is the founding member of the Maghreb Union.

Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, RDC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1971 to 1997 it was named Zaire. Its capital and largest city is Kinshasa which is world's second-largest French-speaking city.For it’s area , Congo is the second largest country in Africa, the largest in Subsaharan Africa and the 11th largest in the world. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2,345,409 sq kilometers | 4.Realigion | Christianity | 2.Population | 75 million | 5.Currency | Cangolese franc(CDF) | 3.Language | French | 6.GDP rate | $61.579 billion |

After a four year enterlude between two constitutions,with new political institutions established at the various levels of government, as well as adminstrative devision for the provinces thoroughout the country, a new constitution came into effect in 2006 and politic in the Democratic Repbulic of the Congo finally setteled into stable presidentioal democratic republic. Joseph Kabila has been President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since January 2001.
The flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was adopted on 20 February 2006. A new constitution, ratified in December 2005 and which came into effect in Febuary 2006, promoted a return to flag similar to that flown between 1963 and 1971, with a change from a more royal blue to sky blue, which represents peace. Red stands for “the blood of the country’s martyrs, yellow the country’s wealth and the star a radiant future for the country.
The Central Bank of the Congo is responsible for developing and maintaining the Congolese franc, which serves as the primary from of currency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Democratic Republic of Congo is widely considered to be the richest country in the world regarding natural resources; its untapped deposits of raw minerals are estimated to be worth in excess of US $ 24 trillion. The Congo has 70% of the world’s colltan, a third of its cobalt, more than 30% of its diamond reserves and a tenth of its copper.
Before the 1990s, when it was largely stable, the region was a prime tourist destination.Two national parks are situated in the country which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. They are the Virunga National Park to the north and the Kahuzi-Biega National Park outside Bukavu.
The rare okapi is one of 1,500 animal species endemic to the Congo. It makes its home in the remote Ituri Forest in the northeastern part of the country.
Sadly, these days the eastern part of the country is probably best known for its warlords, rebel groups and mineral conflicts. People of the country are suffered most for political instability, a lack of infrastructure, deep rooted corruption and so on. As of 2013, according to the Human Develoment Index (HDI), DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 186 countries.United nations and other organizations do their best for the well-being of the people of DR Congo.

India
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. Its capital is New Delhi and largest city is Mumbai. India is the seventh largest country for it’s area . India is currently the second most populous country in the world and is giving tough competition to the first. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 3,287,590 sq kilometres | 4.Realigion | Hinduism | 2.Population | 1.2 billion | 5.Currency | Indian rupee(INR) | 3.Language | Many | 6.GDP rate | US $2.182 trillion |

India is the world’s most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. It has six recognised national parties including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left in India political culture and the BJP right-wing. The current President of India is Pranab Mukherjee and Prime minister is Narendra Modi.
The National Flag of India is horezontal rectangular tricolour of deep saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24 –spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre. Saffron stands for renunciation, disinterespedness, courage and sacrifies. White symbolies truth, peace and purity. Green represents prosperity, vibrance and life. The Ashok Chakra (wheel) represents the righteiousness, progress and perpeturity. The 24 spokes of the wheel represents the 24 hours of a day.
Economists estimates India to have been the largest economy by GDP throughout the 1st millennium CE, accounting for a third of the world economy. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as of October 2015, the Indian economy is nominally worth US $ 2.182 trillion; it is the 7th largest economy by market exchange rates and is at US $ 8.027 trillion, the third largest by purchasing power parity or PPP.India ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP.
India lies within the Indomalaya ecozone and contains three biodiversity hotspots. Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the vedic period; the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology,theology and literature were laid and many beliefs and practices which still exit to day.
The country is home to one of the Seven Wonders of the World- Taj Mahal. Located in Agra, near the country’s capital New Delhi, Taj Mahal is one the most beautifully designed and constructed monuments in the world. It was built in the seventeenth century by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his wife, Mumtaz. India celebrates more festivals than probably any other nation in the world. Indian food is loved by most people across the globe. India has one of the most cricket frenzy populations in the world. Although hockey is the national sport of the country, cricket is the most popular among Indians.
However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition,inadequate public health care and terrorism.And India is tried to slove these problems. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and a multi-etsnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wild life in a variety of protected habitats.

Mauritius
Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres off the southest coast of the African continent. The country includes the iland of Mauritius, Rodrigues and the outer ilands.The capital and largest city is Port Louis. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 2,040 sq kilometres | 4.Realigion | Hinduism | 2.Population | 1,261,208 | 5.Currency | Mauritian rupee(MUR) | 3.Language | English,French | 6.GDP rate | $22.025 billion |

Beside Hinduism ; Christianity,Islam,Buddhism and other religions people live in the country.And also some people are non-religious individuals.Mauritius is the only country in Africa to have a Hindu plurality.As both an English-speaking and French-speaking nation,Mauritius is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie.The Mouritian constitution makes no mention of an official language.
The politics of Mauritius take place in a framework of a parliamentary reprwsentative democratic republic,in which the President is the head of the state and the Prime Ministet is the head of government who is assisted by a Council of Ministers.Mauritius has a multi-party system.The current President of Mauritius is Ameenah Gurib and Prime Minister Sir Anerood Jugnauth.
Mauritius flag has four equal horizontal bands of red (top),blue,yellow and green.Red represents the bloodshed at the time of slavery and colonization and the struggle for freedom and independence.Blue symbolizes the Indian Ocean,in the middle of which Mauritius is located.Then yellow represents the golden sunshine and bright future for the nation.And green represents the lush vegetation of the island.The Mauritius flag also known as the four stripes and Les Quatre Bandes.
Mauritius is ranked high in terms of economic competitiveness,a friendly investment climate,good governance and a free economy.The economy is based on tourism,textiles,suger,financial services and so on.The Gross Domestic Product (PPP) was estimated at $ 16,820 , one of the highest in Africa. A popular honeymoon destination and a luxury hot spot for celebrities and jet setters, Mauritius is one of the closest things to paradise on earth.For sightseers there are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Aapravasi Ghat and Le Morne Cultural Landscape). The Grand Bassin is a holy lake for Mauritian of Hindu faith. It is said that the water inside the lake communicates with the waters of the holy Ganges of India. The Hindus of Mauritius declared the Grand Bassin as a Holy lake. Chamarel park - 7 colored earth & Chamarel falls - The “seven-coloured earth” of Chamarel is a geological curiosity and a major tourist attraction of Mauritius. The landscape at Chamarel is truly unique, it is the only place in world where you can find a clay earth of 7 colors at one place.
The country is home to some of the world’s rarest plants and animals.Along with the other Mascarene Islands,Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna with many species endemic to the island.The island is widely known as the only home of the dodo which along with several other avian species was made extinct by human activities relatively shortly after the island’s settlement.

San Marino
San Marino , officially the Republic of San Mario, also known as the Most Serene Republic of Sar Marino.It is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy,situated on the Italian Perinsula on the north-eastern side of the Aperrine Mountains.Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Dogana. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 61 sq kilometers | 4.Realigion | Roman catholic Faith | 2.Population | 32,000 | 5.Currency | Euro | 3.Language | Italiar,Romagnol | 6.GDP rate | $1.17 billion |

San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the council of Europe.San Marino is a predominantly catholic state-over 97% of the population profess the Roman Catholic faith,but it is not the established religion.Protestant,Other Christian,Jewish and other religious people live in this country.Also some people are non-religions and so on.
San Marino has the political framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic : the Captains Regent are both heads of state and heads of government and there is a pluriform multi-party system.The first two Captains Regent are Lorella Stefanelli and Nicola Renzi.
San Marino is governed by the constitution of San Marino(Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini), a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century,that dictate the country’s political system, among other matters. The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents (constitution) still in effect.
The state and war flag of San Marino is formed by two equal horizontal bands of white ( top) and light blue.The blue stripe represents the sky and the white symbolize the clouds around the mountains and the snow that caps Mt. Titana.
The country’s economy mainly relies on finance,industry,services and tourism.Despite having an extremely small economy for a nation state,it is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita) with a figure comparable to the most developed Europian regions.In 2008,San Marino’s estimated GDP (PPP) was $1.17 billion.Although San Marino is not a European Union member,it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by arrangement with the Council of the Europian Union.It is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins.
San Marino is the oldest republic in the world, and the oldest sovereign state still in existence . It had the first democratically-elected Communist government. They don’t really have a military. If they do need a military, Italy has got their back.It is famous for it’s museums,food,wine,festivals and shopping.
San Marino is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus.It is the only country with more vehicles than people.Citizens of San Marino enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in the world.

