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useful sentences for academic writing
Argue
a. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___.
b. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___.
c. As a rebuttal to this point, it might be (convincingly) argued that ___.
d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___.
e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___.
f. [X]’s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.
Claim
a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.
b. [X] develops the claim that ___.
c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___.
d. [X]’s findings lend support to the claim that ___.
e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.
Data
a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggests / suggest that ___.
b. The data appears / appear to suggest that ___.
c. The data yielded by this [study] provides strong / convincing evidence that ___. (yielded = generated)
d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___.
e. The data generated by [X] is / are reported in [table 1].
f. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.
In modern usage, data can also be treated as a mass / uncountable noun, like information. Before you submit your work, check whether the institution you’re writing for / on behalf of prefers data + plural verb.
Debate
a. [X] has fostered debate on ___. (fostered = encouraged)
b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___.
c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years].
d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.
Discussion
a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___.
b. The foregoing discussion implies that ___. (foregoing = that came before)
c. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___.
d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.
e. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___.
f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.
Evidence (Remember: Evidence is uncountable.)
a. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___.
b. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___.
c. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the notion that ___.(corroborating = confirming)
d. Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___.
e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.
Ground
a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___.
b. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___.
c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___.
d. On these grounds, we can argue that ___.
e. [X]’s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.

Issue
a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.
b. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___.
c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___. (clouded = made less clear)
d. To portray the issue in [X]’s terms, ___.
e. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___.
f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.

Literature
a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y].
b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___.
c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___.
d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.
Premise
a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___.
b. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___.
c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___.
d. The basic premises of [X]’s theory / argument are ___.
e. The arguments against [X]’s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.
Research
a.This study draws on research conducted by ___.
b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.
c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___.
d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___.
e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___.
f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___.
g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___.
h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___.

View
a. The consensus view seems to be that ___.
b. [X] propounds the view that ___. (propound = put forward for consideration)
c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view.
d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___. (dissenter = someone who disagrees)
e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut aspopular views might suggest.
f. The view that _____ is (very much) in line with [common sense].
g. I am not alone in my view that ___.
h. [X] puts forward the view that ___.
i. [X]’s views rest on the assumption that ___. * Introducing questions, problems and limitations: theory or argument * The main weakness with this theory is that …
The key problem with this explanation is that …
However, this theory does not fully explain why …
One criticism of much of the literature on X is that …
However, there is an inconsistency with this argument.
A serious weakness with this argument, however, is that …
One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether …
Smith’s argument relies too heavily on qualitative analysis of …
Smith’s interpretation overlooks much of the historical research …
Many writers have challenged Smith’s claim on the grounds that …
Smith’s analysis does not take account of X, nor does he examine …
It seems that Jones’ understanding of the X framework is questionable.
The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
One of the limitations with this explanation is that it does not explain why… * Introducing questions, problems and limitations: method or practice * One major drawback of this approach is that …
Selection bias is another potential concern because …
Perhaps the most serious disadvantage of this method is that …
The main limitation of biosynthetic incorporation, however, is …
Non-government agencies are also very critical of the new policies.
All the studies reviewed so far, however, suffer from the fact that …
Critics of laboratory-based experiments contend that such studies …
Another problem with this approach is that it fails to take X into account.
Difficulties arise, however, when an attempt is made to implement the policy.
Critics have also argued that not only do surveys provide an inaccurate measure of X, but the …
Nevertheless, the strategy has not escaped criticism from governments, agencies and academics. However, | this method of analysis has a number of limitations. this method does involve potential measurement error. there are limits to how far the idea of/concept of X can be taken. approaches of this kind carry with them various well known limitations. one of the problems with the instrument the researchers used to measure X was … | * However, all the previously mentioned methods suffer from some serious | drawbacks. limitations. weaknesses. shortcomings. disadvantages. | * * Identifying a study’s weakness (However,) | Smith fails to fully define what …
Jones fails to acknowledge the significance of … the author overlooks the fact that X contributes to Y. what Smith fails to do is to draw a distinction between … the paper would appear to be over-ambitious in its claims. another weakness is that we are given no explanation of how … no attempt was made to quantify the association between X and Y. the main weakness of the study is the failure to address how … the study fails to consider the differing categories of damage that … the research does not take into account pre-existing … such as … the author offers no explanation for the distinction between X and Y.
Smith makes no attempt to differentiate between different types of X. | * Smith
The paper
The book | fails to does not makes no attempt to | specify … quantify … compare … separate … account for … suggest why … analyse how … ascertain whether … distinguish between … explain the meaning of … provide information on … address the question of … assess the effectiveness of … use a standardised method of … give sufficient consideration to … consider the long term impact of … offer an adequate explanation for … engage with current discourses on … determine the underlying causes of … systematically review all the relevant literature. | * * Offering constructive suggestions * The study would have been more interesting if it had included …
These studies would have been more useful if they had focused on …
The study would have been more relevant if the researchers had asked …
The questionnaire would have been more useful if it had asked participants about …
The research would have been more relevant if a wider range of X had been explored Smith’s paper
Her conclusions
The study
The findings | would have been break might have been | more break much more break far more | useful relevant convincing interesting persuasive original | if he/she had break if the author had | included … considered … assessed … addressed … adopted … used … | * A more comprehensive study would include all the groups of …
A better study would examine a large, randomly selected sample of societies with …
A much more systematic approach would identify how X interacts with other variables that are believed to be linked to … * Using evaluative adjectives to comment on research In her
In their
In this | excellent comprehensive detailed useful thorough ground breaking timely important impressive ———————- limited small-scale | analysis (of X), examination (of X), study (of X), survey (of X), investigation (into Y), | Smith (2012)
Jones et al. (2012) | found … was/were able to show that … concluded that … | * * Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies * Previous studies of X have not dealt with …
Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they …
Most studies in the field of X have only focused on …
Such approaches, however, have failed to address …
Previous published studies are limited to local surveys.
Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether …
The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
Previously published studies on the effect of X are not consistent.
Smith’s analysis does not take account of …, nor does she examine …
The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
Most studies of X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature …
The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of …
However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into …
Short-term studies such as these do not necessarily show subtle changes over time …
Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which …
However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if …
The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about … * Introducing general criticism * Critics question the ability of poststructuralist theory to provide …
Non-government agencies are also very critical of the new policies.
Smith’s meta-analysis has been subjected to considerable criticism.
The most important of these criticisms is that Smith failed to note that …
The X theory has been vigorously challenged in recent years by a number of writers.
These claims have been strongly contested in recent years by a number of writers.
More recent arguments against X have been summarised by Smith and Jones (1982):
Critics have also argued that not only do surveys provide an inaccurate measure of X, but the …
Many analysts now argue that the strategy of X has not been successful. Jones (2003), for example, argues that … * Introducing the critical stance of particular writers * Jones (2003) has also questioned why …
However, Jones (2003) points out that …
The author challenges the widely held view that …
Smith (1999) takes issue with the contention that …
The idea that … was first challenged by Smith (1992).
Smith is critical of the tendency to compartmentalise X.
However, Smith (1967) questioned this hypothesis and …
Smith (1980) broke with tradition by raising the question of …
Jones (2003) has challenged some of Smith’s conclusions, arguing that …
Another major criticism of Smith’s study, made by Jones (2003), is that …
Jones (2003) is critical of the conclusions that Smith draws from his findings.
An alternative interpretation of the origins of X can be found in Smith (1976).
Jones (2003) is probably the best known critic of the X theory. He argues that …
In her discussion of X, Smith further criticises the ways in which some authors …
Smith’s decision to reject the classical explanation of X merits some discussion …
The latter point has been devastatingly critiqued by Jones (2003), who argues that …
In a recent article in Academic Journal, Smith (2014) questions the extent to which …
A recently published article by Smith et al. (2011) casts doubt on Jones’ assumption that …
Other authors (see Harbison, 2003; Kaplan, 2004) question the usefulness of such an approach. * Devices that distance the author from a proposition * It is believed that …
It is thought that …
It is a widely held view that …
It has been reported that …
It has commonly been assumed that … * According to Smith (2002), …
According to recent reports, …
According to many in the field …
Smith (2001) holds the view that …
Many scholars hold the view that …
Recent research has suggested that …
There is some evidence to suggest that …
If Smith’s (2001) findings are accurate, … * Being cautious when giving explanations or hypothesising These frequent storms | are almost certainly are probably could be may be might be | due to climate change. | * It is almost certain that
It is likely that
It may be that
It could be that
It is possible that | the more extreme weather | is a result of climate change. | * A likely explanation
A probable explanation
A possible explanation | is that | these frequent storms | are a result of climate change. | * * Being cautious when explaining results * This inconsistency may be due to …
This discrepancy could be attributed to …
A possible explanation for this might be that …
It seems possible that these results are due to …
This rather contradictory result may be due to …
The observed increase in X could be attributed to …
The possible interference of X cannot be ruled out …
There are several possible explanations for this result.
There are two likely causes for the differences between …
A possible explanation for these results may be the lack of adequate …
Since this difference has not been found elsewhere it is probably not due to … * Being cautious when discussing implications or recommendations * One possible implication of this is that …
The findings of this study suggest that …
The evidence from this study suggests that …
Taken together, these results suggest that …
The data reported here appear to support the assumption that …
Initial observations suggest that there may be a link between …
The findings from these studies suggest that X can have an effect on … * Strategies to enhance X might involve …
Other types of response could include: a), b). …
These results would seem to suggest that the …
There would therefore seem to be a definite need for …
A reasonable approach to tackle this issue could be to …
Another possible area of future research would be to investigate why … * Devices for avoiding over-generalisation Ozone is toxic to | almost all most many types of the majority of certain types of some types of | living organisms. | * Ozone levels | nearly always frequently generally often sometimes occasionally | exceed WHO levels in many cities. | * Ozone tends to attack cells and break down tissues.
