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Social Movement

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About Gabriela's Women's Party
Gabriela Women’s Party is a sectoral party dedicated to promoting the rights and welfare of marginalized and under-represented Filipino women through participation in the country’s electoral system and organs of governance.

It is a sectoral party composed of women 18 years and above, having varied occupations, education, interests, ethnic origin, religious affiliation, and sexual orientation.

Gabriela Women’s Party seeks to harness the potential, initiative, skills, and leadership of marginalized women towards empowerment, justice, and equality.

Her Story

Women’s role in Philippine society has been shaped, by and large, by the Filipina’s demand for social justice, equality, freedom and democracy. That yearning and her consequent struggle have had a long and glorious, albeit invisible, history.

Almost 400 years after she led a regional revolt against Spanish colonizers, Gabriela Silang remains a model, a beacon, and an icon to women of the Philippines. She was the seminal Filipina, leading long after her death her sisters to the struggle against social inequities and foreign domination.

In 1984, fuelled by the resistance against the Marcos dictatorship and an overwhelming need for significant economic and political change in the archipelago, women from all walks of life – worker, peasant, urban poor, indigenous, middle class, artist, religious – banded together to set up a national women’s coalition. They took the name of the 18th century woman general. They called their coalition GABRIELA.

Founded on October 28,2000, Gabriela Women’s Party is an offshoot of the biggest alliance of women’s organizations in the Philippines, GABRIELA.

Rich with experiences and lessons of having been at the forefront of the Philippine women’s movement in its over 20 years of existence, GABRIELA first joined the electoral arena in 2001 when it fielded then Secretary General, Liza Largoza Maza to run as partylist representative under Bayan Muna (People First) Party.

Following its successful foray in parliament with the passage of pro-women legislation including the anti-Trafficking in Persons Act and the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act in the 12th Congress, Gabriela Women’s Party fielded its nominees in the 2004 national partylist elections for the first time. Gabriela Women’s Party emerged 7th of 66 parties, garnering enough votes to have Hon. Liza Maza serve as the sole women’s sectoral representative in the 13th Congress.

Proof of its exemplary performance it its continuing success in the electoral arena. Gabriela Women’s Party rose to 4th place in the 2007 partylist elections, reaping votes for not just one but for a second representative in the 14th Congress, Hon. Luzviminda Ilagan.

Today, with over 100,000 members in 15 regions in the Philippines and Filipino communities abroad, Gabriela Women’s Party through grassroots organizing, education, services, various campaigns and legislative efforts continues to advance the rights of women, children and country.

Our Declaration Of Principles

We, members of the Gabriela Women’s Party, in the spirit of the Filipina’s unbroken legacy of political participation – from the Babaylan of pre-Hispanic times to the Gabriela Silang of today; committed to uphold the interest of the broad masses of Filipino women and their families; dedicated to advancing the rights and promoting the well-being of women, especially of the more marginalized and under-represented; determined to encourage, develop and harness women’s full potential, leadership and collective creativity, hereby declare that:

1. Women have the right to a society where all forms of discrimination and violence against women have been banished; 2. Women have the right equal to men to the land they work on; as well as the right to full and gainful employment and living wages; 3. Women have the right to participate freely in all aspects of political debates, action, and decision-making processes in the family, the community and the nation at large; as well as the right to fair and non-sexist representation in all social, political, economic and cultural spheres; 4. Women have the right to fight for basic health care and services for all, especially reproductive and maternal health care; 5. Women have the right to a marriage founded on mutual consent and respect, with equality and dignity, and to adequate support for the rearing and caring of children; 6. Women have the right to fight for children’s basic needs like proper care, nutrition, health, safety and play, protection from abuse and exploitation; access to a national, scientific and mass education which is non-sexist as well; 7. Women have the right to advocate for lesbian and gay rights and to insist that society not discriminate on the basis of sexual preference; 8. Women have the right to assert and protect their country’s sovereignty and national patrimony; 9. Women have the right to a foreign policy that is independent and beneficial to our economy and security as a nation; 10. Women have the right to a government that is truly democratic and representative of the majority.