Republic of Cameroon
Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeriato the west; Chad to the north east; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 475,472 sq kilometers | 4. Religion | Christianity | Population | Around 23 million | 5. Currency | Central African CFA franc | Language | French, English | 6. GDP rate | $72.2 billion (estimated) |
The President of Cameroonis elected and creates policy, administers government agencies, commands the armed forces, negotiates and ratifies treaties, and declares a state of emergency. Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability.
Dominant party - presidential republic, President- Paul Biya, Prime Minister-Philémon Yang
Cameroon is viewed as rife with corruption at all levels of government. In 2012, Transparency International placed Cameroon ranked 144 on a list of 176 countries ranked from least to most corruption on 18 January 2006, Biya initiated an anti-corruption drive under the direction of the National Anti-Corruption Observatory. There are several high corruption risk areas in Cameroon, for instance, customs, public health sector and public procurement.
Cameroon has one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa. Girls attend school less regularly than boys do because of cultural attitudes, domestic duties, early marriage, pregnancy, and sexual harassment. Most children have access to state-run schools that are cheaper than private and religious facilities. School attendance in Cameroon is also affected by child labor.the quality of health care is generally low. In Cameroon, there is only one doctor for every 5,000 people. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 54.71 years in 2012, among the lowest in the world. Endemic diseases include dengue fever, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, meningitis, schistosomiasis, sleeping sickness, Breast ironing, HIV, Female genital mutilation(FGM).
Cameroon is one of the few tropical countries to have competed in the Winter Olympics. Sport in Cameroonis dominated by association football (soccer). The Cameroon national football team has been one of the most successful in Africa since its strong showing in the 1990 FIFA World Cup. Cameroon has won four African Cup of Nations titles and the gold medal at t2000 Olympics. ETO'O is global star football player for them. In Cameroon's Flag - Colors- red symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north, and green hope and the forests in the south. The national flag of Cameroon was adopted in its present form on 20 May 1975 after Cameroon became a unitary state. It is a vertical tricolor of green, red and yellow, defaced with a five-pointed star in its center.The country is often referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity.
Republic of Guinea Officially the Republic of Guinea, is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea, the modern country is sometimes referred to as Guinea-Conakryin order to distinguish it from other parts of the wider region of the same name, such as Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea. The capital of guinea is conakry. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 245,836 sq kilometers | 4. Religion | Islam | Population | Around12 million | 5. Currency | Guinean Franc | Language | French | 6. GDP rate | $7 billion |
Guinea is a republic. The president is directly elected by the people and is head of state and head of government. The unicameral Guinean National Assembly is the legislative body of the country, and its members are also directly elected by the people. It's Government system is Presidential republic. The president is Alpha Conde & the prime minister is Mamady Youla. President Alpha Conde derives support from Guinea's second-largest ethnic group, the Malinke. Guinea's opposition is backed by the Fula ethnic group.
The flag of Guinea was adopted on November 10, 1958.Red symbolizes the blood of the martyrs who died from slavery and wars, yellow represents the sun and the riches of the country, and green the country's vegetation. In keeping with other flags in the region, the Pan-African movement's colours of red, yellow, and green are used.
Guinea's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and mineral production. It is the world's second largest producer of bauxite, and has rich deposits of diamonds and gold. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Guinea has large reserves of the steel-making raw material, iron ore.
Human rights in Guinea remain a controversial issue. In 2011 the United States government claimed that torture b security forces, and abuse of women and children were ongoing abuses of human rights.
The country was at the core of the 2014 Ebola outbreak. As of 1 November 2015, there have been 3,810 cases and 2,536 deaths in Guinea.
Guinea's foreign relations, including those with its West African neighbors, have improved steadily since 1985.
The literacy rate of Guinea is one of the lowest in the world. Guinea has the second highest prevalence of female genital mutilation in the world. Several factors are fueling HIV in guinea,
An estimated 170,000 adults and children were infected at the end of 2004.

Republic of Madagascar
Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar(the fourth-largest islandin the world), as well as numerous smaller peripheral islands. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 587,041sq kilometers | 4. Religion | Christianity | Population | Around 22.5 million | 5. Currency | Malagasy ariary | Language | MalagasyFrench | 6. GDP rate | $ 33.642 billion |
Madagascar follow Unitarym semi-presidential republic system. The current President is Hery Rajaonarimampianina and current Prime Minister is Jean Ravelonarivo.
Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health, and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. These investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. As of 2014, the economy has been weakened by the recently concluded political crisis, and quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population.
Malagasy ancestry reflects a blend of Austronesian (Southeast Asian) and Bantu (East African) roots. The settlement of Madagascar is a subject of ongoing research and debate.
Madagascar's sources of growth are tourism, agriculture and the extractive industries. As a result of increased educational access, enrollment rates more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. However, education quality is weak, producing high rates of grade repetition and dropout.
The flag of Madagascar was adopted on 14 October 1958, two years before the independence of that nation, as Madagascar prepared for are ferendum on its status in the French Community. The colors of the flag represent Madagascar's history, yearning for independence, and traditional classes. Red and white were the colors of the Merina kingdom.

State of Qatar
Qatar, officially the State of Qatar is a sovereign country located in Southwest Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. Doha is the capital of Qatar. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 11,586 sq kilometers | 4. Religion | Islam | Population | Around 2.3 million | 5. Currency | Diner | Language | Arabic | 6. GDP rate | $298.4 billion |
A white band on the left, separated from a maroon area on the left by nine white triangles which act as aserrated line.It was adopted shortly before the country's declaration of independence from Britain on September 3, 1971.Qatar's historic flag was plain red, in correspondence with the red banner traditionally used by the Kharjite Muslims.
Qatar's monarchy is the Al Thani family. The Al Thani dynasty has been ruling Qatar since the family house was established in 1825. The eighth Emir of Qatar is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, whose father Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed power to him on 25 June 2013.The supreme chancellor has the exclusive power to appoint and remove the prime minister and cabinet ministers who, together, constitute the Council of Ministers, which is the supreme executive authority in the country. Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions.
As a small country with larger neighbors, Qatar seeks to project influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty. In 2014, Qatar's relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates came to a boiling point over the Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood and extremist groups in Syria. Qatar pledged $1 billion in humanitarian aid to Gaza. Qatar donated £88.5million in funds to finance recovery and reconstruction in Darfur. Qatar plays a big part in world's economic & political sector.Qatar has had the highest per-capita carbon dioxide emissions in the world. In 2008 Qatar launched its National Vision 2030 which highlights environmental development. The National Vision pledges to develop sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and global environment. As of 2014, Qatar has the highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the World Atlas Factbook and approximately 14% of households are dollar millionaires.Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly influenced by Islam. Qatar National Day, hosted annually on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a sense of national identity.The illiteracy rate in Qatar was 3.1% for males and 4.2% for females in 2012, the lowest in the Arab-speaking world. Health in Qatar has undergone significant improvement in the last several decades as a result of substantial investments in healthcare by the government with $4.7 bn being invested in healthcare in 2014.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country situated off the northern edge of South America mainland. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Iere or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.size | 4,800 sq km | 4.Religion | Christian | 2.population | 1,328,019 | 5.Currency | Trinidad and Tobago dollar | 3.Language | English | 6.GDP rate | $43.415 billion | Port of spain is the capital of the country. Trinidad was united with Tobago in the 1880's.

The flag represents -Red, black and white symbolize fire (the sun, representing courage), earth (representing dedication) and water (representing purity and equality).

Trinidad and Tobago has a two-party system. Currently the two major parties are the People's National Movement and the People's Partnership (United National Congress, (Congress of the People, Tobago Organization of the People, National Joint Action Committee.

The two islands have distinct personalities. Trinidad is the larger of the two, and is the location of most of the country's cities and activity. It is also the country's industrial centre, noted for petroleum and natural gas production, which make T&T one of the most prosperous countries in the Caribbean.

Tobago is known for tourism, which is its main industry and is a popular tourist destination. Both islands have a share of natural beauty.
The Trinidad Moruga “Scorpion” Pepper has officially been ranked as the world’s hottest pepper by the Guinness Book of Records.
Trinidad is home to the largest Carnival in the Caribbean, which consistently ranks in the top 10 of most-coveted events in the world
The country is the most industrialized and one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean.

The Republic of Austria
Austria, officially known as the Republic of Austria is a country in central Europe. The Austrian territory is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The capital of Austria is Vienna. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 83,879 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 8,662,588 (2015) | Currency | Euro | Language | German | GDP Rate | $ 428.3 billion |

Heinz Fischer is the president and Werner Faymann is the Chancellor. In austraia there are six major political parties represented in the national council. Austria follows bicameral legislature system.
The flag of Austria has three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red. The flag design is certainly one of the oldest national banners in the world. The white represents peace and honesty and the red represents hardiness, bravery, strength and velour.
Austria is one of the 11 richest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, has a well-developed social market economy, and a high standard of living. The current GDP rate of Austria is 428.3 billion USD. International tourism is the most important part of the national economy.
Austria has unusually diverse mineral resources for a small country. It is the world's largest producer of magnetite. There are also significant deposits of lignite and iron ore and smaller deposits of wolfram, antimony, gypsum, graphite (lower grade), dolomite, talcum, kaolin, quartz, and salt. Minerals are found throughout the country, but most significant deposits are in Styria or in northeastern Austria.

The Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. This country is bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the southeast and Poland to the northeast. The capital and the largest city of Czech Republic is Prague. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 78,866 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 10,541,466 (2015) | Currency | Czech Koruna | Language | Czech | GDP Rate | $208.8 Billion |

Miloš Zeman is the president and Bohuslav Sobotka is the prime minister. In Czech Republic there are seven major parties in the Chamber of Deputies. Czech Republic follows bicameral legislature system.
The national flag of Czech Republic has two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side. The white symbolizes the peace, red symbolizes the strength and velour, and blue symbolizes the truth, loyalty and determined and fair people.
The Czech Republic has the most developed industrialized economic system of the countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2014, the Czech GDP per capita at purchasing power parity was $29,925 and $19,563 at nominal value.
The Czech Republic has relatively few natural resources and is heavily dependent on imported energy and raw materials. Large deposits of lignite, the country's main domestic source of energy. The Böhmerwald is an important source of lumber.
The Czech Republic is a highly developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 15th in inequality-adjusted human development. It is also ranks as the 10th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. Its capital, Prague, has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

The Republic of Italy
Italy, which is officially known as the Republic of Italy is situated in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea and shears open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. The capital of Italy is Rome. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 301,338 km2 | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 60,795,612 (2014) | Currency | Euro | Language | Italian | GDP Rate | $2.149 trillion |

Sergio Mattarella is the president and Matteo Renzi is the prime minister. There are 9 major political parties in Italy. Italy follows bicameral legislature system. The Parliament is the representative body of the citizens in the republican Institutions, and act accordingly.
The flag of Italy is a tricolor featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white, and red, with the green at the hoist side. The green represents the country's plains and the hills; white, the snow-capped Alps; and red, blood spilt in the Wars of Italian Independence. Italy celebrates Flag Day each year on January 7.
Italy is the 4th-largest national economy in Europe, the eight-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7 and the G8.
Italy has few natural resources. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore in the Adriatic, constitute the country's most important mineral resource.
Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the member of the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7/G8, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, and many more. As a reflection of its vast cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is one of the most visited countries.

Montenegro
Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. This contry is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, and Albania to the south-east. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 13,812 km2 | Religion | Orthodox Christianity | Population | 620,029 million | Currency | Euro | Language | Montenegrin | GDP Rate | $4.416 billion |

Filip Vujanović is the president and Milo Đukanović is the prime minister. There are eight major political parties in Montenegro. Italy follows unicameral legislative system.
The flag of Montenegro is a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered. T arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle, symbolizing the unity of church and state.
The economy of Montenegro is mostly a service based economy, currently in the process of economic transition. The economy of this small Balkan state is recovering from the impact of the Yugoslav Wars, the decline of industry following the breakup of SFRY, and UN economic sanctions. The current GDP rate is 4.416 billion USD (2013).
Montenegro's natural resources are mainly made up of bauxite, coal and wood. There is significant hydrological potential and the climate is favorable for agriculture and tourism. Tourism is the main source of revenue, together with the metals industry.
Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Montenegro is also a candidate negotiating to join the European Union and NATO.

Republic of Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea on the north, Liberia in the south-east, and the Atlantic Ocean in the south-west. Its capital is Freetown. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 71,740 km2 | Religion | Muslim | Population | 6,190,280 (2013) | Currency | Leone | Language | English, Bengali | GDP Rate | $4.136 billion |

Ernest Bai Koroma is the president of Sierra Leone. There are eleven main political parties. Sierra Leone follows a unicameral legislative system. The current head of state and president is and he belongs to ‘All people’s congress’ party.
The flag of Sierra Leone was officially adopted on April 27, 1961. The flag of Sierra Leone is a tricolor consisting of three horizontal green, white and blue bands. The green is symbolic of the agricultural and natural resources of the country, while the white represents justice and the blue are symbolic of Freetown's harbor.
The economy of Sierra Leone is that of a least developed country with a GDP of approximately 1.9 billion USD in 2009. Since the end of the civil war in 2002 the economy is gradually recovering with a GDP growth rate between 4 and 7%. The current GDP rate is 4.136 billion USD.
Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, a major producer of gold, and has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile.
Sierra Leone is a member of many international organizations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. More recently, the 2014 Ebola outbreak overburdened the weak healthcare infrastructure.

Bolivia
Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia. It is a landlocked country located in western central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional capital) is the capital of a city.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 1,098,581 sq km | Religion | Roman Catholic | Population | 10,800,882 | Currency | Bolivian boliviano | Language | Spanish | GDP rate | $73.88 billion |

The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a Diversity multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. President of bolivia Evo Morales.

The national flag of Bolivia (La Tricolor) has three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band. According to one source, the red stands for Bolivia's brave soldiers, while the green symbolizes fertility and yellow the nation's mineral deposits.

Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports to Brazil and Argentina. Gas accounts for roughly 50% of Bolivia's total exports and will fund more than half of its 2015 budget. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth. Country compares in the world its comparison the 94th economy in the world.

The extractive industries as a whole made up 29 percent of government revenues, 82 percent of exports and 18 percent of gross domestic product in 2011. Bolivia became a natural gas exporter in the 1990s and is now the third-largest producer in South America. It also produces zinc, tin, silver, gold, and lead.

Bolivia is home to the one of a few world’s known “bolivianita mine” also known as amitrine. Bolivianita or ametrine is a precious gem that has partially yellow and partially purple zone. This happens due to differing oxidation of the iron in the crystal. Bolivia is home to the two highest cities in the world. Potosí being the highest and La Paz is the second highest. Potosi was once the most populated city in the world.

The country has the second-largest reserves of natural gas in South America, but there have been long-running tensions over the exploitation and export of the resource. Indigenous groups say the country should not relinquish control of the reserves, which they see as Bolivia's sole remaining natural resource. Before President Evo Morales came to power the political fallout from the issue had helped to topple two presidents and had led to calls for regional autonomy, including in prosperous, oil-producing Santa Cruz. The cultural development of what is now Bolivia is divided into three distinct periods: pre-Columbian, colonial, and republican.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia, officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a sovereign state located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south the capital of Ethiopia is Addis Ababa, it is the largest city in Ethiopia.

Category | fact | category | fact | Size | 1,127,127 sq km | Religion | Islam and Christianity | Population | 86.5 million | Currency | Birr | language | Amharic | GDP rate | $ 33.3 billion |

Mulatu Teshome is the president and Hailemariam Desalegn is the prime minister. Here prime minister is the head of the gonernment. According to the national electoral board, 65 legally recognized political parties were active in Ethiopia. In 65 licensed parties, 7 operate at the national level while 58 are regional.

The national flag is a tricolor of green, yellow, and red horizontal stripes with a blue disk and a yellow outlined star and rays in the center. In the flag green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia.

Natural resources and land use. Ethiopia has small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, and natural gas. It has extensive hydropower potential. Of the total land area, about 20 percent is under cultivation, although the amount of potentially arable land is larger.

Ethiopia is Africa's oldest independent country and its second largest in terms of population. Apart from a five-year occupation by Mussolini's Italy, it has never been colonised. It has a unique cultural heritage, being the home of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church - one of the oldest Christian churches - and a monarchy that ended only in the coup of 1974.

The current status in Ethiopia is, literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the 1994 census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was 23.4%. while it was 39% (male 49.1% and female 28.9%) according to 2007 estimates. Day by day it was increasing. In Ethiopia they facing many health problem like HIV they are dealing with it.

According to the common perception of Ethiopia, it is one of the most stable African countries. This view strengthened by tourists who in large numbers visit Ethiopia every year. Abyssinian lion, yellow, pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field national color: green, yellow, red.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan, officially known as the Kyrgyz Republic, formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in central Asia landlocked and mountainous; Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the south west and china to the east. It’s capital and largest city Bishke. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 199,951 km2 | Religion | Islam | Population | 5.72 million | Currency | SOM | Language | Kyrgyz | GDP rate | $13.125 billion |

Almazbek Atambayev, is the president and tenir sariyev is the prime minister. Present president he is the former prime minister. There are 27 major political parties in Kyrgyzstan. His inauguration marked the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in Kyrgyzstan's post-Communist history.

The flag of Kyrgyzstan consists of a red background with a yellow sun in the center, which has 40 rays. Inside the sun is the circular emblem of a 'yurt' (or tent roof). which is the traditional tent used by the nomadic Kirghiz people. The sun represents light, infinite nobility and eternity. The red background is believed to be the color of the national hero Manas the Noble, who united the 40 tribes of Kyrgyzstan, which are represented by the 40 rays emanating from the sun symbol.

After independence in 1992, the Kyrgyz Republic’s economy and public services were hit hard by the break-up of the Soviet economic zone and the end of subsidies from Moscow. With per capital GNI of $920 in 2011, the Kyrgyz Republic remains a low income country. Moreover, the global economic crisis, the political unrest of April and June 2010 and food price increases in 2011 and 2012 have reversed earlier gains in poverty reduction. The absolute poverty rate increased from 33.7 percent in 2010 to 36.8 percent in 2011.

Natural resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, petroleum, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc.

A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, inter-ethnic relations, and terrorism.

Current status of flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan. The contrasts of nature in Kyrgyzstan: the location in the center of the continent, far from oceans and seas, surrounded by vast deserts, variously oriented ridges raised above the snow line, the complex genesis – it all leads to the richness and diversity of biota.

Norway

Norway, officially known as the Kingdom of Norway, located in the Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. It,s capital is Oslo.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 385,252 sq kilometers | Religion | Church of Norway | Population | 5.084 million | Currency | Norwegian krone | Language | Norwegian | GDP rate | $351.603 billion |

Politics in Norway take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the King’s council, the cabinet, led by the Prime Minister of Norway. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Storting, elected within a multi-party system. King Harald V of the German House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is the current monarch of Norway. Erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013.