There is a tendency for ozone to attack cells. * In general, this requires …
In general terms, this means …
Xs use generally accepted principles to …
Authors generally place an emphasis on …
X is generally assumed to play a role in …
Generally accepted methods for X include: …
Studies which show no effect are not generally published.
Research articles generally consist of the following components:
Quantitative research is generally associated with the positivist paradigm. * Being cautious when writing about the future Severe weather | will almost certainly will probably is likely to could may might | become more common in the future. | * It is almost certain that
There is a strong possibility that
It is likely that
There is a possibility that
There is a small chance that | the situation will improve in the long term. | * * Advising cautious interpretation of findings (Refer to Discussing Findings) * These findings cannot be extrapolated to all patients.
These data must be interpreted with caution because …
These results therefore need to be interpreted with caution.
It is important to bear in mind the possible bias in these responses.
Although exclusion of X did not …, these results should be interpreted with caution.
However, with a small sample size, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be … * General classifications X may be divided into | three main | classes. sub-groups. categories. | * X may be classified | on the basis of according to depending on in terms of | Y | into Xi and Xii. | * * It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘passive’ from ‘active’ forms of X.
Bone is generally classified into two types: X bone, also known as …, and Y bone or …
Systems theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social and semantic Xs (Al-Masry 2013).
There are two main types of memory: declarative and non-declarative memory. Declarative memory can be broken down into X and Y.
Aristotle’s systematic treatises may be grouped in several divisions: logic, psychological works, physical …
The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …; (2) collections of facts and …; and (3) systematic works.
There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is the Y approach and the other is …
Associative learning can be categorised into classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was first …
Generally, spectra typing provides two types of information: band intensity pattern and band number. * Specific classifications In the traditional system, X is graded | in terms of … on the basis of … according to whether … | * Smith (1966) | divided classified grouped | Xs | into two broad types: Xi’s and Xii’s. | * Thomas (1996) describes | four basic kinds of validity: | logical, content, criterion and construct. | * * Individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …
To better understand the mechanisms of X and its therapeutic implications, Smith et al.(2011) classified X into 3 distinct types using … * Commenting on a system of classification This system of classification | includes … allows for … helps distinguish … is useful because … is very simple and … provides a basis for … can vary depending on … was agreed upon after … has been broadened to include … was developed for the purpose of … is more scientific since it is based on …is now out of date. can be problematic. is in need of revision. poses a problem for … has limited utility with respect to … | * Thomas (1996) describes | four basic kinds of validity: | logical, content, criterion and construct. | * Introducing lists * This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are:
There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
During his tour of Britain, he visited the following industrial centres: Manchester, Leeds, and …
This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes…
The Mass for Four Voices consists of five movements, which are: the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Santus and Agnus Dei. * Referring to other people’s lists * Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for its acceptance. Firstly, X should be … Secondly, it needs to be … Thirdly, …
For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which … * Introductory Sentences: Differences * X is different from Y in a number of respects.
X differs from Y in a number of important ways.
There are a number of important differences between X and Y.
Women and men differ not only in physical attributes but also in the way in which they …. Smith (2003) | found observed | distinct significant notable considerable major only slight | differences between X and Y. | * Jones (2013) found dramatic differences in the rate of decline of X between Y and Z.
Areas where significant differences have been found include X and Y.
The nervous systems of X are significantly different from those of Y in several key features. * Introductory Sentences: Similarities The mode of processing used by the right brain | is similar to that is comparable to that is comparable in complexity to that | used by the left brain. | * There are a number of similarities between X and Y.
The effects of X on human health are similar to those of Y.
Both X and Y generally take place in a ‘safe environment’.
Numerous studies have compared Xs in humans and animals and found that they are essentially identical. * Comparison within one sentence Oral societies tend to be more concerned with the present | whereas while | literate societies have a very definite awareness of the past. | * Whereas While | oral societies tend to be more concerned with the present, | literate societies have a very definite awareness of the past. | * In contrast to oral communities, it is very difficult to get away from calendar time in literate societies.
Compared with people in oral cultures, people in literate cultures organise their lives around clocks and calendars. This interpretation | contrasts with that differs from that is different from that | of Smith and Jones (2004) who argue that …. | * * Comparison within one sentence (comparative forms) * In the trial, women made fewer errors than men.
Women tend to have greater/less verbal fluency than men.
Adolescents are less likely to be put to sleep by alcohol than adults.
Women are faster/slower than men at certain precision manual tasks, such as …
Women tend to perform better/worse than men on tests of perceptual speed.
Further, men are more/less accurate in tests of target-directed motor skills.
Women are more/less likely than men to suffer aphasia when the front part of the brain is damaged.
The corpus callosum, a part of the brain connecting the two hemispheres, may be more/less extensive in women. * Indicating difference across two sentences It is very difficult to get away from calendar time in literate societies. | By contrast,
In contrast,
On the other hand, | many people in oral communities have little idea of the calendar year of their birth. | * * Indicating similarity across two sentences Young children learning their first language need simplified input. | Similarly,
Likewise,
In the same way, | low level adult L2 learners need graded input supplied in most cases by a teacher. | * * Introductory phrases * It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by …
There is a degree of uncertainty around the terminology in …
This shows a need to be explicit about exactly what is meant by the word X.
X is a term frequently used in the literature, but to date there is no consensus about … * General meanings or application of meanings * The term X refers to …
The term X encompasses A), B), and C).
X can be defined as … It encompasses …
X can be loosely described as a correlation.
The term X has come to be used to refer to …
The term X is generally understood to mean …
The term X has been applied to situations where students …
In the literature, the term tends to be used to refer to …
The broad use of the term X is sometimes equated with …
Whereas X refers to the operations of …, Y refers to the …
The term disease refers to a biological event characterised by …
The term X is a relatively new name for a Y, commonly referred to…
In broad biological terms, X can be defined as any stimulus that is …
Defined as XYZ, obesity is now considered a worldwide epidemic and is associated with … * Indicating difficulties in defining a term * A generally accepted definition of X is lacking.
Unfortunately, X remains a poorly defined term.
The term X embodies a multitude of concepts which …
A further definition is given by Smith (1982) who describes …
In the field of language teaching, various definitions of X are found.
Smith (2001) identified four abilities that might be subsumed under the term X: a) …
Although differences of opinion still exist, there appears to be some agreement that X refers to …
X is a commonly-used notion in language learning and yet it is a concept difficult to define precisely. * Specifying terms that are used in an essay or thesis * The term X will be used solely when referring to …
In the present report, X was therefore defined in terms of …
In this essay, the term X will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …
In this paper, the term that will be used to describe this phenomenon is X.
In this dissertation, the terms X and Y are used interchangeably to mean …
Throughout this thesis, the term education is used to refer to informal systems as well as …
While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as … * Referring to people’s definitions: author prominent * For Smith (2001), fluency means/refers to …
Smith (2001) uses the term ‘fluency’ to refer to …
Smith (1954) was apparently the first to use the term …
The term ‘fluency’ is used by Smith (2001) to refer to …
Macro-stabilisation policy is defined by Smith (2003: 119) as ‘… …’
This definition is close to those of Smith (2012) and Jones (2013) who define X as …
In 1987, sports psychologist John Smith popularized the term ‘X’ to describe …
According to a definition provided by Smith (2001:23), fluency is ‘the maximally …
Aristotle defines the imagination as ‘the movement which results upon an actual sensation.’
One of the first people to define nursing was Florence Nightingale (1860), who wrote: ‘… …’
Chomsky writes that a grammar is a ‘device of some sort for producing the ….’ (1957, p.11).
Smith, has shown that, as late as 1920, Jones was using the term ‘X’ to refer to particular …
The term ‘matter’ is used by Aristotle in four overlapping senses. First, it is the underlying … Secondly, it is the potential which …
Smith et al. (2002) have provided a new definition of health: ‘health is a state of being with physical, cultural, psychological …’ * Commenting on a definition This definition | includes … allows for … highlights the … helps distinguish … takes into account … poses a problem for … will continue to evolve. can vary depending on … was agreed upon after … has been broadened to include … | The following definition is | intended to … modelled on … too simplistic: useful because … problematic as … inadequate since … in need of revision since … important for what it excludes. the most precise produced so far. |
Describing trends The graph shows that there has been a
Figure 2 reveals that there has been a | slight gradual slow steady marked steep sharp | growth increase rise decrease fall decline drop | in the number of divorces in England and Wales since 1981. | Describing high and low points in figures
Oil production peaked in 1985.
Gas production reached a (new) low in 1990
The peak age for committing a crime is 18.
The number of live births outside marriage reached a peak during the Second World War.
Projecting trends The number of Xs
The amount of Y
The rate of Z | is projected to is expected to is likely to will probably | fall grow increase level off remain steady decline steadily drop sharply | after 2020. |
Describing ratios and proportions
Singapore has the highest proportion of millionaire households.
The annual birth rate dropped from 44.4 to 38.6 per 1000 per annum.
The proportion of live births outside marriage reached one in ten in 1945.
East Anglia had the lowest proportion of lone parents at only 14 per cent.
The proportion of the population attending emergency departments was 65% higher in X than …
Describing fractions
Over half of those surveyed indicated that …
Nearly half of the respondents (48%) agreed that …
Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on …
Less than a third of those who responded (32%) indicated that …
The number of first marriages in the United Kingdom fell by nearly two-fifths.
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that …
Describing percentages
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that …
Since 1981, England has experienced an 89% increase in crime.
The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
In 1960 just over 5% of live births in 1960 were outside marriage.
Returned surveys from 34 radiologists yielded a 34% response rate.