Our Program And Action

Gabriela Women’s Party is a sectoral party dedicated to promoting the rights and welfare of marginalized and under-represented Filipino women through participation in the country’s electoral system and organs of governance. It is a sectoral party composed of women 18 years and above, having varied occupations, education, interests, ethnic origin, religious affiliation, and sexual orientation. The Gabriela Women’s Party seeks to harness the potential, initiative, skills, and leadership of marginalized women towards empowerment, justice, and equality.

I. On Empowerment

1. To initiate, support and proposed measures that would uplift the conditions of marginalized women in the economic, political, social and cultural fields. 2. To educate and organize marginalized women from various sectors towards actualizing women’s potential for leadership and action. 3. To tap the organized strength of marginalized women for action towards safeguarding national sovereignty and democracy as well as the people’s welfare and well-being. 4. To work for a true land reform program that recognizes poor women’s right to ownership of the land they till, ensure state provision for health, maternal and child care services for rural women as well as support for their technical skills, training and education. 5. To support campaigns for wage increase, improvement of maternity benefits, provision of child care services and elimination of sexual harassment in the workplace. 6. To push for the setting up and protection of local industries in order to generate employment and thus minimize the need for working women to leave their families and work abroad. 7. To initiate moves to stop labor-only contracting especially as it takes advantage of women’s cheap labor and makes them vulnerable to abuse. 8. To encourage women’s initiatives towards a sound and healthy environment, particularly against chemical and waste pollution, forest denudation and the depletion of marine and coral resources.

II. On Justice

1. To initiate, encourage, or fight for measures that would strengthen action particularly as regards sexual violence such as rape, prostitution, sex trafficking, pornography, wife battery, incest, etc. 2. To fight human rights violations against women in all its forms and conduct information and education campaigns to protect women from violence, abuse, humiliation, degradation and exploitation. 3. To urge a total stop to illegal recruitment and sex trafficking of women in the guise of employment or marriage. 4. To work for the freedom of all political prisoners, especially pregnant women, nursing mothers, the sick, the infirmed, heads of families or main breadwinners. 5. To facilitate legal assistance, crisis intervention and just compensation to women who are victims of violence, poverty, and environmental degradation. 6. To campaign for the right to health care and the free exercise by women of reproductive choices and the provision of services that will make this a reality. 7. To demand stricter sanctions and punishment for perpetrators of child prostitution, child labor and other forms of child abuse.

III. On Equality

1. To support and promote initiatives aimed at preventing unjust and discriminarory practices against Filipino women that deter their full development as persons. 2. To monitor the compliance and implementation of government of international statutes on equality and against the discrimination of women, to which it is a signatory. 3. To promote the equality of men and women not only before the law but in various professions, in the workplace and in the home. 4. To defend the right of lesbians and gays against discrimination. 5. To raise the consciousness not only of women, but also of men, on gender issues and gender-sensitivity.

National Executive Council (2007-2010)

National President: Rep. Liza Largoza Maza

National Chairperson: Rep. Luzviminda Ilagan

Vice Chairperson: Nanette Miranda-Tampico

Vice Chairperson for Luzon: Leona "Nonie" Entena

Vice Chairperson for Visayas: Nenita “Nits” Cherniguin

Vice Chairperson for Mindanao: Atel Hijos

Secretary General: Cristina “Tinay” Ellazar Palabay

Deputy Secretary General for Internal Affairs: Vicenta Calvo

Deputy Secretary General for External Affairs: Flora Belinan

Treasurer: Marivic "Avic" Gerodias

PRO: Christina "Jinky" Sacandal

Director for Legal Affairs: Atty. Alnie Foja

Director for Social Services: Lina Ongkiko-Monsod

Director for Youth Affairs: Joan May Salvador

Director for Migrant Concerns: Cynthia Abdon-Tellez

Director for International Affairs: Elisa Tita Lubi

Gabriela Women's Party Chapters

Gabriela Women's Party has more than 100,000 card-bearing members nationwide and in other countries.