The flag of Norway is considered to be one of the many flags all over the world that has a rich history. The red, white and blue colors are said to be influenced by the French Tricolore (as a symbol of liberty). Inspiration also came from the flags of the United Kingdom and the United States. The off-centered white cross (The Scandinavian Cross) is taken from the Danish flag, and the blue cross is the Cross of Sweden.

Norway declared its independence in 1905 when the union with Sweden was dissolved. Norway’s people value their independence and prosperity highly. The Norwegians rejected membership of the then European Economic Community in 1972 and of the European Union in 1994, despite being urged by their governments to vote “yes”. Norway is a NATO member and maintains troops in Afghanistan.

Norway's main natural resources such as natural gas, oil, copper, lead and timber have sustained a stable and resilient economy, but it is the prudent management of this resource wealth that differentiates Norway as a nation. A shipping superpower, a seafood giant, and the world's third largest exporter of petroleum.

Interestingly, Norway has won more medals in the Winter Olympics than any other country, with 332 to date since the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924. Ole Einar Bjøerndalen, a cross-country skier, is the most decorated Winter Olympian, with 13 total medals. Norway has hosted the Winter Olympics twice: Oslo in 1952 and Lillehammer in 1988.

Norway is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. It is also the most peaceful country, according to the Global Peace Index. Norway is once-in-a-lifetime destination and the essence of its appeal is remarkably simple, this is one of the most beautiful countries on earth.

Suriname

Suriname officially known as the Republic of Suriname, is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. It is the smallest country in South America. Paramaribo is the capital and largest city in Suriname.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 165,000 km2 | Religion | Hindu | Population | 579,633 | Currency | Surinamese dollar | Language | Arabic | GDP rate | $107.831 billion | Desi Bouterse is the president of Suriname and Ashwin Adhin is the vice president of the state. There are major political parties in Suriname, Governing coalition--National Party of Suriname, Progressive Reform Party. Pertjaja Luhur; A - Combination, a coalition of General Interior Development Party (ABOP), Brotherhood and Unity in Politics, and Seeka Suriname Workers Party, Democratic Alternative '91.

The flag of Suriname is formed by five horizontal bands of green, white, red, white, and green. There is a large, yellow, five-pointed star centered in the red band. The star represents the unity of all ethnic groups, the red stripe stands for progress and love, the green for hope and fertility, and the white bands for peace and justice.

The smallest country in South America, Suriname is an upper middle income country with a strong performing economy. In fact, it has emerged as one of the Caribbean’s best performing economies over the last decade, due largely to its rich endowment in natural resources and biodiversity. The country recorded average growth of 4.5 percent for the period 2004-2014 and the per capita income of its population of 530,000 has risen concomitantly to nearly US$9,217 in 2014.

Natural resources: Timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite and gold. Small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum and iron ore.

Suriname is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the Americas. Most of its people are descended from African slaves and Indian and Javanese indentured servants brought over by the Dutch to work as agricultural labourers.

Suriname, once known as Dutch Guiana, is one of South America's smallest countries. It enjoys a relatively high standard of living but also faces serious political and economic challenges. Surinamese culture is very diverse and dynamic, and has a strong Asian and African influences. The population is composed of the contribution of people from the Netherlands, India, Africa, China and Indonesia, as well as indigenous peoples who lived in the area, before the arrival of European settlers. About 90% of people established in Suriname have ancestors who come from other countries and regions.

AZERBAIJAN
Azerbaijan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short border with Turkey in the northwest. In addition, the capital city is Baku. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 86,600 km2 | Religion | Muslims | Population | 9.417 million | Currency | Azerbaijani manat | Language | Azerbaijani | GDP Rate | 168.4 billion |

The structural formation of Azerbaijan's political system was completed by the adoption of the new Constitution on 12 November 1995. The government of Azerbaijan is based on the separation of powers among the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The legislative power is held by the unicameral. The Yeni Azerbaijan Party, and independents loyal to the ruling government, currently hold almost all of the Parliament's 125 seats. During the 2010 Parliamentary election, the opposition parties, Musavat and Azerbaijani Popular Front Party, failed to win a single seat. European observers found numerous irregularities in the run-up to the election and on election day. The executive power is held by the President, who is elected for a 5-year term by direct elections, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. The president is authorized to form the Cabinet, a collective executive body, accountable to both the President and the National Assembly. The Cabinet of Azerbaijan consists primarily of the Prime Minister, his Deputies and Ministers. The son of former President Heydar Aliyev,Ilham Aliyev succeeded his father and has remained in power since 2003.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic. Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991.
The flag of Azerbaijan is a tricolor featuring three equally sized fesses of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star centered in the red. The blue symbolizes Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, the red stands for progress, and the green represents Islam.
Azerbaijan, the nation and former Soviet republic, is bounded by the Caspian Sea and Caucasus Mountains, which span Asia and Europe. Its capital, Baku, is famous for its medieval walled city. Within it lie the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, a royal retreat dating to the 15th century, and the centuries-old stone Maiden Tower, which dominates the city skyline.

DENMARK
Denmark officially the Kingdom of Denmark is a country in Northern Europe. The southernmost of the Nordic countries, it is southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark is part of Scandinavia, together with Sweden and Norway. It is a sovereign state that comprises Denmark and two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It has Copenhagen as its capital city. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 42,923,53 sq/km | Religion | Church of Denmark | Population | 5.614 million | Currency | Danish Krone | Language | Danish | GDP Rate | 257.248 billion |

The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 8th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Danish monarchs ruled the personal Kalmar Union, established in 1397 (of Denmark, Norway and Sweden), which ended with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the same king until the union was dissolved by outside forces in 1814. Caused by the Black Death, the deterioration of the Kingdom of Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit an expansive colonial empire from this union, of which the Faroe Islands and Greenland are remnants. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory; these culminated in the 1830s with a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy—the current monarch is Queen Margrethe II—organized as a parliamentary democracy. The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council). However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other Government ministers.
The red flag with a white cross is known as the Dannebrog, or Danish Cloth. According to Danish legend, the Dannebrog descended from the skies during a battle in Estonia on June 15, 1219. all Country Flags here! Map of Denmark here.
Denmark shares strong cultural and historic ties with its Scandinavian neighbors Sweden and Norway. Denmark is a country comprising the Jutland peninsula and its offshore islands, linking Northern Europe and Scandinavia via the Öresund bridge. On Zealand, the capital, Copenhagen is home to the rococo Frederiksstaden district and its royal palaces, Tivoli pleasure gardens and the “Little Mermaid” statue. On neighboring Funen is Odense, storyteller Hans Christian Andersen’s hometown, with a medieval core of cobblestone streets and half-timbered houses.

FRANCE
The French republic is known as a “The Hexagon’’ because of its six sided shape. It is also known as the great center of art and home of fashion trends. France, in Western Europe, encompasses medieval and port cities, tranquil villages, mountains and Mediterranean beaches. Paris, its capital, is known worldwide for its couture fashion houses, classical art museums including the Louvre and monuments like the Eiffel Tower. The country is also renowned for its sophisticated cuisine and its wines. Lascaux’s ancient cave drawings, Lyon’s Roman theater and the immense Palace of Versailles are testaments to its long history. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 643,801sq/km | Religion | 2.591 trillion | Population | 66,259012 | Currency | Euro | Language | French | GDP Rate | Roman Catholic |
France became a republic 1792 after centuries of royal rule as a result of The French Revolution.
The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, currently François Hollande, who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years).
Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants. These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. During the 1970s France faced economic crisis and allowed new immigrants (mostly from the Maghreb to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. In 2015, Paris was struck several times by Islamic terrorists. Notably the Charlie Hebdo attack in January which provoked the largest public rallies in French history, gathering 4.4 million people and the November attacks which resulted in 130 deaths, the deadliest attack on French soil since World War II, and the deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004. Besides that they are working on several projects with NATO,UN.
The French flag has 3 equal vertical bands of blue, white and red known as the ‘Le Drapeau tricolore’ The origin of the flag dates back to 1790’s French revolution when the ancient French color of white was combined with the blue and red colors of Persian militia.
The best features that basically makes France the land where many people dream to go are their exquisite expertise on Champagne, Cheese and on many culinary sides. They have some phenomenal collections of painting that attracts a huge amount of tourist. And last but not the least The Eifel Tower is one of the most attracting piece of architecture France has.