He also noted that less than 10% of the articles included in his study cited …
With each year of advancing age, the probability of having X increased by 9.6% (p = 0.006).
The mean income of the bottom 20 percent of U.S. families declined from $10,716 in 1970 to …
X found that of 2,500 abortions, 58% were in young women aged 15-24, of whom 62% were …
Describing averages
The average of 12 observations in the X, Y and Z is 19.2 mgs/m …
This figure can be seen as the average life expectancy at various ages.
The proposed model suggests a steep decline in mean life expectancy …
Roman slaves probably had a lower than average life expectancy.
The mean age of Xs with coronary atherosclerosis was 48.3 ± 6.3 years.
Mean estimated age at death was 38.1 ± 12.0 years (ranging from 10 to 60+ years)
The mean score for X was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to determine …
The mean income of the bottom 20 percent of U.S. families declined from $10,716 in 1970 to …
Describing ranges
Estimates of X range from 200,000 to 700,000 and up to a million or more.
The respondents had practised for an average of 15 years (range 6 to 35 years).
The participants were aged 19 to 25 and were from both rural and urban backgrounds.
They calculated ranges of journal use from 10.7%–36.4% for the humanities, 25%–57% for …
Rates of decline ranged from 2.71– 0.08 cms per day with a mean of 0.97 cms per day.
The evidence shows that life expectancy from birth lies in the range of twenty to thirty years.
At between 575 and 590 metres depth, the sea floor is extremely flat, with an average slope of …
The mean income of the bottom 20 percent of U.S. families declined from $10,716 to $9,833.
Verbs indicating causality Lack of protein | may cause can lead to can result in | mental disability. | Scurvy is a disease | caused by resulting from stemming from | lack of vitamin C. | Much of the instability in X | stems from | the economic effects of the war. | Low levels of chlorine | can give rise to | high blood pressure. | Nouns indicating causality One reason why Xs have declined is that …
The most likely causes of X are poor diet and lack of exercise.
The causes of X have been the subject of intense debate within …
A consequence of vitamin A deficiency is blindness.
X can have profound health consequences for older people.
Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining fitness.
Many other medications have an influence on cholesterol levels. | Prepositional phrases indicating causality 200,000 people per year become deaf | owing to because of as a result of as a consequence of | a lack of iodine. | Sentence connectors indicating causality If undernourished children do survive to become adults, they have decreased learning ability. | Therefore,
Consequently,
Because of this,
As a result (of this), | when they grow up, it will probably be difficult for them to find work. | Adverbial elements indicating causality Malnutrition leads to illness and a reduced ability to work in adulthood, break The warm air rises above the surface of the sea, | thus break thereby | perpetuating the poverty cycle. break creating an area of low pressure. | Other examples
Extreme loneliness is a risk factor for X.
X and Y are important driving factors of Z.
X is almost as strong a risk factor for disability as Y.
X is generally seen as a factor strongly related to Y.
The mixing of X and Y exerts a powerful effect upon Z through …
Due to X and Y, inflowing surface water becomes more dense as it …
Loneliness can have profound health consequences for older people.
As a consequence of X , it appears that Y alone is not the causative factor of…
The study found that loneliness has twice the impact on early death as obesity does.
Possible cause and effect relationships expressed tentatively
There is some evidence that X may affect Y.
It is not yet clear whether X is made worse by Y.
This suggests a weak link may exist between X and Y.
The use of X may be linked to behaviour problems in …
The human papilloma virus is linked to most cervical cancer.
The findings indicate that regular exercise could improve cognitive function in people at risk of …
X may have been an important factor in …
X may have contributed to the increase in …
X may have played a vital role in bringing about …
X may have been caused by an increase in …
In the literature, X has been associated with Y.
X in many cases may be associated with certain bacterial infections.
A high consumption of X could be associated with infertility. Examples as the main information in a sentence A/An | well-known notable classic useful important | example of X is ….. |
For example, the word ‘doctor’ used to mean a ‘learned man’.
For example, Smith and Jones (2004) conducted a series of semi-structured interviews in …
Young people begin smoking for a variety of reasons. They may, for example, be influenced by ….
This is exemplified in the work undertaken by …
Another example of what is meant by X is …
This distinction is further exemplified in studies using …
An example of this is the study carried out by Smith (2004) in which …
The effectiveness of the X technique has been exemplified in a report by Smith et al (2010)
This is evident in the case of …
This is certainly true in the case of …
The evidence of X can be clearly seen in the case of …
In a similar case in America, Smith (1992) identified …
This can be seen in the case of the two London physics laboratories which …
X is a good illustration of …
X illustrates this point clearly.
This can be illustrated briefly by …
By way of illustration, Smith (2003) shows how the data for …
These experiments illustrate that X and Y have distinct functions in …
Examples as additional information in a sentence
Young people begin smoking for a variety of reasons, such as pressure from peers and the role model of parents.
Pavlov found that if some other stimulus, for example the ringing of a bell, preceded the food, the dog would start salivating.
In Paris, Gassendi kept in close contact with many other prominent scholars, such as Kepler, Galileo, Hobbes, and Descartes.
The prices of resources, such as copper, iron ore, oil, coal and aluminium, have declined in real terms over the past 20 years.
Many diseases can result at least in part from stress, including: arthritis, asthma, migraine, headaches and ulcers.
Reporting cases as support
This case has shown that …
This has been seen in the case of …
The case reported here illustrates the …
Overall, these cases support the view that …
This case study confirms the importance of …
The evidence presented thus far supports the idea that …
This case demonstrates how X used innovative marketing strategies in …
As this case very clearly demonstrates, it is important that …
This case reveals the need for further investigation in patients with …
This case demonstrates the need for better strategies for …
In support of X, Y has been shown to induce Y in several cases (Smith et al., 2001).
Recent cases reported by Smith et al. (2013) also support the hypothesis that …

Previewing sections of text
The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on X. It begins by …
This introductory section provides a brief overview of … It then goes on to …
This part of the thesis discusses the findings which emerged from the statistical analysis presented in the previous chapter.
This chapter describes and discusses the methods used in this investigation. The first section … The second part moves on to describe in greater detail the …
The final chapter of this dissertation is divided into two parts. The first …
This chapter is divided into four main sections, each of which presents the results relating to one of the research questions.
The structure and biological functions of Xs will be discussed in the forthcoming sections.
Introducing a new topic or aspect of a topic
Regarding X, …
As regards X, …
In terms of X, …
In the case of X …
With regard to X, …
With respect to X, …
As far as X is concerned, …
Reintroducing a topic
As discussed above, …
As explained earlier, …
As described on the previous page, …
As was mentioned in the previous chapter, …
As explained in the introduction, it is clear that …
As was pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …
Returning (briefly) to the (subject/issue) of X, …
Moving from one section to the next
Turning now to the experimental evidence on …
Before proceeding to examine X, it will be necessary to …
Before employing these theories to examine X, it is necessary to …
So far this paper/chapter has focussed on X. The following section will discuss …
Having defined what is meant by X, I will now move on to discuss …
This chapter follows on from the previous chapter, which (examined/laid out/outlined) X.
This chapter has demonstrated that … It is now necessary to explain the course of …
Having discussed how to construct X, the final section of this paper addresses ways of …
This section has analysed the causes of X and has argued that … The next part of this paper …
Moving from one section to the next whilst indicating addition, contrast or opposition
In addition, it is important to ask …
On the other hand, in spite of much new knowledge about the role of …,
However, this system also has a number of serious drawbacks.
Despite this, little progress has been made in the …
Previewing a following section
The following is a brief report on a …
What follows is a description/outline/account of …
In the section that follows, it will be argued that …
The problem of X is discussed in the following section.
The next chapter describes synthesis and evaluation of …
This raises questions about X which will be discussed in the next chapter.
Transition statements for results and discussion
Turning now to the experimental evidence on …
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that …
A comparison of the two results reveals …
As pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …
From the previous discussion, it can be seen that …
It is also worth noting that X is significantly more frequent in …
The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4.
Summary and preview
This section has reviewed the three key aspects of …
This chapter has described the methods used in this investigation and it has …
In this section, it has been explained that …The chapter that follows moves on to consider the….
This chapter began by describing X and arguing that … It went on to suggest that the … The next chapter describes the procedures and methods used in this investigation
These analytical procedures and the results obtained from them are described in the next chapter.
A summary of the main findings and of the principal issues and suggestions which have arisen in this discussion are provided in the next chapter, which …
In the next section, I will present some of the findings of my empirical research on the impact of …
Time phrases associated with the use of the present perfect tense: past and present connected
To date, little evidence has been found associating X with Y.
Up to now, the research has tended to focus on X rather than on Y.
So far, three factors have been identified as being potentially important: X, Y, and Z.
Since 1965, these four economies have doubled their share of world production and trade.
Until recently, there has been little interest in X.
Recently, these questions have been addressed by researchers in many fields.
In recent years, researchers have investigated a variety of approaches to X but …
More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about …
The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many …
Over the past 30 years there has been a significant increase in …
Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in …
Over the past few decades, the world has seen the stunning transformation of X, Y and Z.
The present perfect tense may also be used to describe research or scholarly activity that has taken place recently
Several studies have revealed that …
Previous studies of X have not dealt with …
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X.
There have been several investigations into the causes of illiteracy (Smith, 1985; Jones, 1987).
The new material has been shown to enhance cooling properties (Smith, 1985, Jones, 1987).
Invasive plants have been identified as major contributing factors for the decline of …
The relationship between a diet high in fats and poor health has been widely investigated (Smith, 1985, Jones, …
For reference to single investigations or publications in the past, the simple past tense is used
An experimental demonstration of this effect was first carried out by …
The first experimental realisation of …, by Smith et al. [12], used a …
The first systematic study of X was reported by Patel et al. in 1986.