These are the Gabriela chapters nationwide and abroad:

← Ilocos ← Cordillera ← Central Luzon ← Southern Tagalog ← Bicol Region ← National Capital Region ← Cebu ← Bohol ← Eastern Visayas ← Panay and Guimaras ← Negros Oriental ← Negros Occidental ← Southern Mindanao ← CARAGA ← SOCKSARGEN ← Cagayan De Oro ← Bukidnon ← Zamboanga del Sur ← Hongkong ← Australia

Laws And Resources On Women

Seethings And Seatings

Anti-Violence Against Women And Their Children Act Of 2004 And Implementing Rules And Regulations

Anti-Trafficking In Persons Act Of 2003

Rape Victim Assistance And Protection Act Of 1998

The Anti-Rape Law Of 1997

Women In Development And Nation Building Act

Anti-Sexual Harassment Act Of 1995


Rage Against Rape

November 25: International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.This historical day marks the death of Patria, Teresa and Minerva Mirabal. Three sisters who gained prominence as Latin America’s Las Mariposas or the Butterflies, fearless in their struggle against the Trujillo dictatorship in the 1960s.

For their resolve and resilience, the international community decided to honor their contributions to the struggle for civil liberties and women’s political rights.In December 1999, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the resolution designating November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, enjoining governments and organizations worldwide to commemorate this day and raise public awareness for the recognition and promotion of women’s rights and outrage against Violence Against Women.RAGE against RAPE:The pervasiveness of rape as one of the most condemnable and most brutal acts of Violence Against Women in the Philippines in recent months cannot be denied.

Thousands of cases of rape and gang rape splash the headlines year after year.Very few have been resolved. The cry for justice is endless.Gabriela Women’s Party enjoins everyone to RAGE against RAPE, to put an end to Violence Against Women and VOW to fight VAW.

The Purple Rose Campaign

The PURPLE ROSE CAMPAIGN is an international campaign initiated by GABRIELA to raise awareness on the issue of sex trafficking of Filipino women and children: the brutal control exercised over women and children victims; the high incidence of violence and the tremendous self-sacrifice the women undergo to ensure the economic survival of their families in the Philippines. It shall provide a means by which everyone and anyone can express disapproval and opposition against the use of the sex trade and forced labor as a means of propping up the collapsing economy.

The campaign is also a way to express support for the women and people of the Philippines who seek to change the current situation.


Sex trafficking is a systematic transport of humans across borders within and outside the country for the purpose of trade in sex. This leads to prostitution of victims who are mostly women and children, with or without their knowledge. In most cases, force, intimidation and deception are used on the victims.

The Global Trade in Women

Recruited as underpaid factory workers for sweatshops, sold as brides, coerced into the sex trade, women now comprise the bulk of the global trade in labor. By the end of this year, they will comprise the majority of the world's foreign- born population.

Recently, the news emerged that some 50,000 women from China work under virtual slave conditions in the world's largest sweatshop in the US Trust Territory of Saipan. They make clothes for 18 US manufacturers who reap millions of dollars in profit. Less well known is the reality of women from the Philippines caught in the sex trade in the Marianas, providing leisure activity to tourists and male employees of the garment industry.

The Philippines in the Global Trade

Filipino women's lives are in danger. The increasing dominance of transnational corporate interests, including trade deregulation and market liberalization, has led to the mass displacement of both urban and peasant population in the Philippines. It has also led to the appropriation of land and resources by foreign companies, the worsening of work conditions, and a stripping away of workers' rights.

All these combined has led to increased labor migration, especially for women. As they strive to make a living for their families, many women are pushed into the sex trade and suffer extremely exploitative work conditions, emotional, physical and sexual abuses, and violence including murder.

The Philippines is the world's top exporter of women, shipping 370,000 in 1997 alone. While most of the women are recruited as household or domestic workers, the second largest number end up in the sex trade.

This method of crude accumulation of foreign currency was started by the Marcos dictatorship in the 1970s. Tourism development and the export of "surplus" labor were solutions proposed by the Marcoses. This reliance on the sale of bodies overseas continues to this day, further exacerbated by successive administrations. Some $7Bflow back to the Philippines annually, a billion dollars from the US alone.

Meanwhile, an average of two overseas contract workers return dead to the Philippines daily. That statistic is rising.


For over 30 years, horticulturists the world over, largely in the West, cross-bred and hybridized roses to create the perfect purple rose. It does not occur in nature and is a created thing. It is no different from any other rose, except it has been exoticized and set apart by human will. It is artificial and yet no different from any other rose: looks the same, smells the same, has thorns, leaves, stems, roots. But it was forced to be different.