MOROCCO Morocco, a North African country bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, is distinguished by its Berber, Arabian and European cultural influences. Marrakesh’s walled medina, a mazelike medieval quarter, offers entertainment in its Djemaa el-Fna square and souks (marketplaces) selling traditional ceramics, jewelry and metal lanterns. The capital Rabat’s Kasbah of the Udayas is a 12th-century royal fort overlooking the water. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 710,850 sq/km | Religion | Sunni Islam | Population | 38,848,242 | Currency | Moroccan dirham | Language | Arabic,Berber | GDP Rate | 274.75 billion |
Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist party leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government was the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Abdelilah Benkirane.
The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco retains few executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. The constitution grants the king honorific powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed.. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). Morocco is a member of the United Nations and belongs to the Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union (UMA), Organization (OIC), the Non-Aligned Movement and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN_SAD). Morocco's relationships vary greatly between African, Arab, and Western states. Morocco's flag was adopted on November 17, 1915. The flag has a red field; in the center is a green, five-pointed star (the pentangle Seal of Solomon). The flag's height is two-thirds of the width. The color red symbolizes the descendants of the Islamic prophet Mohammed.
The Kasbah o Ait Ben-haddou, built by the Berbers from the 14th century onwards is a place which will show the strength and diversity in pre historic buildings and besides there are mosques like Koutoubia, which will give you a pleasant experience while travelling through Morocco.

SINGAPORE
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the Lion City, the Garden City, and the Red Dot, is a global city in Southeast Asia and the world's only island city-state. It lies one degree (137 km) north of the equator, at the southernmost tip of continental Asia and peninsular Malaysia, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south. Singapore's territory consists of the diamond-shaped main island and 62 islets. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 719.1 sq/km | Religion | Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism | Population | 5,535,000 | Currency | Singapore dollar | Language | English, Malay, Mandarin | GDP Rate | 452,686 billion | Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system. The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law, but with substantial local differences. Currently the country is being governed by President Tony Tan and the Prime minister Lee Hsien Loong. Singapore's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region.
Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entresol trade. Along with Hong Kong ,South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers, but has surpassed its peers in terms of GDP per capita. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest, most innovative, most competitive, most dynamic and most business-friendly. Red stands for universal brotherhood and equality of man. White symbolizes pervading and everlasting purity and virtue. The crescent moon represents a young nation on the ascendant, and the five stars depict Singapore’s ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality.
Globally, Singapore is a leader in several economic sectors, including 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 4th-leading financial centre, 2nd-largest casino gambling market, 3rd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, world's largest oil-rig producer and major hub for ship repair services, world's top logistics hub. Information and communications technologies (ICT) are one of the pillars of the nation's economic success.
Thaipusam procession in Singapore, The Armenian Church of Saint Gregory the Illuminator—the oldest Christian church in Singapore, Sultan Mosque etc. Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West". One highlight was the construction of Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay.

BULGERIA
CAPITAL: Sofia (Sofiya)
FLAG: The flag is a tricolor of white, green, and red horizontal stripes.
ANTHEM: Bulgariya mila, zemya na geroi (Dear Bulgaria, Land of Heroes).
The population of Bulgaria in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 7,741,000, which placed it at number 94 in population among the 193 nations of the world. The population density was 70 per sq. km (181 per sq mi). According to Migration News, due to low fertility and emigration, Bulgaria's population is shrinking faster than any other nation in Europe. The majority of those leaving Bulgaria are moving to Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, and North America. The net migration rate, estimated for 2005, was -4.3 migrants per 1,000 population. Bulgarian is classified as a Slavic language of the southern group, which also includes Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, and Slovenian. Old Bulgarian, also known as Old Church Slavonic. According to a 2004 report, about 82.6% of the population belonged at least nominally to the Bulgarian (Eastern) Orthodox Church. There were also an estimated 12.2% who were Muslims. Other religious groups include Roman Catholics, Jews, Uniate Catholics, Protestants, and Gregorian-Armenians. According to a 2004 report, about 82.6% of the population belonged at least nominally to the Bulgarian (Eastern) Orthodox Church. There were also an estimated 12.2% who were Muslims. Other religious groups include Roman Catholics, Jews, Uniate Catholics, Protestants, and Gregorian-Armenians. . Education is free and compulsory for eight years between the ages of 7 and 19. The founders of modern Bulgarian literature, writing before the end of Turkish rule, were Georgi Rakovski (1821–67), Petko Slaveikov (1827–95), Lyuben Karavelov (1835–79), and Kristo Botev (1848–76), who was one of Bulgaria's greatest poets. The most significant writer after the liberation of 1878 was Ivan Vazov (1850–1921). In the late 9th century, Bulgaria became an arena for political and cultural rivalry between the Byzantine Empire centered in Constantinople and the Roman Empire. The Bulgarians adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire and embraced the Cyrillic alphabet, named for St. Cyril. As a result, the integration of the disparate tribes into a Bulgarian people was more or less complete by the end of the 9th century.

Georgia Capital: T'bilisi (Tbilisi)’
Flag: White rectangle, in its central portion a red cross connecting all four sides of the flag; in each of the four corners is a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; the five-cross flag appears to date back to the 14th century.
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Georgia.
Georgia is located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia. Comparatively, the area occupied by Georgia is slightly smaller than the state of South Carolina, with a total area of 69,700 sq km (26,911 sq mi).
The population of Georgia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 4,501,000, which placed it at number 116 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 13% of the population was over 65 years of age. The projected population for the year 2025 was 4,178,000. The population density was 64 per sq km (167 per sq mi), with the majority of the population living near the Black Sea or in the river valleys.
According to the 2002 census, 83.3% of the population are Georgian. The leading minorities are Azeri’s with 6.5%, Armenians with 5.7%, and Russians with 1.5%, and others (including Ossetia’s and Abkhaz) with 2.5%.
Over 70% of the population are nominally Georgian Orthodox. About 13% are members of other Orthodox groups.
Major political parties that won representation in the legislature elected in 1999, based on their share of the party list voting, included Shevardnadze's Georgian Citizens' Union (gaining 891,000 of 2.1 million party list votes cast), Ajarian leader Abashidze's pro-government Revival Union (537,000 votes), and Industry Will Save Georgia (151,000 votes)
Georgia's economy has not fully recovered from the hyperinflation and economic collapse that by 1994 had reduced its GDP to 20% of its 1990 levels. In 2002 its GDP levels were still only at 40% of what they were in the 1980s.

LIBERIA
Republic of Liberia
CAPITAL: Monrovia
FLAG: The national flag, dating from 1847, consists of 11 horizontal stripes, alternately red (6) and white (5), with a single five-pointed white star on a square blue field 5 stripes deep in the upper left corner.
ANTHEM: All Hail, Liberia, Hail.
Located on the west coast of Africa, Liberia has an area of about 111,370 sq km (43,000 sq mi), with a length of 548 km (341 mi) and a width of 274 km (170 mi). Liberia's capital city, Monrovia, is located on the Atlantic coast.
The population of Liberia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 3,283,000, which placed it at number 129 in population among the 193 nations of the world. It is estimated that about 40% of the population are Christians exclusively or in combination with traditional religions about 20% of the population practice Islam.
The National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), established by former president Samuel K. Doe, was victorious in the 1985 elections. The newly formed Unity Party, Liberian Action Party, and Liberian Unification Party were allowed to take part in these elections. The United People's Party (UPP), probably the largest opposition grouping, was founded by Gabriel Baccus Matthews, formerly head of the PPP. The UPP was not allowed to field candidates in 1985 but was legalized in 1986. The National Patriotic Party (NPP) was led by Charles Taylor.
Liberia is divided into 13 counties, 2 territories, and the federal district of Monrovia. The counties are Grand Cape Mount, Sinoe, Grand Bassa, Maryland, River Cess, Bomi, Grand Kru, Margibi, Lofa, Borg, Grand Gedah, Nimba, and Montserrado. The territories are Marshall and Gibi. The principal crops are rice, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, sugar cane, and cassava. Financial mismanagement and the effects of civil war have divided the country into two economic zones, one centered in and around the major urban centers. Liberia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $2.6 billion.

Papua New Guinea

Independent State of Papua New Guinea

CAPITAL: Port Moresby

FLAG: The flag is a rectangle, divided diagonally. The upper segment is scarlet with a yellow bird of paradise; the lower segment is black with five white stars representing the Southern Cross.
ANTHEM: O, Arise All You Sons.
Situated to the north of Australia, Papua New Guinea has a total land area of 462,840 sq km (178,704 sq mi), including the large islands of New Britain, New Ireland, and Bougainville and hundreds of smaller islands
The population of Papua New Guinea in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 5,887,000, which placed it at number 103 in population among the 193 nations of the world
Papua New Guinea is an independent, parliamentary democracy in the Commonwealth of Nations, with a governor-general representing the British crown.
More than 40 parties registered to participate in the June 2002 elections. Parties winning seats included the United Resources Party (URP), the People's Progressive Party (PPP), the Papua and Niugini Union (PANGU), the People's Action Party (PAP), and the People's Labor Party (PLP)
Foreign direct investment (FDI) was only $87.6 million in 1997 and $109.6 million in 1998. FDI nearly tripled in 1999, however, to $296.5 million, before falling back to $130.7 million in 2000. FDI in 2002 was $178.7 million.