Smith and Jones (1994) were the first to describe X, and reported that …
X as originally isolated from Y in a soil sample from … (Wang et al., 1952).
In 1975, Smith et al. published a paper in which they described …
In the 1950s, Gunnar Myrdal pointed to some of the ways in which …
In 1981, Smith and co-workers demonstrated that X induced in vitro resistance to …
In 1984, Jones et al. made several amino acid esters of X and evaluated them as …
In 1990, Patel et al. demonstrated that replacement of H2O with heavy water led to …
Thirty years later, Smith (1974) reported three cases of Candida Albicans which …
General descriptions of the relevant literature
Research into X has a long history.
The literature has emphasized the importance of …
Different theories exist in the literature regarding …
More recent attention has focused on the provision of …
There are relatively few historical studies in the area of …
A great deal of previous research into X has focused on …
A large and growing body of literature has investigated …
Much of the current literature on X pays particular attention to …
For many years, this phenomenon was surprisingly neglected by …
There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of …
Over the past decade, most research in X has emphasized the use of …
In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on …
The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
During the past 30 years, much more information has become available on …
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …
The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with …
Historically, research investigating the factors associated with X has focused on …
What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …
Reference to previous research or scholarship: normally more than one author
Several recent studies investigating X have been carried out on …
Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …
Traditionally, it has been argued that … (e.g. Smith, 1960; O’Brien, 1972).
Early examples of research into X include … (Smith, 1982; O’Brien, 1984).
Twenty cohort study analyses have examined the relationship between …
Recent evidence suggests that … (Smith, 1996; Jones, 1999; Johnson, 2001).
Several biographies of Brown have been published. Smith (2013) presents …
A number of authors have considered the effects of … (Smith, 2003; Jones, 2004).
Many historians have argued that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; Smith, 1994).
There is a consensus among social scientists that … (e.g. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; …
Recently, in vitro studies have shown that X can … (Patel et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998).
Data from several sources have identified the increased X and Y associated with obesity.
At least 120 case-control studies worldwide have examined the relationship between …
It has been demonstrated that a high intake of X results in damage to … (Smith, 1998; …).
In recent years, a few authors have begun to … (Smith, 1996; Jones, 1999; Johnson, 2001).
Numerous studies have attempted to explain … (for example, Smith, 1996; Kelly, 1998; …).
Previous research findings into X have been inconsistent and contradictory (Smith, 1996; …). To date,
Thus far,
Up to now, | several studies previous studies a number of studies | have | used … found … reported … shown that… indicated that … linked X with Y. suggested that … demonstrated that … tested the efficacy of … investigated the effects of… begun to examine the use of … confirmed the effectiveness of … used longitudinal data to examine … examined the association between … attempted to evaluate the impact of … revealed a correlation between X and Y. analysed the accuracy and precision of … explored the relationships between X and Y. highlighted factors that are associated with … | It has been suggested that levels of X are independent of the size of the Y (Smith et al., 1995).
It has conclusively been shown that X and Y increase Z (Smith et al., 1999; Jones, 2001 …).
It has been demonstrated that a high intake of X results in damage to … (Smith, 1998; …).
Reference to current state of knowledge
X is a principal determining factor of Y (Smith, 2005; Jones, 2013).
X is one of the most intense reactions following CHD (Lane, 2003).
There is an unambiguous relationship between X and Y (Rao, 1998).
X is significantly reduced during the first months of … (Smith, 2000; Jones, 2006).
X has been found to oppose the anti-inflammatory actions of Y on Z (Alourfi, 2004).
GM varieties of maize are able to cross-pollinate with non-GM varieties (Smith, 1998; O’Brien, …
A relationship exists between an individual’s working memory and their ability to … (Jones, 2002).
Reference to single investigations in the past: researcher(s) as sentence subject Smith (1999) | showed that reducing X to 190oC decreased … (see Figure 2). demonstrated that when the maximum temperature is exceeded … found that as levels of literacy and education of the population rise … | Jones et al.(2001) | compared the rate of … labelled these subsets as … measured both components of the … used a survey to assess the various … identified parents of disabled children as … set up a series of virtual experiments using … examined the flow of international students … carried out a number of investigations into the … studied the effects of X on unprotected nerve cells. analysed the data from 72 countries and concluded that … interviewed 250 undergraduate students using semi-structured … performed a similar series of experiments in the 1960s to show that … reviewed the literature from the period and found little evidence for this … conducted a series of trials in which he mixed X with different quantities of … investigated the differential impact of formal and non-formal education on … | Reference to single investigations or publications in the past: time frame prominent
In 1959, a seminal article was published entitled …
In 1889, Brown performed a bilateral ablation of the …
In 1859, the publication of X had a major impact on …
In 1965, Jones published his major historic survey of …
In 1975, Smith et al. published a paper in which they described …
In 1984, Jones et al. made several amino acid esters of X and evaluated them as …
In 1981, Smith and co-workers demonstrated that X induced in vitro resistance to …
In 1990, Patel et al. demonstrated that replacement of H2O with heavy water led to …
In 1990, Al-Masry et al. reported a new and convenient synthetic procedure to obtain …
Thirty years later, Smith (1974) reported three cases of X which …
In the 1950s, Gunnar Myrdal pointed to some of the ways in which …
Following World War 1, Fleming actively searched for anti-bacterial agents.
Almost 20 years ago, Jones (1985) formulated his X theory, centred around …
Reference to single investigations in the past: investigation prominent
A seminal study in this area is the work of …
One study by Smith (2014) examined the trend in …
A recent study by Smith and Jones (2012) involved …
A recent systematic literature review concluded that …
A longitudinal study of X by Smith (2012) reports that …
Preliminary work on X was undertaken by Abdul Karim (1992).
A key study comparing X and Y is that of Smith (2010), in which …
The first systematic study of X was reported by Patel et al. in 1986.
Detailed examination of X by Smith and Patel (1961) showed that …
Analysis of the genes involved in X was first carried out by Smith et al. (1983).
A significant analysis and discussion on the subject was presented by Smith (1988).
The study of the structural behaviour of X was first carried out by Rao et al. (1986).
A small scale study by Smith (2012) reached different conclusions, finding no increase in …
The study by Jones (1990) offers probably the most comprehensive empirical analysis of …
Smith’s comparative study (2012) found that …
Brown’s (1992) model of X assumes three main …
Smith’s cross-country analysis (2012) showed that …
In an analysis of X, Smith et al. (2012) found …
In a follow-up study, Smith et al. (2009) found that …
In an investigation into X, Smith et al. (2012) found …
In a study conducted by Smith (1978), it was shown that …
In another major study, Zhao (1974) found that just over half of the …
In a study which set out to determine X, Smith (2012) found that …
In a randomised controlled study of X, Smith (2012) reported that …
In a large longitudinal study, Smith et al. (2012) investigated the incidence of X in Y.
In one well-known recent experiment, limits on X were found to be … (Al-Masry, 2013)
Reference to single investigations in the past: research topic as main focus
To determine the effects of X, Zhao et al. (2005) compared …
To better understand the mechanisms of X and its effects, Al-Masry (2013) analysed …
X was originally isolated from Y in a soil sample from … (Wang et al., 1952).
The electronic spectroscopy of X was first studied by Smith and Jones in 1970
X formed the central focus of a study by Smith (2002) in which the author found …
X was first demonstrated experimentally by Pavlov (Smith, 2002). In his seminal study …
The acid-catalyzed condensation reaction between X and Y was first reported by Smith in 1872
The way in which the X gene is regulated was studied extensively by Ho and colleagues (Ho et al. 1995 and 1998).
Reference to what other writers do in their text: author as subject
In Chapter 2, Smith provides us with a number of important …
In the subsequent chapter, Smith examines the extent to which …
By drawing on the concept of X, Smith has been able to show that …
Some analysts (e.g. Carnoy, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between …
Drawing on an extensive range of sources, the authors set out the different ways in which …
Other authors (see Harbison, 2003; Kaplan, 2004) question the usefulness of such an approach. Smith (2000) | identifies X, Y, and Z as the major causes of … draws on an extensive range of sources to assess … highlights the need to break the link between X and Y. uses examples of these various techniques as evidence that … mentions the special situation of Singapore as an example of … questions whether mainstream schools are the best environment for … draws our attention to distinctive categories of X often observed in … considers whether countries work well on cross-border issues such as … discusses the challenges and strategies for facilitating and promoting … provides in-depth analysis of the work of Aristotle showing its relevance to … defines evidence based medicine as the conscious, explicit and judicious use of … lists three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are: … traces the development of Japanese history and philosophy during the 19th century. | In her review of …,
In her major study,
In her analysis of …,
In her case study of …,
In her introduction to …,
In her seminal article,
In her classic critique of …,
In her interesting analysis of …, | Smith (2012) identifies five characteristics of … | Reference to another writer’s ideas or position (author as subject)
According to Smith (2003), preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and therefore …
As noted by Smith (2003) X is far more cost effective, and therefore … Smith (2013) | points out argues maintains claims concludes suggests | that | preventative medicine is far more cost effective, and therefore better adapted to the developing world. | Smith (2013) | argues for offers proposes suggests | an explanatory theory for each type of irrational belief. | Synthesising sources
Similarly, Nicoladis (2006) found that X …
In the same vein, Smith (1994) in his book XYZ notes …
This view is supported by Jones (2000) who writes that …
Smith argues that her data support O’Brien’s (1988) view that …
Al-Masry’s (1986) work on X is complemented by Smith’s (2009) study of …
Almost every paper that has been written on X includes a section relating to …
Unlike Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …
In contrast to Smith, Jones (2013) argues that …
A broader perspective has been adopted by Smith (2013) who argues that …
Conversely, Wang (2010) reported no significant difference in mortality between X and Y. Smith argues that … break Al-Masry (2003) sees X as … | Similarly, Jones (2013) asserts that … break Likewise, Wang (2012) holds the view that … | Some writers (e.g. Smith, 2002) have attempted to draw fine distinctions between … break Some authors have mainly been interested in questions concerning X and Y (Smith, 2001; Jones … break Much of the available literature on X deals with the question of … | Others (see Jones, 2003; Brown, 2004) question the usefulness of … break Others have highlighted the relevance of … break But Smith (2008) is much more concerned with … | Zhao (2002) notes that … break Smith (2013) found that X accounted for 30% of Y. | However, Jennings’ (2010) study of Y found no link between … break Other researchers, however, who have looked at X, have found … Jones (2010), for example, … | Smith (2010) presents an X account, break While Smith (2008) focusses on X, | whilst Jones (2011) … break Jones (2009) is more concerned with … | Some ways of introducing quotations
Commenting on X, Smith (2003) argues: ‘… …’
As Carnoy (2004: 215) states: ‘there are many good reasons to be sceptical’.