The purple rose exists not for its own evolutionary purposes but for the pleasure of others.
The same with our women who are forced into becoming a created stereotype (not even a historical stereotype but a deliberately concocted one, to serve the needs of globalization) a thing for other's use. In adapting to that persona, our women suffer immeasurable self denial, as wives, mothers, sisters, daughters, as Filipina women.

Just as the Purple Rose is set apart, isolated and denies, to a certain extent, its self as a rose and its affinity with other roses.


The Purple Rose pledge shall accompany the icon. It is a commitment to fight against sex trafficking of women and children.

Simplicity is the hallmark of successful propaganda. Because of the scale of this campaign, the pledge has to be succinct and clear. It should contain nothing that will require long expositions, arguments and debates. It has to appeal to a wide range of people, both men and women. It has to have mass appeal.

Free Our Sisters! Free Ourselves!

We raise the alarm as recent events in the Philippines witness the attack on our basic democratic rights. Legitimate expressions of dissent are banned, rallies violently dispersed. Publications and media outfits are raided and censored with threats of government takeover and closure. Our freedoms are curtailed.

Presidential Proclamation 1017, imposed last February 24, 2006 placed the entire nation under a state of national emergency. This was immediately followed by violent dispersals of rallies, the crackdown and censorship of the media, and the illegal arrest and continued detention of Anakpawis Partylist Rep. Crispin Beltran.

Despite being granted protective custody under a unanimously approved Resolution that recognizes their right to due process, five partylis representatives - Gabriela Women's Party Rep. Liza Maza, Reps. Satur Ocampo, Joel Virador and Teddy Casiño of Bayan Muna and Rafael Mariano of Anakpawis, are restrained, hounded by the Philippine National Police and the Department of Justice with threats of illegal arrest and baseless rebellion charges.

Proclamation 1017 is the lates tool of repression imposed. Prior to this was the Calibrated Pre-emptive Response agaisnt rallies and Executive Order 464 disallowing Cabinet members from submitting themselves to inquiries of Congress. And despite the purported lifting of Proclamation 1017, another member of Congress, Rep. Risa Baraquel and former Social Welfare Secretary Dinky Soliman were arrested for joining protest actions.

Activists and journalists are killed and harassed, bringing to mind a scenario comparable to the dark days of Martial Law. Reasion is met with repression. The assertion of our rights is met with force. Women are being persecuted for their political beliefs. Women's rights are under attack.

Political Persecution

Gabriela Women's Party Representative Liza Maza is the sole women's sectoral representative in the Philippine Congress. As a legislator she has authored and pushed for the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 and the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act of 2004. She is also among the authors of the Juvenile Justice Bill, which nears its approval.

She initiated inquiries and proposed legislation on the effects of labor contratualization on the rights of women workers. She opposed militarization underscoring its effects on peasant and indigenous women.

As representative and President of Gabriela Women's Party and Vice Chairperson of GABRIELA, the biggest militant alliance of women's organizations in the Philippines, Rep. Maza has over two decades of women's rights advocacy under her wing.

The women's alliance GABRIELA has created its niche in the forefront of the Philippine women's movement, leading international campaigns agaisnt sex trafficking, exposing the prostitution of women in the US military bases in the Philippines.

For 22 years now, GABRIELA has provided service and support mechanisms for women victims of violence and leads efforts to organize and educate women in the grassroots of their rights.

Aside from Rep. Maza, known women leaders in the Philippines are being persecuted. Also charged with rebellion alongside Rep. Maza are 50 others including GWP Founding Vice Chair Tita Lubi. Meanwhile, GABRIELA Alliance Secretary General Emmi de Jesus GWP National Chair, Luz Ilagan, GABRIELA Southern Mindanao Vice Chair Cora Espinoza, BAYAN Chair and International Officer Carol Arraullo and Rita Baua respectively are all being implicated in fabricated affidavits as among those involved in hatching alleged plots of a violent overthrow of the Arroyo regime.

This attack on staunch defenders of women's rights and welfare in the Philippines is an affront to all of womenhood. This assault on our sisters is an assault to ourselves.

Our symbol

The butterfly is a known symbol of strength and freedom. Its symmetrical beauty, a consequence of change. Today as we stand up in defense of our sisters and in defense of our rights the butterfly becomes a symbol of our unity, our strength and our resolute stance against political persecution and repression.…...