Tajikistan
Official name: the Republic of Tajikistan
Capital: Dushanbe

This country is located between Uzbekistan and china in central Asia. Its total area is 143,100 square kilometer. The population of Tajikistan in the survey from U.N in 2005 is 6,813,000, which placed the ranking of population to 99 from 194 states. The population density is 47 per square kilo. Tajiki is an official language of Indo-European related to Farsi and Pasto. An estimated 95% of the population are Muslim, where 90% are Sunni and 5% are Shia. There are about 230,000 Christians of ethnic group which were originated from Russia
The constitution of Tajikistan call for the presidium to elect for the legislator and to be headed by the speaker. The new amendment requires two third of the majority which can even overpower the Presidential veto. The party that registered the peace program held in 1990 was Democratic Party, Communist party, The party of justice and progress, the Socialist party
Tajikistan became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992; it is part of ESCAP, and several no regional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, ILO, UNESCO, UNIDO, the IAEA, the World Bank, and the WHO.
Tajikistan is the poorest of the post-Soviet republics with a per capita income in 2005 of $1,200 in purchasing power parity terms (PPP) and an estimated 80% of the population below the poverty line. The two third of the population are from the labor background, cotton is a vast outcome of this land ,on an average 24% of the GDP comes from cotton. Tajikistan gross domestic income is roughly 8.8 billion per year.
Cotton and pies are the major irrigated agricultural products. Livestock farming is another major profession that surrounds the contribution of GDP. Some fishing occurs in the upper Amu Darya River; the Kayrakkum Reservoir, and the Syrdar'ya River. The total catch was 325 tons in 2003, primarily carp. The forestry and woodland of Tajikistan covers only 2.2 % of their total land so it doesn’t contribute much on their national income.

State of Uruguay
It is a state located in the southeastern part of South America. Home to some 3.5 million people [1] of whom 1.4 million live in the capital Montevideo and the metropolitan region.
Estimated population of European descent rate of about 88% of the population republican system of government president tabare Vazquez and vice president danilo astori arable land , hydropower minor minerals fish. Spanish | 4.languge | 176,215 sq km | 1.size | Peso UYU | 5.currency | 3,341,893 | 2.population | $72.36 billion | 6.GDP rate | Roman Catholic | 3.religion | nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yell
Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor’s mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net. in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
Government typye constitutional republic.

State of Uzbekistan
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Independent since 1991, the country has lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, long-serving septuagenarian President Islam KARIMOV, who rose through the ranks of the Soviet-era State Planning Committee (Go plan), remains wedded to the concepts of a command economy, creating a challenging environment for foreign investment. Current concerns include post-KARIMOV succession, terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization Fact | Category | Fact | Category | Muslim | 4.religion | 447.400sq km | 1.Size | soum (UZS) per US dollar | 5.currency | 29,199,942 | 2.Population | $65.95 billion | 6.GDP rate | Russian Uzbek | 3.Language |

Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch
Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008
Uzbekistan is a landlocked country with more than 60% of the population living in densely populated rural communities. Since its independence in September 1991, the government maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops Uzbekistan is the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. natural gasand petroleumand coal and gold and uranim and silver and copper and lead and zinc tungsten are the natural resources of uzbakistan.

State of Vanuatu
It is an island nation located in the South Pacific. Are an archipelago of volcanic origin and located about 1,750 kilometers north-east of Australia, 500 km northeast of New Caledonia, Fiji and West and South-East Solomon Islands near New Guinea The system of government of the Republic of federal parliamentary President Baldwin Lonsdale and the Prime Minister is Sato Kilman.

Bislama English French | 4. languge | 12,189 sq km | 1.size | VT Vanwata VUV | 5.currency | 272,264 | 2.population | $771 milion | 6. GDP rate | Protestant | 3. religion |

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele fern fronds, all in yellow; red represents the blood of boars and men, as well as unity, green the richness of the islands, and black the ni-Vanuatu people; the yellow Y-shape - which reflects the pattern of the islands in the Pacific Ocean - symbolizes the light of the Gospel spreading through the islands; the boar's tusk is a symbol of prosperity frequently worn as a pendant on the islands; the fern fronds represent peace .note one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country other such are those of bosnia and Herzegovina ,brazil,and Eritrea
This South Pacific island economy is based primarily on small-scale agriculture, which provides a living for about two-thirds of the population. Fishing, offshore financial services, and tourism, with nearly 197,000 visitors in 2008, are other mainstays of the economy. Australia and New Zealand are the main source of tourists and foreign aid. A small light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties. Mineral deposits are negligible, the country has no known petroleum deposits
Economic development is hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports, vulnerability to natural disasters, and long distances from main markets and between constituent islands. In response to foreign concerns, the government has promised to tighten regulation of its offshore financial center ,manganese,hardwood,forests,fish natural resources of Vanuatu.

State of Venezuela
Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia. Under Hugo CHAVEZ, president from 1999 to 2013, and his hand-picked successor, President Nicolas MADURO, the executive branch has exercised increasingly authoritarian control over other branches of government. At the same time, democratic institutions have deteriorated, threats to freedom of expression have increased, and political polarization has grown. The ruling party's economic policies have expanded the state's role in the economy through expropriations of major enterprises, Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana Fact | Category | Fact | Category | Spanish | 4.languge | 912,050 sq km | 1.size | Venezuelan Bolivar | 5.curruncy | 29,275,460 | 2.population | $131.9 billion | 6.GDP rate | nominally Roman Catholic | 3.religion |

Three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band yellow is interpreted as standing for the riches of the land, blue for the courage of its people, and red for the blood shed in attaining independence; the seven stars on the original flag represented the seven provinces in Venezuela that united in the war of independence Bolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling-party-oriented organized labor union Venezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for almost all export earnings, and nearly half of the government’s revenue. The country ended 2015 with an estimated 10% contraction in its GDP, 160% inflation, widespread shortages of consumer goods, and declining central bank international reserves. The International Monetary Fund forecasts that the GDP will shrink another 6% in 2016 and inflation may reach 204%. Subjected to forced prostitution; some Venezuelan children are forced to beg on the streets or to work as domestic servants, while Ecuadorian children, often from indigenous communities, are subjected to forced labor Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds are tha natural resources of venezuela

State of Zambia

Zambia, a country located in south-central Africa, are at the forefront of copper producers. Zambia's copper exports to many areas of the world, you get huge revenues from export. Zambia derived its name from the Zambezi River, which forms most of its southern border. It is located in Ngzok shiyela ccctaz i hookar ungasabFortunate Fortu Zambia Kariba huge reservoir which is one of the largest electric power generation projects in the world and benefit from both Zambia and Zimbabwe. Zambia was in the former British protectorate called Northern Rhodesia as it was during the period from 1953 to 1963, part of the Federation of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Zambia became independent in 1964. Its capital, Lusaka, the largest cities Premier Edgar Lungu . copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower English | 4.languge | 752,618 sq km | 1.size | kwacha (ZMK) | 5.currency | 15,066,266 | 2.population | $4,300 | 6.GDP rate | Christianity | 3.religion |

green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems Government type: republic
Zambia has had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the past ten years, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability, spurring economic growth. Copper output increased steadily from 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment, but weakened in 2014, and Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. United Kingdom or Britain is a state situated in Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France. London is the capital of UK and largest city as well. Though English is the nation or official language there are some other recognized regional languages- Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, Cornish.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 243,610 sq. km | Religion | Christian 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.) | Population | 64,088,222 | Currency | Pound sterling | Language | English | GDP | $2.66 trillion |

Name of The United Kingdoms flag is Union Jack (officially known as Union Flag). The flag is a blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland).
The United Kingdom is a has a constitutional monarchy and Unitary parliamentary system. Queen Elizabeth II is the chief of the state (since 6 February 1952) and Prime Minister David CAMERON (since 11 May 2010) holds the position of head of the government. There are two major political parties in UK- Conservative and Unionist Party (party leader David Cameron) and Labor Party (party leader Jeremy CORBYN). Other political parties are Green Party of England and Wales or Greens, Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems), Party of Wales, Scottish National Party or SNP, Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland), Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), UK Independence Party or UKIP.
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. UK’s economy was severely marred due to 2008 economic crash. However, in 2013 GDP grew 1.7% and in 2014, 2.8%, accelerating because of greater consumer spending and a recovering housing market. As of late 2015, the Bank of England (BoE) is examining when to begin raising interest rates from historically low levels while being cautious not to damage economic growth. While the UK is one of the fastest growing economies in the G7, economists are concerned about the potential negative impact if the UK votes to leave the EU.
The government works to promote and protect UK interests internationally, and works with other countries to make progress on issues of mutual concern like trade, climate change, security and economic development. Anglo-American relations (UK- USA relations) has always been most important bilateral partnership between these two states cementing their ties during World War II.

Angola
Republic of Angola, commonly known as Angola is a southern African country. It has Congo in the north, Namibia in the south, Zambia in the east and Atlantic Ocean in the west. It is the seventh largest country of Africa. Luanda is the capital of Angola. Angola achieved independence in 1975 after the protracted liberation war from Portuguese colonization. That same year, Angola descended into an intense civil war that lasted until 2002.