As Smith argues: ‘In the past, the purpose of education was to …’ (Smith, 2000:150).
In the final part of the Theses on Feuerbach, Marx writes: ‘Philosophers have hitherto only …’
Sachs concludes: ‘The idea of development stands today like a ruin in …’ (Sachs, 1992a: 156). As Smith (2013: 320) | notes: ‘… … … … … ‘ argues ‘ … … … … … ‘ writes: ‘ … … … … … ‘ observes: ‘ … … … … … ‘ points out: ‘ … … … … … ‘ reminds us: ‘ … … … … … ‘ | Summarising the review or parts of the review
Together, these studies indicate that …
Overall, these studies highlight the need for …
Considering all of this evidence, it seems that …
Collectively, these studies outline a critical role for…
The evidence presented in this section suggests that …
The studies presented thus far provide evidence that …
Overall, there seems to be some evidence to indicate that …
Together these studies provide important insights into the …
All of the studies reviewed here support the hypothesis that …
Two important themes emerge from the studies discussed so far:
In view of all that has been mentioned so far, one may suppose that …
Describing previously used methods
Many historians have utilized X to measure …
Traditionally, X has been assessed by measuring …
X is the main non-invasive method used to determine …
Different authors have measured X in a variety of ways.
Previous studies have based their criteria for selection on …
Recent advances in X methods have facilitated investigation of …
Recently, simpler and more rapid tests of X have been developed.
In most recent studies, X has been measured in four different ways.
The use of qualitative case studies is a well-established approach in …
Case studies have been long established in X to present detailed analysis of …
This test is widely available and has been used in many investigational studies.
To date, various methods have been developed and introduced to measure X.
In recent years, two different approaches have attempted to account for the …
A variety of methods are used to assess X. Each has its advantages and drawbacks.
Giving reasons why a particular method was adopted or rejected
X based methods provide a means of …
A case study approach was used to allow a …
This method is particularly useful in studying …
A quantitative approach was employed since …
Qualitative methods offer an effective way of …
The design of the questionnaires was based on …
The X method is one of the more practical ways of …
The semi-structured approach was chosen because …
The X approach has a number of attractive features: …
For this study, the X was used to explore the subsurface …
The second advantage of using the multivariate method is …
The study uses qualitative analysis in order to gain insights into …
One advantage of the X analysis is that it avoids the problem of …
Smith et al. (1994) identify several advantages of the case study, …
It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to …
It was considered that quantitative measures would usefully supplement and extend the …
Many of the distributions were not normal so non-parametric signed rank tests were run.
The sensitivity of the X technique has been demonstrated in a report by Smith et al (2011). A case-study approach was | used chosen adopted | to ensure that … to help understand how … to allow a deeper insight into … to conduct this exploratory study. to evaluate the effectiveness of … to determine the factors that affect … to gain a detailed understanding of … to assess the management practices of … to obtain further in-depth information on the … to provide rounded, detailed illustrations of the … to capture the complexities of the phenomenon. | A major problem with the experimental method is that …
The main disadvantage of the experimental method is that …
However, there are certain drawbacks associated with the use of …
There are certain problems with the use of focus groups. One of these is that there is less …
Indicating a specific method
X was prepared according to the procedure used by Patel et al. (1957).
The synthesis of X was done according to the procedure of Smith (1973).
X was synthesised using the same method that was detailed for Y, using ….
This compound was prepared by adapting the procedure used by Zhao et al. (1990).
An alternative method for making scales homogenous is by using ….
Samples were analysed for X as previously reported by Smith et al. (2012)
Describing the characteristics of the sample
The cohort was divided into two groups according to …
A random sample of patients with … was recruited from …
Articles were searched from January 1965 until April 2014.
Forty-seven students studying X were recruited for this study.
A systematic literature review was conducted of studies that …
Just over half the sample (53%) was female, of whom 69% were …
Of the initial cohort of 123 students, 66 were female and 57 male.
Only children aged between 10 and 15 years were included in the study.
Eligible women who matched the selection criteria were identified by …
The participants were divided into two groups based on their performance on …
Two groups of subjects were interviewed, namely X and Y. The first group were …
The project used a convenience sample of 32 first year modern languages students.
All of the participants were aged between 18 and 19 at the beginning of the study…
All studies described as using some sort of X procedure were included in the analysis.
Participants were recruited from 15 clinics across …, covering urban and rural areas …
The initial sample consisted of 200 students, 75 of whom belonged to minority groups.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 male offenders with a mean age of 38 years.
Indicating criteria for selection or inclusion
Criteria for selecting the subjects were as follows:
Publications were only included in the analysis if .…
To identify X, the following parameters were used …
The area of study was chosen for its relatively small …
Primary inclusion criteria for the X participants were …
Eligibility criteria required individuals to have received …
Five individuals were excluded from the study on the basis of …
A small sample was chosen because of the expected difficulty of obtaining …
The subjects were selected on the basis of a degree of homogeneity of their …
A comparison group of 12 male subjects without any history of X was drawn from a pool of …
Describing the process: infinitive of purpose
In order to identify …, the participants were asked to …
In order to understand how X regulates Y, a series of transfections was performed.
To establish whether …,
To measure X, a question asking … was used.
To determine whether …, the cells were incubated for …
To rule out the possibility that X, the participants were …
To control for bias, measurements were carried out by another person.
To assess whether and how Xs are produced and received, we measured …
To see if the two methods gave the same measurement, the data was plotted and …
To enable the subjects to see the computer screen clearly, the laptop was configured with …
To increase the reliability of measures, each X was tested twice with a 4-minute break between …
To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used
The vials were capped with … to prevent …
The process was repeated several times in order to remove …
In an attempt to make each interviewee feel as comfortable as possible, the interviewer …
Describing the process: other phrases expressing purpose
For the attitude questions, a Likert scale was used.
For the purpose of height measurement, subjects were asked to stand …
For the purpose of analysis, two segments were extracted from each …
For the estimation of protein concentration, 100 µL of protein sample was mixed with …
Describing the process: typical verbs in the passive form
The data were normalised using …
Ethical approval was obtained from …
Drugs were administered by icv injection …
Descriptive data were generated for all variables.
The procedures of this study were approved by …
Prompts were used as an aid to question two so that …
Data for this study were retrospectively collected from …
The experiments were run using custom software written in…
Two sets of anonymised questionnaires were completed by …
The solution was washed three times with deionized water and …
A total of 256 samples were taken from 52 boreholes (Figure 11).
Significance levels were set at the 1% level using the student t-test.
Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS 16.0 (2010).
Published studies were identified using a search strategy developed in …
Injection solutions were coded by a colleague to reduce experimenter bias.
The subjects were asked to pay close attention to the characters whenever …
The pilot interviews were conducted informally by the trained interviewer …
Article references were searched further for additional relevant publications.
The experiments were conducted over the course of the growing period from …
Blood samples were obtained with consent, from 256 Caucasian male patients …
Independent tests were carried out on the x and y scores for the four years from …
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to …
This experiment was repeated under conditions in which the poor signal/noise ratio was improved.
Describing the process: sequence words and phrases
To begin this process, …
The first step in this process was to …
The second method used to identify X involved … Prior to | commencing the study, ethical clearance was sought from … analysing the interview data, the transcripts were checked for … data collection, the participants received an explanation of the project. undertaking the investigation, ethical clearance was obtained from … | After | ‘training’, the participants were told that … collection, the samples were shipped back to X in … testing for the presence of antibodies, the blood was … the appliance was fitted, the patients attended X every four weeks. | On | arrival at the clinic, patients were asked to … completion of X, the process of parameter estimation was carried out obtaining written informed consent from the patients, a questionnaire was … | Once | the samples were extracted, it was first necessary to … the Xs were located and marked, a thin clear plastic ruler … the exposures were completed, the X was removed from the Y and placed in … the positions had been decided upon, the Xs were removed from each Y and … | Following | correction for …, X was reduced to … conformational analysis of X, it was necessary to … administration of X to patients, we assessed the effects on … this treatment, the samples were recovered and stored overnight. | When | dividing X, care was taken to … removing X, it was important to … inviting the participants, the purpose of the research was clearly explained. | The subjects were then shown a film individually and were asked to …
The soil was then weighed again, and this weight was recorded as …
The results were corrected for the background readings and then averaged before …
These ratings were then made for the ten stimuli to which the subject had been exposed …
The analysis was checked when initially performed and then checked again at the end of …
Finally, questions were asked as to the role of …
In the follow-up phase of the study, participants were asked …
The final stage of the study comprised a semi-structured interview with participants who …
Describing the process: adverbs of manner
The medium was then aseptically transferred to a conical flask.