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...and contrast two different social movement theories. The study of social movements is a very broad subject and with every new movement paves a way for new theories to be developed. Social movements is usually defined as a group of individuals who share the same ideology and together all try to obtain different political, social and economic goals. Among the current leading social movements looked at today includes resource mobilization, collective behaviour theory, political opportunities theory and frame alignment theory. Throughout this essay I will compare and contrast the two theories which are resource mobilization and the ‘new social movements theory’. Research for resource mobilization theory was introduced during the 1970’s . Resource mobilization was a social movement based on ‘the idea that successful movements acquire resources and create advantageous exchange relationships with other groups as they achieve success in fulfilling their goals’(Constain,1992). Within the framework of this theory outlines two distinct approaches which include: ‘organizational/entrepreneurial’ model presented by McCarthy and Zald and secondly, the socio-political or ‘political/interactive’ argued more favourably by authors such as Tilly, Diani, and McAdam. On the other hand the ‘new social movements theory revolves as an attempt to define the different features of more current social movements which handle global ecology and Native rights. These type of movements raise attention upon......

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Social Movement and Gender Paper

...Social Movement and Gender Paper Marco Ovid-DeSouza SOC/333 May 12, 2015 Matthew Szlapak Social Movement and Gender Paper Women in today's society live very different lives from those who lived in the late 1800s. Women throughout the last century petitioned, protested, and marched for equality and the rights that men inherently were born with. It took several social movements during the 20th century to attain higher education, gain independents, to vote, and to have the rights to choose. These social movements came in three significant waves. The first wave gave women a voice and granted them limit rights and independence. In the second wave, women fought for equality in the workplace and sexual freedom. The third wave brought gender violence, reproductive rights, and other issues to the forefront. Each social movement raised awareness, further forcing society to address the issues of inequality. Looking back at these movements, they were vital stepping-stones to the changes seen in society today. This paper will describe three social movements, the social and political environment at the times the movements occurred, and the effect each movement had on society. It will explain how each movement changed public opinion on gender issues and the effects it has had on gender view today. Social Movements The Suffragists With the first wave came the suffragists, which called for the equal right to vote among other liberties. The late 1800s and early 1900s was a......

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Social Movements

...Social Movements The world has experienced profound change and transformation in economical level as well as changing of the political and social structure. Especially since the mid-20th century, accelerating urbanization; the processes such as modernization and changes in the community show its impact on the region. Besides with the addition of globalization this impact can influence beyond the continent with common communication channels. All these changes and the social transformation made the social actors’ role questionable. Since the 1960s, the deep and rapid transformation, which also effected the anti-system protest movement. For instance, in 1960, students, the new left and the civil rights movement; LGBT 1970s and 1980s, the environment, women, peace and human rights movements; 1990s and 2000s 'global justice movement' have emerged one after the other, and have increased as well. (Demiroğlu, 2014) Movements are relatively long-term collective engagements in producing or guiding social change. In other words social movements mean expressing inappreciativeness and be the voice that needs to be satisfied. Indeed, in the 19th century the term social movement was often used to describe the actual course of social change, especially change bringing broader social participation. 19th century class struggle of the European workers' movement and the revolutionary masses had brought the issue to the center of political life. In this process, the deteriorating war......

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Social Movement

...Theories of Social Movements  Relative Deprivation Theory  Relative deprivation theory, developed by Denton Morrison (1971) is a more general theory about why individuals join social movements. A person experiences relative deprivation when she feels that she is not receiving her “fair share” of what seems to be available. Therefore, the people who are the worst off are not necessarily the ones experiencing relative deprivation. For instance, research in the Civil Rights movement showed that African Americans who were the most active were not most deprived but were fairly well-off, such as college students or religious leaders but they were the ones who felt the most relatively deprived.  Key to the idea of relative deprivation is the notion of expectations, that is, what people think they deserve and want in life. If these expectations are met, people do not experience discontent or relative deprivation. On the other hand, if people compare themselves to their reference groups and find that they have less, they will experience relative deprivation. If an individual feels that everyone else seems to be wealthier or generally seems to have it better, they will experience relative deprivation.  A second key to the idea of relative deprivation is the notion of legitimate expectations. Relative deprivation is not simply the idea that people want what everyone else has. It is the idea that they think they deserve it and have a right to it. Therefore, if they do not get what......

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