Category | Fact | Category | Fact | Size | 1,246,700 sq. km | Religion | Indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% | Population | 19,625,353 | Currency | Angolan kwanza | Language | Portuguese | GDP | $185.2 billion |

Angola's flag was officially adopted on November 11, 1975. The flag has a horizontally divided field with red over black. A golden star, part of a cog wheel and a machete is centered. That symbol is said to be inspired by the hammer and sickle, and represents industrial and agricultural workers. Yellow is symbolic of the country's mineral wealth, and red and black are said to stand for 'Freedom or Death'.
Angola has presidential government. It is basically multiparty presidential regime President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos is the chief of state and head of the government as well and in office since 21 September 1979 Vice President of the country is Manuel Domingos Vicente. Major political parties of Angola are Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE, National Front for the Liberation of Angola, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (largest opposition party), Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, Social Renewal Party.
Economy of Angola is one of the fastest growing economy of the world. Starting to recover from 27 years’ civil war (finished 2002) Angola has reported that it has obtained annual average GDP growth of 10.1% for the time from 2001 to 2010. Angola's economy is by its oil sector. Oil production contributes about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.
Foreign policy of Angola is based on American foreign policy as Angolan economy is strongly dependent on it. Though it has strong relations with eastern block from 1975 to 1989. Angola has successfully worked in UN Security Council since 1988 to impose and carry out sanctions on UNITA. Angola is focusing to solve “conflict diamond” (blood diamonds or war diamond) problems.
Portuguese were present in this land for almost four-hundred years. This has a huge impact on Angolan culture and language. African influence is found in music and dance, and is molding the way in which Portuguese is spoken, but is almost disappearing from the vocabulary.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How Far Did World War One Cause the Collapse of the Liberal State in Italy?

...How far did World War One cause the collapse of the liberal state? The liberal state in Italy during the period in the build up to World War One was one of instability an speculation led by Giovanni Giolitti by the rules of trasformismo politics. While Giolitti is seen as successful in some senses, he failed to unite Italy in a way in which other continental countries were, and could not prevent resentment between different groups and classes causing chaotic riots and civil unrest in 1914, the same year that would see him come to pass on power to Antonio Salandra. Only a year later would Italy enter the First World War under Salandra against Giolitti’s will of neutrality. World War one itself perhaps exposed some of the weaknesses in the current political system of which liberal Italy was functioning on. The fact that there was division of opinion on whether Italy should enter the war highlights the unstable and indecisive nature of this system in Italy at this time. Italy’s influence and helpfulness to the allies in the fighting aspect of the war was very minimal, the army seemed relatively weak willed and lacked morale eventually leading to situations such as Caporetto in 1917 when an astonishing 300,000 Italian soldiers surrendered to become POW’s leaving Italy depleted in infantry, while also losing 150km of land. Overall in the war around 600,000 Italian troops were killed, a staggering amount considering Italy’s limited role in the war and perhaps pointed to a......

Words: 1234 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Discuss the Current State of International Humanitarian Affairs and How World Leaders Can Be More Involved in Solving Related Crisis

...DISCUSS THE CURRENT STATE OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS AND HOW WORLD LEADERS CAN BE MORE INVOLVED IN SOLVING RELATED CRISIS International humanitarian affairs have improved over the years. According to Jan Egeland there is 50 percent less war now than in 1989. There are less than one billion people in the world living under the $1 a day threshold when it used to be two billion people living under the same $1 threshold years ago. In his address, Mr. Egeland confirmed that the researchers of the Human Security Report found 10 genocides in 1989 compared to the only one found last year. Also, indicated that there has been an average of three to five military coups, compared to between 10 and 25 per year in the 1960’s, 70’s and 80’s. This is a clear indications that the world leaders are doing the best they can to curtail human right problems. The world leaders are also doing well in reducing humanitarian problems. During the tsunami crisis years ago about ninety nations such as United States happened to be donors of them fifty-five of them deployed military and civil defense assets to helped places like Indonesia and other areas that were affected by the tsunami. Mr. Jan Egeland has the belief that this generation of workers in the United Nations and workers in government services has a better chance at improving the life of much affected people than the older generation, because the world economy is going forward by which poor countries have now grown......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

State

...expected end rather than fully paying out dividends based solely on potential. Integrating rewards with recognition strategies allows you to encourage employees to exceed performance expectations. T = Transformative. They don't want a compensation plan that's totally out of line with what the business environment looks like today--their plan should resemble the times. Therefore, their practices and reward elements should constantly change with the times. 1 In building compensation program, the objective is to create a compensation program that will:  Attract and retain top talent;  Motivate your employees to achieve and maintain high performance;  Ensure competitive and consistent pay practices;  Comply with applicable federal and state laws and regulations;  Operate within the constraints of your budget and financial resources;  Ensure administrative efficiency; and  Allow you to offer competitive salaries relative to the labor market. Smartly integrated compensation plans take into accounts what's necessary for your company to maintain its competitive edge today and its sustained growth tomorrow. When compensation dollars are limited, including a good balance of benefits, recognitions and rewards can create a more appealing offering--and help you attract and retain top talent. B. Employee Perception about their Compensation: Employee satisfaction is a measure of how happy workers are with their job and working environment. Keeping morale high among workers......

Words: 3124 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Ir and the Changing Contemporary World of States

...Changing Contemporary World of States (Robert Jackson & George Sorensen) Muhammmad Alaydrus / 201310360311128 Many Important Questions in the study of IR are connected with the theory and practice of sovereign statehood.There are two perspectives about the proper scope of IR.At one extreme scholarly focus is exclusively on states and interstate relations; but another extreme IR includes almost everything that has to do with human relations across the world. So,it is very important to study about this two different prespectives if we hope to understand about the rounded and knowledge of IR. The state system is the main point of reference both for traditional and for new approaches.There are debates about how we should conceptualize the state and different IR theories take somewhat different approaches.but,however the fact is that state and the state system remain at the center of academic analysis and discussion in IR. We Must be Alert to the fact that the sovereign state is a contested theoritical concept.there are many different answers about the question “What is the state?” ; “What is the state system?”. There are different answers is because depending on the theoritical approach adopted.None of the answers are stricktly speaking either correct or incorrect because the truth is, the state is a multifaceted and somewhat confusing entity. The state is have two different dimensions.it is divided into two broad categories. The first dimensions is the state as a......

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Society in the United States an Ever Changing World

...Society in the United States an Ever Changing World ETH/125 08/26/2012 Society in the United States an Ever Changing World In the United States we have the ability to come across many different people and be able to learn from one another. In earlier times, we have been able to see how different some people were treated than others, but we are now able to live among one another and try to live peacefully. This is a cycle that will continue to happen as people become more and more tolerable to the differences we all have to bring to the table. This will only become easier with time as we all learn to accept the differences that we bring to the table. The benefits to living in a diverse community and society are that people are able to learn about other cultures and possibly be able to pick up one or more things from one another. When people are not familiar with other cultures or even places around the world they may feel a bit out of place and afraid when they do come to meet them, but this can all be avoided by being a bit more open minded and learn from others. Learning from a Diverse Society I have been taught the idea that everyone is equal, but I have finally found the meaning behind the saying. There had been some confusion in my eyes on whether or not everyone was the same, but in the end I find that we are all the same with different upbringings and possibly different culture.......

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

How Far Was the Collapse of the Liberal State Caused by the First World War?

...The Italian liberal state is believed by many, to have ended in the period following the First World War, in the year 1919. The first election after the First World War, under new electoral reforms, saw the Socialist PSI and the Catholic PPI receive over half of the national vote. As a result the liberals lost control of parliament, and from this point on any liberal government required Socialist or Catholic support to retain power. This undermined the traditional trasformismo system and led to mass politics in Italy, in which larger, permanent parties form and attempt to form a non-coalition government. The liberals were unable to adapt and unite to form a single party which would have allowed them to maintain power in the new system. This combined with the Socialist and Catholic refusal to join coalitions with the liberals resulted in discontent with the democratic parliamentary system in Italy, ‘paving the way’ for the rise of Fascism. However the problems with Italian politics were present long before the First World War, as the already mentioned trasformismo politics between different liberal factions made it very difficult for a government to last for an extended period of time. Furthermore a North-South divide existed in Italy and expanded as the North industrialised quicker than the more rural and agrarian south. This divide meant that many Italians felt as though Italy wasn’t truly united. The Vatican also created problems early on in Liberal Italy’s history, as......

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Assess the Impact of Cotemporary Ideas of the Present State of Religion in the World.

...Assess the impact of cotemporary ideas of the present state of religion in the world. Clearly, the diversity of religions in the world has been a fact throughout the entire history of all the world's major living religious traditions. Nevertheless, this diversity has been made the basis for contention rather than community in many cases, and the monotheistic religions have often been among the worst offenders on this score. The strong tendency to display hostility toward different religious positions is connected with a strong tendency toward xenophobia and ethnocentrism. The study of religion in the modern world calls for theories, approaches and methods that engage with the issues and processes that have affected the world within the last two hundred years, such as the impact of colonialism and subsequent postcolonial developments, globalization and the rise of global religious movements. For a start, it is worth asking if secular states and their underlying ideology, political secularism, are really under siege everywhere. Secularism was severely jolted with the establishment of the first modern theocracy in 1979 in Iran. By the late 1980s, Islamic political movements had emerged in Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Chad, Senegal, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and even in Bangladesh. Movements challenging secular states were hardly restricted to Muslim societies. Protestant movements decrying secularism emerged in Kenya, Guatemala, and the......