A sample of the concentrate was then carefully injected into …
The tubes were accurately reweighed to six decimal places using …
The soil was then placed in a furnace and gradually heated up to …
The vials were shaken manually to allow the soil to mix well with the water.
The resulting solution was gently mixed at room temperature for ten minutes and …
Describing the process: using + instruments
Data were collected using two high spectral resolution Xs.
Semi-automated genotyping was carried out using X software and …
Using the X-ray and looking at the actual X, it was possible to identify …
Comparisons between the two groups were made using unrelated t-tests.
The data were recorded on a digital audio recorder and transcribed using a …
Statistical significance was analysed using analysis of variance and t-tests as appropriate.
Using an Anthos Micro plate Reader, we were able to separate single cells into different …
15 subjects were recruited using email advertisements requesting healthy students from …
All the work on the computer was carried out using Quattro Pro for Windows and …
Describing the process: statistical procedures
The data were normalised using …
A p value Descriptive data were generated for all variables.
Reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha.
All analyses were carried out using SPSS, version 20.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20).
Significance levels were set at the 1% level using the student t-test.
Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS 16.0 (2010).
The mean score for the two trials was subjected to multivariate analysis of variance to …
Indicating problems or limitations
In particular, the analysis of X was problematic.
In observational studies, there is a potential for bias from …
The small size of the dataset meant that it was not possible to …
Further data collection is required to determine exactly how X affects Y.
Another major source of uncertainty is in the method used to calculate X.
In this investigation there are several sources for error. The main error is …
It was not possible to investigate the significant relationships of X and Y further because…
The responses relating to X were subjective and were therefore susceptible to recall bias.
Highlighting significant data in a table or chart
What is interesting in this data is that …
It is apparent from this table that very few …
In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing …
The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4
This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables …
From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for …
From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between …
From this data, we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of …
Data from this table can be compared with the data in Table 4.6 which shows …
As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.
Statements of positive result
The mean score for X was …
Further analysis showed that …
Further statistical tests revealed …
A two-way ANOVA revealed that …
Strong evidence of X was found when …
Post hoc analysis revealed that during …
On average, Xs were shown to have …
Interestingly, for those subjects with X, …
This result is significant at the p = 0.05 level.
A positive correlation was found between X and Y.
The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that …
There was a significant positive correlation between …
There was a significant difference between the two conditions …
Statements of negative result
No increase in X was detected.
No difference greater than X was observed.
There was no increase of X associated with ….
There were no significant differences between …
No significant differences were found between …
None of these differences were statistically significant.
No significant reduction in X was found compared with placebo.
Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures.
The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between …
A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.
Only trace amounts of X were detected in …
Highlighting significant, interesting or surprising results
Interestingly, the X was observed to …
Interestingly, this correlation is related to …
The more surprising correlation is with the …
The most surprising aspect of the data is in the …
The correlation between X and Y is interesting because …
The most striking result to emerge from the data is that …
Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of …
The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was …
Reporting a reaction
Stimulation of X cells with Y did not increase the ….
With successive increases in intensity of the X, the Y moved further to ….
Following the addition of X, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Y was recorded.
When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected.
Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews
Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires.
The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.
By the end of the survey period, data had been collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were …
Respondents were asked to indicate whether …
The overall response to this question was poor.
Respondents were asked to suggest other reasons for …
There were 53 responses to the question: ‘…?’
The total number of responses for this question was …
This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on …
The overall response to this question was very positive.
When asked whether …, 90% of the respondents reported that …
In response to the question: ‘…?’, a range of responses was elicited.
In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that …
When the participants were asked ……, the majority commented that …
Other responses to this question included …
Over half of those surveyed reported that …
70% of those who were interviewed indicated that ….
Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) said that ….
The majority of those who responded to this item felt that …
Approximately, half of those surveyed did not comment on ….
Just over half of those who answered this question reported that …
Of the 62 participants who responded to this question, 30 reported an increase in …
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that …
As one interviewee said: …
As one interviewee put it: …
One participant commented: ‘ …’
One informant reported that …
The comment below illustrates…
For example, one interviewee said: …
Talking about this issue an interviewee said: …
Another interviewee, when asked …, said: …
Another interviewee alluded to the notion of …
A minority of participants (17%) indicated that …
Some participants expressed the belief that …
Only a small number of respondents indicated that …
A small number of those interviewed suggested that ….
One individual stated that ‘…’ And another commented ‘…’
It was also suggested that …
There were some suggestions that …
The participants on the whole demonstrated …
There were some negative comments about …
This view was echoed by another informant who …
Observations about qualitative data
A number of issues were identified …
Five broad themes emerged from the analysis.
This theme came up for example in discussions of .…
Two discrete reasons emerged from this. First … Second .…
The themes of X and Y recurred throughout the dataset.
A recurrent theme in the interviews was a sense amongst interviewees that …
In all cases, the informants reported …
A variety of perspectives were expressed …
These views surfaced mainly in relation to …
There was a sense of X amongst interviewees.
A common view amongst interviewees was that …
Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.
In their accounts of the events surrounding …
Some interviewees argued that … while others …
Some felt that … while others considered that …
Whilst a minority mentioned that… all agreed that…
Two divergent and often conflicting discourses emerged …
Transition statements
If we now turn to …
A comparison of the two results reveals …
Turning now to the experimental evidence on …
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that …
The next section of the survey was concerned with …
In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked …
Summary and transition
These results suggest that …
Overall, these results indicate that …
In summary, these results show that …
In summary, for the informants in this study, …
Together these results provide important insights into …
Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between …
The results in this chapter indicate that … The next chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the …
Background information: reference to literature or to research aim/question
Several reports have shown that …
As mentioned in the literature review, …
The third question in this research was …
Prior studies that have noted the importance of …
An initial objective of the project was to identify …
The first question in this study sought to determine …
It was hypothesised that participants with a history of …
Very little was found in the literature on the question of …
The present study was designed to determine the effect of …
With respect to the first research question, it was found that …
This study set out with the aim of assessing the importance of X in …
Previous studies evaluating X observed inconsistent results on whether …
A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.
In reviewing the literature, no data was found on the association between X and Y.
Statements of result: usually with reference to results section
One interesting finding is …
The current study found that …
Another important finding was that …
The most interesting finding was that …
In this study, Xs were found to cause …
The results of this study show/indicate that …
On the question of X, this study found that …
This experiment did not detect any evidence for …
The most important clinically relevant finding was …
X provided the largest set of significant clusters of …
It is interesting to note that in all seven cases of this study …
The most obvious finding to emerge from the analysis is that …
In the current study, comparing X with Y showed that the mean degree of …
The results of this study did not show that …/did not show any significant increase in …
Unexpected outcome
Surprisingly, X was found to ….
What is surprising is that ….
One unanticipated finding was that ….
Surprisingly, no differences were found in ….
This finding was unexpected and suggests that ….
It is somewhat surprising that no X was noted in this condition ….
Contrary to expectations, this study did not find a significant difference between ….
However, the observed difference between X and Y in this study was not significant.
However, the ANOVA (one way) showed that these results were not statistically significant.
Reference to previous research: support These results | further support the idea of … confirm the association between … are consistent with data obtained in … match those observed in earlier studies. are in line with those of previous studies. are in agreement with those obtained by … are in accord with recent studies indicating that … seem to be consistent with other research which found … are consistent with those of Smith and Jones (2015) who … are in agreement with Smith’s (1999) findings which showed … support previous research into this brain area which links X and Y. corroborate the ideas of Smith and Jones (2008), who suggested that … | Reference to previous research: contrast
This study has been unable to demonstrate that …
However, this result has not previously been described.
In contrast to earlier findings, however, no evidence of X was detected.
Smith et al. (1999) showed that …. This differs from the findings presented here …
However, the findings of the current study do not support the previous research.
It has been suggested that … (Smith et al., 2002). This does not appear to be the case.
These results differ from X’s 2003 estimate of Y, but they are broadly consistent with earlier …
Although, these results differ from some published studies (Smith, 1992; Jones, 1996), they are consistent with those of …
Explanations for results
A possible explanation for this might be that …
Another possible explanation for this is that …
This result may be explained by the fact that …
There are, however, other possible explanations.
These relationships may partly be explained by …
There are several possible explanations for this result.
A possible explanation for these results may be the lack of adequate …
These differences can be explained in part by the proximity of X and Y.
These factors may explain the relatively good correlation between X and Y.
This inconsistency may be due to …
These results are likely to be related to …
This discrepancy could be attributed to …
It seems possible that these results are due to …
This rather contradictory result may be due to …
The observed increase in X could be attributed to …
It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be related to …
The possible interference of X cannot be ruled out.
It may be that these participants benefitted from …
Differences between X and Y may have influenced …
These possible sources of error could have affected …
There are two likely causes for the differences between …
The reason for this is not clear but it may have something to do with …
The observed correlation between X and Y might be explained in this way: …
Since this difference has not been found elsewhere it is probably not due to …
Advising cautious interpretation
Another source of uncertainty is …
A note of caution is due here since …
These findings may be somewhat limited by …
These findings cannot be extrapolated to all patients.
These data must be interpreted with caution because …
It could be argued that the positive results were due to …
These results therefore need to be interpreted with caution.
In observational studies, there is a potential for bias from …
It is important to bear in mind the possible bias in these responses.
Although exclusion of X did not …, these results should be interpreted with caution.