Words: 1555 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

State

...Seattle World Fair in 1962. Lewis and Clark explore Washington in 1805. That was long time ago. Or you can go and look at Mount St. Helen’s? Let me tell you more about Washington. The Space Needle at night State Description Washington is the 42nd state in the United States. It became a state on November 11, 1889. Washington is located above Oregon and next to Idaho. The Pacific Ocean is on the left side of Washington. Washington looks like a box and my dog bit it. The population of the state is 6,971,406 people as of 2013. That's a lot of people! There are 39 counties in the state. The major city are Olympia and Seattle. The state capital is Olympia. The largest county in size is Okanogan County measuring 5,315 square miles. The largest county in population in Okanogan County with 41,120 people. There are 9 major highways in the state. Washington is the only state name after president George Washington. Washington got its nickname of the evergreen state because it is covered in thick forests. Did you know that Rhode Island the smallest state could fit inside Washington 46 times. The largest lake in Washington is the Franklin D. Roosevelt. The covering 123 square miles but it's fake. The Columbia is the largest and powerful rivers in Washington. It is also one of the rainiest regions in the world. It's much more continental climate characterized by cold winters hot summer, and sparse rainfall. The State......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

World War 11 Insight in Mexico and United States

...World War 11 Insight in Mexico and United States Name Course Instructor Date of submission World War 11 Insight The Second World War occurred between the years 1939 to 1945. Second World War was a sharp reversal for the history of Chicano. It was a new dawn where there was desperation. The depression had left population decline, hopeless communities, broken dreams, the war brought high population, rejuvenated hopes and uprising society. There was a great labor shortage due to the war and great industrial expansion. The Chicanos could get entry into jobs due to the increased demand for the military officers. The move opened ways for the Chicanos; they left their traditional economic activities and were employed in the army and the industries that had been closed up to them previously. Due to labor shortage experienced, it caused the US to turn to Mexico; there was a great need for laborers who would work for the Americans. This was the cause for the formulation of the bracero program. On august 4 1942, the US and Mexicans instituted a bracero program. The bracero program is believed to have the development of rich American agricultural industry. More than four million Mexican laborers came to work in the field of this nation. The bracero converted the American agricultural fields into the most productive in America. These farmers were experienced and very hardworking despite two million of them dying during the Mexican......

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bentley and Ziegler State That Dar-Al-Islam Became Probably “the Most Prosperous and Cosmopolitan Society in the Postclassical World

...World History I – Final Question #1 #1 Bentley and Ziegler state that dar-al-Islam became probably “the most prosperous and cosmopolitan society in the postclassical world.” What does this statement mean? What evidence is there for this statement? Do you agree or disagree, and why? Prosperity of Dar-al-Islam Islam itself was transformed over time as the Islamic armies extended the boundaries of the empire beyond the borders of Arabia. Each territory conquered was influenced by the Islamic religion and politics. This enlarged sense of community and grand the scale of the Islamic Empire came to be known as Dar-al-Islam or the “house of Islam” referring to all lands under Islamic rule. Although the Muslims took over conquered territories they did not alter the social structures of the previous empires and many were allowed to continue to practicing their religions as well. The Local Muslim governors were appointed and continued rely on established governments and economic systems. This system of governing promoted the fusion between the conquered societies and the Islamic religion and its politics. Take the Sasanid Dynasty for example, Muslims left in charge adopted the Persian techniques of government and finance (p.260). These transformations were not only political and economic but cultural as well. The blending of policies and technologies throughout the empire increased all facets of the Islamic economies such as overland and maritime trade as well as banking......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

States

...States 1 Caught in a meager, anonymous space outside a drab Arab city, outside a refugee camp, outside the crushing time of one disaster after another, a wedding party stands, surprised, sad, slightly uncomfortable. Palestinians — the telltale mixture of styles and attitudes is so evidently theirs — near Tripoli in northern Lebanon. A few months after this picture was taken their camp was ravaged by intra-Palestinian fighting. Cutting across the wedding party’s path here is the ever-present Mercedes, emblazoned with its extra mark of authenticity, the proud D for Deutschland. A rare luxury in the West, the Mercedes — usually secondhand and smuggled in — is the commonest of cars in the Levant. It has become what horse, mule, and camel were, and then much more. Universal taxi, it is a symbol of modern technology domesticated, of the intrusion of the West into traditional life, of illicit trade. More important, the Mercedes is the all-purpose conveyance, something one uses for everything — funerals, weddings, births, proud display, leaving home, coming home, fixing, stealing, reselling, running away in, hiding in. But because Palestinians have no state of their own to shield them, the Mercedes, its provenance and destination obscure, seems like an intruder, a delegate of the forces that both dislocate and hem them in. “The earth is closing on us, pushing us through the last passage,” writes the poet Mahmoud Darwish. Tripoli, Badawi camp, May 1983. 2 The paradox of......

Words: 8577 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

World War Ii and Its Aftermath Had the United States Emerge as a Developing World Power

...The United States was in a state of serious economic depression before the start of World War 2. Americans were suffering greatly; there was little or no food, and most were jobless especially the minority. America was struggling and no inroads were made in any field whatsoever. The United States had too many problems at home and had no real passion for exerting its influence overseas. It was only with the out break of war did America fully recover from its worst depression in history. The war kick started the economy. A country at war needed supplies; guns, tanks, ships, aircraft, food etc. People were able to find jobs and the economy rose and stabilized. John Maynard Keynes said that it was possible to prevent sharp swings in the business cycle thus preventing another depression through monetary and fiscal manipulation. This theory by Keynes was a lesson the American government learnt and the United States was able to maintain its economic power after the war. With economic power came military power. During the war America was able to advance technologically in nearly all fields. Planes were build that traveled longer distances and thus kick starting the aviation industry. Penicillin was invented, trucks carried heavier loads, new industries sprung up and peoples were richer and America became a powerhouse technologically and economically. This power enabled the US government to exert its influences over much of the western world. The Allies were not doing too......

Words: 494 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Lead Up to the United States Entering World War One

...World War I Hanse Bidon HIS/125 November 16, 2014 Tabitha Oteino World War I After announcing that the United States would remain neutrality at the beginning of WWI, however it would be the actions of Germany that would cause President Wilson to ask congress for a declaration of war and on April 2, 1917, asking congress to send in troops to battle Germany. President Wilson, while addressing congress, stated that” lamented it is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful person into war." Four days later congress would honor President Wilson’s request. In February and March of 1917, Germany was at war with Britain, France and Russia. Germany would increase submarine attacks on freight and merchant ships entering the Atlantic Ocean Killing innocent men and women, which included Americans. The German U-boats set upon around England preventing any supplies from entering in. Also, they would allow ships to disembark and then fire on them. Which was the case in the Lusitania the Germans fired on and sunk the ship, which contained over one hundred Americans on board. In addition, January 1917, Great Britain intercepted a telegram and decided it. The telegram was from Germany’s foreign Minster Arthur Zimmerman to the German Minster to Mexico Von Eckhardt and released it to the U.S. newspaper instead of giving it to the U.S. government. In this telegram, Germany is offering to help Mexico regain Texas and Arizona territory if they would become allies in......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Imf and World Bank Challenge Nation State

...To what extent do organizations like the IMF, WTO, and World Bank challenge the nation state’s ability to shape domestic economic and social policy? The World Trade Organization welcomed with open arms Russia in 2012. This would open up trade possibilities for many countries in Asia, Europe and even the US. Some US companies, like Caterpillar, are already exporting a substantial amount to Russia. However, many in Congress do not want to grant Russia permanent normal trade status because of the way Russia has handled many political situations. As Andrew Kramer brought out in his NY Times article, “Congress has balked at the Obama administration’s request to grant Russia permanent normal trade relation status”. This could lead to retaliation by Russia against US companies by applying higher tariffs on their imported goods. According to Mr. Kramer’s article, the US company Caterpillar has sold 2 billion dollars worth of equipment to Russia in the last 5 years. However, President Obama’s administration, as well as his predecessors, has pushed to open up more trade with Russia. The WTO requires that all member nations have applied the same trade rules. Therefore, since the US is the largest financial contributor to the WTO, it would seem to be expected that it would play by the rules. So the WTO certainly has an effect on how the US constructs it trade policy with Russia. The pressure from inside the country, especially from those who think that Congress’ inaction could cost......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

State

...The modern state As Adam Ferguson himself described, natural productions are generally formed by degrees. Vegetables are raised from a tender shoot, and animals from an infant state. The latter, being active, extend together their operations and their powers, and have a progress in what they perform, and have a progress in what they perform as well as in the faculties they acquire. This progress in the case of man is continued to a greater extent than in that of any other animal. Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilization. Given practical form by the new nation states of Western Europe such as France in the late Middle Ages or Prussia in the nineteenth century, the old state system rested on the idea that by concentrating power in a single head or centre, the state itself could be sufficiently controlled and its environment sufficiently managed to achieve self-sufficiency or at least a maximum of self-sufficiency in a world which would inevitably be hostile or at best neutral toward each state's interests and in which alliances would reflect temporary coalitions of interests that should not be expected to last beyond that convergence. The old maxim: "No state has friends, only interests," typified that situation. The first powerful nation-states were monarchies, advocates of the divine right of kings to protect central authority and power. After a series of modern revolutions, first in thought, led by...

Words: 1553 - Pages: 7