However, with a small sample size, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be …
Suggesting general hypotheses
It is possible, therefore, that …
It can thus be suggested that …
In general, therefore, it seems that …
It may be the case therefore that these variations …
It is therefore likely that such connections exist between …
It is possible to hypothesise that these conditions are less likely to occur in …
These findings suggest that …
According to these data, we can infer that …
This observation may support the hypothesis that …
Hence, it could conceivably be hypothesised that …
The value of X suggests that a weak link may exist between …
These results provide further support for the hypothesis that …
Therefore, X could be a major factor, if not the only one, causing …
Noting implications
It can therefore be assumed that the …
An implication of this is the possibility that …
The present study raises the possibility that …
One of the issues that emerges from these findings is …
Some of the issues emerging from this finding relate specifically to …
These findings may help us to understand …
This finding, while preliminary, suggests that .…
This finding has important implications for developing …
This observational study suggests that a diet rich in X may help prevent …
These findings raise intriguing questions regarding the nature and extent of …
This combination of findings provides some support for the conceptual premise that …
Commenting on findings
These findings are rather disappointing.
However, these results were not very encouraging.
The test was successful as it was able to identify students who …
The present results are significant in at least two major respects.
The results of this study do not explain the occurrence of these adverse events.
These findings will doubtless be much scrutinised, but there are some immediately dependable conclusions for …
Suggestions for future work
This is an important issue for future research.
Research questions that could be asked include …
There are still many unanswered questions about …
Several questions remain unanswered at present.
Despite these promising results, questions remain.
Further work is required to establish the viability of…
Further research should be undertaken to investigate the …
There is abundant room for further progress in determining …
A further study with more focus on X is therefore suggested.
Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended.
In further research, the use of this data as X could be a means of …
To develop a full picture of X additional studies will be needed that …
In future investigations, it might be possible to use a different X in which …
Further studies, which take these variables into account, will need to be undertaken.
However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the association between X and Y is more clearly understood.
Restatement of aims
This paper has argued that …
This study set out to determine …
This essay has discussed the reasons for …
In this investigation, the aim was to assess …
The main goal of the current study was to determine …
The purpose of the current study was to determine …
This project was undertaken to design … and evaluate …
The present study was designed to determine the effect of …
Returning to the hypothesis/question posed at the beginning of this study, it is now possible to state that …
Summarising research findings
This study has identified …
This study has shown that …
The research has also shown that …
The second major finding was that …
These experiments confirmed that …
X made no significant difference to …
This study has found that generally …
The investigation of X has shown that …
The results of this investigation show that …
X, Y and Z emerged as reliable predictors of …
Multiple regression analysis revealed that the …
The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that …
The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings.
One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that …
Suggesting implications for the field of knowledge
In general, therefore, it seems that …
The results of this study indicate that …
These findings suggest that in general …
The findings of this study suggest that …
Taken together, these results suggest that …
An implication of this is the possibility that …
The evidence from this study suggests that …
Overall, this study strengthens the idea that …
The current data highlight the importance of …
The findings of this research provide insights for …
The results of this research support the idea that …
These data suggest that X can be achieved through …
The theoretical implications of these findings are unclear.
The principal theoretical implication of this study is that …
This study has raised important questions about the nature of …
The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study …
Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y.
The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies.
These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how …
Although this study focuses on X, the findings may well have a bearing on …
Significance of the findings or contribution of the study
This research extends our knowledge of …
This research will serve as a base for future studies and …
This research provides a framework for the exploration of …
This research has several practical applications. Firstly, it points to …
These findings enhance our understanding of …
The findings of this thesis could be used to help …
The current findings add to a growing body of literature on …
Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y.
The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies.
A key strength of the present study was the …
The present study makes several noteworthy contributions to …
The present study should prove to be particularly valuable to …
The present study provides additional evidence with respect to …
The present study confirms previous findings and contributes additional evidence that suggests …
The key strengths of this study are its long duration and …
The empirical findings in this study provide a new understanding of …
The study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of …
The study has confirmed the findings of Smith et al. (2001) which found that …
The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,…
This is the first study to investigate the effect of …
This is the first time that X has been used to explore …
This study has demonstrated, for the first time, that …
This is the first study reporting an advantage in those who …
This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of …
The contribution of this study has been to confirm …
This work contributes to existing knowledge X by providing …
The analysis of X undertaken here, has extended our knowledge of …
The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world.
The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of …
Significance of the findings with a qualification
Notwithstanding these limitations, the study suggests that …
Whilst this study did not confirm X, it did partially substantiate …
Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into …
Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, the findings suggest …
Limitations of the current study
A limitation of this study is that …
Being limited to X, this study lacks …
The small sample size did not allow …
The major limitation of this study is the …
This study was limited by the absence of …
X makes these findings less generalisable to …
Thirdly, the study did not evaluate the use of …
It is unfortunate that the study did not include …
The scope of this study was limited in terms of …
The study is limited by the lack of information on …
The most important limitation lies in the fact that …
The main weakness of this study was the paucity of …
Since the study was limited to X, it was not possible to ..
An additional uncontrolled factor is the possibility that …
It was not possible to assess X; therefore, it is unknown if …
An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether…
The generalisability of these results is subject to certain limitations. For instance, …
One source of weakness in this study which could have affected the measurements of X was …
Recommendations for further research work
More research using controlled trials is needed to …
What is now needed is a cross-national study involving …
More broadly, research is also needed to determine …
More research is required to determine the efficacy of …
More research is needed to better understand when implementation ends and …
This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation.
It would be interesting to assess the effects of …
It would be interesting to compare experiences of individuals within the same … .
It is recommended that further research be undertaken in the following areas:
It is suggested that the association of these factors is investigated in future studies.
A further study could assess the long-term effects of …
Further work needs to be done to establish whether …
Further studies need to be carried out in order to validate …
Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate …
Further studies regarding the role of X would be worthwhile/interesting.
Further investigation and experimentation into X is strongly recommended. Further research | might explore … could usefully explore how … should focus on determining … is required to determine whether … in this field would be of great help in … should be carried out to establish the … should be undertaken to explore how … on these questions would be a useful way of … needs to examine more closely the links between X and Y. could also be conducted to determine the effectiveness of … | Future trials should assess the impact of …
A future study investigating X would be very interesting.
In terms of directions for future research, further work could …
Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of …
Another possible area of future research would be to investigate why …
A number of possible future studies using the same experimental set up are apparent.
The study should be repeated using …
A natural progression of this work is to analyse …
Considerably more work will need to be done to determine ….
These findings provide the following insights for future research: …
The precise mechanism of X in insects remains to be elucidated.
This would be a fruitful area for further work.
Large randomised controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence.
A greater focus on X could produce interesting findings that account more for …
The issue of X is an intriguing one which could be usefully explored in further research.
If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of X needs to be developed.
I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be carried out on …
More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter.
Implications or recommendations for practice or policy
Other types of X could include: a), b). …
There is, therefore, a definite need for …
Greater efforts are needed to ensure …
Provision of X will enhance Y and reduce Z.
Another important practical implication is that …
Moreover, more X should be made available to …
The challenge now is to fabricate Xs that contain …
Unless governments adopt X, Y will not be attained.
These findings suggest several courses of action for …
A reasonable approach to tackle this issue could be to …
Continued efforts are needed to make X more accessible to …
The findings of this study have a number of practical implications.
There are a number of important changes which need to be made.
Management to enhance bumble-bee populations might involve …
This study suggests that X should be avoided by people who are prone to …
A key policy priority should therefore be to plan for the long-term care of …
This information can be used to develop targetted interventions aimed at …
Taken together, these findings do not support strong recommendations to …
Ensuring appropriate systems, services and support for X should be a priority for …
The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.
Impersonal Passive structure 1. People believe the company stole over a million pounds
It is believed that the company stole over a million pounds
The company is believed to have stolen over a million pounds
There is a belief that the company stole over a million pounds
One belief is that the company stole over a million pounds 2. We expect the train strike will begin tomorrow
It is expected that the train strike will begin tomorrow
The Train Strike is expected to begin tomorrow
There is an expectation that the train strike will begin tomorrow
One expectation is that the train strike will begin tomorrow
Bibliography
All the sources that you use in the main body of your text must be listed at the end of your essay; this is called a reference list and should be in alphabetical order. You need to include: Smith, J., 2012. Sustainability: Governmental policy, London. OUP.the author (last name and initials)/ date / main title & subtitle (italics) / publishing place / publisher look carefully at punctuation. What is a reference list?? a list of sources (books, articles, websites, journals) you have used in your essayWhat's a bibliography?? a is a list of sources that you read but may not have used in essay.Important: Some universities see reference list and bibliography as the same thing! |
Book with one author
Allen, P., 2008. Effective time management: How to save time and spend it wisely, London: Pan Books.
Book with two authors
Miller, P. and Huntington, C., 2010. Speaking persuasively: Making the most of your presentations, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Book with three or more authors
Smith, R., Jones, W. and Watton, B., 2011. Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business.
Book – second or later edition
Bridges, R., 1995. Successful study for degrees, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.
Book by same author in the same year
Nikon, A., 1993a. Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Nikon, A., 1993b. Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Book with an editor
Devon, P. (ed.), 2009. Beyond the ferris wheel, Rockhampton: CQU Press.
If you have used a chapter in a book written by someone other than the editor
Bridges, J., 2008. ‘Disabilities in tertiary education’, in Rowan, L. and McNamee, J. (ed.) Voices of a Margin, Rockhampton: CQU Press.
Books with an anonymous or unknown author
The University Encyclopedia (1985) London: Roydon.
________________________________________________________________
A Journal
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers.
Peters, C., 2001. The merger acquisition of IBM. Business Management Journal, 97(22), pp.63-64.
Electronic Journal from a Database
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: name of database [Accessed date]
Smith, J.M., 2002. The business of sustainable policy: an in depth look. Business Science Quarterly [e-journal] 42 (6) Available through: Business Source Complete database [Accessed 12 June 2012].
Electronic Journal from the Internet
Authors, Initials., Year . Title of article, Full Title of Magazine, [online]. Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date].
Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at:<http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2012].
________________________________________________________________
A website
Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].
Business Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2012 ].
More information on how to reference everything - here
________________________________________________________________
An example of an academic bibliography: (in alphabetical order)*Bills, R. E., 1977. In Patterson, C. H. Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. London: Harper and Row: 282-385Buskist, W. and Saville, B. K., 2001. Rapport-building: creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. Association for Psychological Science. Vol.14, no.3. Available through: Psychology Science Research. [accessed July 21st 2011] Dornyei, Z., 2001. Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.Ehrman, M. and Dornyei, Z., 1998. Interpersonal Dynamics in Second Language Learning. The Visible and Invisible Classroom. California: Sage.Hall, E. and Hall, C., 1988. Human Relations in Education. London: Routledge.Knight, P., 2001. The development of EFL methodology. In Candlin, N. and Mercer, N. (Eds) English Language Teaching in its Social Context. London: Routledge: 147-166.McKay, S. L. (2006) Researching Second Language Classrooms. New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.Moore, A., 2004. The Good Teacher: Dominant Discourses in Teaching and Teacher Education. Oxon: Routeledge.Patterson, C. H., 1977. Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. London: Harper and Row: 282-385Radnor, H., 2002. Researching your Professional Practice. Buckingham: Open University Press. University of Cambridge., 2007. CELTA Syllabus.<www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/celta8.> [accessed 22nd July 2011]University of Cambridge., 2007. DLLS/ESOL Syllabus. Available at <www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/dte-e-lls-syllabus.pdf.> [accessed 22nd July 2011]Walters, A., 2005. Expertise in teacher education: helping teachers learn. In Johnson, K (ed) Expertise in Second Language Learning. Basingstoke: CUP. |
Formality

Try to avoid Contractions (it'll, there's)
All contracted forms need to be in full forms
E.g: it'll, it will / it's, it is / there's, there is please note - can't, cannot (one word, not two) _____________________________________________________________ informal adjectives (hard, easy, big,) some adjectives are seen as informal
Hard: difficult, complicated, harsh, intolerable, unpleasant, undeniable,
Easy: effortless, elementary, facile, manageable, mere, obvious, simple, uncomplicated
Big: considerable, extensive, immense, substantial, tremendous ______________________________________________________________ idioms these are often seen as informal and personal
(every coin has two sides..) metaphors too (a rocky road ahead)
_______________________________________________________________

No Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, you, they)
Use 'There' as a subject; e.g. 'There is a serious risk of...'
Use 'It' as a subject; e.g. 'It is impossible to...'
Use 'One' as a subject; e.g. 'One may ask whether...' ('One' is a formal version of 'You' [plural] in general) ________________________________________________________________________________ s Use Passive constructions
They can learn English effectively
English can be learnt effectively c ________________________________________________________________________________ c
Use Gerunds (ing forms)
They have to speak English
Speaking English is necessary s ________________________________________________________________________________ c Noun phrases
We analysed the data and we found evidence….
Analysis of the data provided evidence….
They have many exercises to fill in the missing words available to learn from.
The availability of gap fill exercises enhance learning c
________________________________________________________________________________
c
Use Academic Word list (540 academic words)
High frequency academic words taken from a academic literature [academic word list] establish / acquisition / analysis / strategies / validity / beneficial / assumption / criteria / hypothesis / fundamental / initiative / presumption / differentiation / controversial / inevitable / intrinsic / exploitive / etc.. c
________________________________________________________________________________
c
Use fixed academic phrases..
It can be said / it could be argued that…
One major drawback of this approach is that …… / One of the most significant current discussions in……..
[Academic phrases] c ________________________________________________________________________________ c Colloquial / informal words expressions examples of informal / colloquial words are gonna / stuff / a lot of / things / stuff: effects, equipment, gear, goods, individual, kit, luggage, objects, paraphernalia, possessions, substances a lot of: abundant, adequate, considerable, plenteous, sizeable, substantial, sufficient, significant, voluminous things: aspects, areas, elements, facts, figures, materials, points, situation, subject, information s not sure use a synonym website: www.Thersaurus.com c ________________________________________________________________________________ c
Phrasal Verbs / two word verb forms examples of these are put off / look into / come across - there is usually a formal alternative; put off - postpone look into - investigate come across - discover c ________________________________________________________________________________ c Informal Verbs
Some verbs are considered informal and there are more formal alternatives
For example; 'get' acquire , accomplish, attain, become, capture, compass, draw, effect, elicit, evoke, extract, gain, obtain, realise, receive, secure, apprehend c A chart of formal and informal verbs c informal | formal | informal | formal | seemclimbhelpstopbeginuseshortenshowgowantaskendtellgetkeepsay nofreemendneedlivekeep | appearascendassistceasecommenceconsumedecreasedemonstratedepartdesireenquirefinishinformobtainpreserverejectreleaserepairrequireresideretain | wholewrongworsedimenoughbetterclearunderstandinglackchancein chargeluckysightin the endat onceat firston and offmainlynextso | completeincorrectInferiorIndistinctsufficientsuperiortransparentcomprehensiondeficiencyopportunityresponsibilityfortunatevisionfinallyimmediatelyinitiallyintermittentlyprincipallysubsequentlytherefore |
Paraphrasing
Basic Points to paraphrasing
1. Read and understand the text.
2. Make a list of the main ideas.
Find the important ideas - the important words/phrases: highlight them.
Find alternative words/synonyms for these words/phrases - do not change specialised vocabulary and common words.
Use these websites:
Synonyms: Thersaurus.com Collocations: 0zdic.com
3. Change the structure of the text. Verbs to nouns:The Normans invaded in 1066. / The Norman invasion took place in 1066.Adverbs to Adjectives:Politically, it was a bad decision. / From a political point of view, it was a bad decision.Active to Passive:We can relate a study of this kind to texts in other media too / A study of this kind can be related to texts in other media too. |
4. Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences.
5. Check your work has a similar meaning
_______________________________________________________________
Paraphrasing Examples (using Synonyms)
Memory Capacity * a) Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving information. * b) Memory is the facility for storage and recovering data. [paraphrased sentence - ok] * c) Data recovery and storage are facilitated in the memory. [paraphrased sentence - good]
___________________________________________________________
Plant Species * a) There are reckoned to be over 4,000 plant species used by forest dwellers asfood and medicine alone. * b) There are calculated to be more than 4,000 plant species utilised by forestinhabitants for food and medicine. [paraphrased sentence - ok] * C) Forest inhabitants utilise approximately 4,000 edible and medicinal plants. [paraphrased sentence - good]
________________________________________________________________
Nonverbal Behaviour * a) Paul Ekman from the University of California has conducted a long series ofexperiments on how nonverbal behaviour may reveal real inner states. * b) Paul Ekman, who works at the University of California, has performed asequence of investigations on the way nonverbal behaviour may disclose realinternal states. [paraphrased sentence - ok] * C) A Californian university professor, Paul Ekman, investigated non verbalbehaviour to discover a possibility of real internal states. [paraphrased sentence - good]
Reporting verbs explains / describes / suggests / states / claims / asserts / contends / maintains / declares / implies / argues / emphasises / highlights / stresses / observes / notes / comments / points out / demonstrates / shows / proves / mentions / pinpoints / advances / puts forward / proposes / casts doubt on / questions |
Linking Words And Phrases Personal opinion: | In my opinion/view, To my mind, To my way of thinking, I am convinced that, It strikes me that, It is my firm belief that, I am inclined to believe that, It seems to me that. As far as I am concerned, I think that the economic recession of the previous decade was foreseeable. | To list advantages and disadvantages: | One advantage of, Another advantage of, One other advantage of, A further advantage of, The main advantage of, The greatest advantage of.The first advantage of riding a motorbike in a large metropolis is that of not getting caught in major congestion. | To list points: | Firstly, First of all, In the first place, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally. To start/begin with, we have to address the inadequacies within the education system before we can tackle unemployment fully. | To add more points to the same topic: | What is more, Furthermore, Apart from this/that, In addition (to this), Moreover, Besides (this),… not to mention the fact that your choice of career is a fundamental decision which will influence the rest of your life. Not only is your choice of career a fundamental decision, but it is also one that will influence the rest of your life.Your choice of career is both a fundamental decision and something that will influence the rest of your life. | To refer to other sources: | With reference to, According to the latest scientific research, the use of mobile phones can be damaging to one's health in the long run. | To emphasise a point: | Indeed, Naturally, Clearly, Obviously, Of course, Needless to say, the scheme was hound to fail due to insufficient funds. | To give examples: | For instance, For example, by establishing day-care centres across the country, working mothers can he encouraged to resume their careers. By providing incentives such as, like day-care centres working mothers are encouraged to resume their careers. If working mothers are to resume their careers then the provision of incentives particularly, in particular, especially day-care centres is essential. | To state other people's opinion: | It is popularly believed that, People often claim that, It is often alleged that, Some people argue that, Many argue that, Most people feel that, Some people point out that wealth will bring happiness. Contrary to popular belief, wealth does not necessarily bring happiness. | To conclude: | Finally, Lastly, All in all, Taking everything into account/consideration, On the whole, All things considered, In conclusion, On balance, For the above mentioned reasons, Therefore I feel that, To sum up, it is unlikely that there will be peace in all the countries of the world concurrently. | Summarising: | In short, Briefly. To put it briefly, his performance on stage was fantastic! |
Additive Transitions:
These show addition, introduction, similarity to other ideas, &c.
Addition:
indeed, | further, | as well (as this), | either (neither), | not only (this) but also (that) as well, | also, | moreover, | what is more, | as a matter of fact, | in all honesty, | and, | furthermore, | in addition (to this), | besides (this), | to tell the truth, | or, | in fact, | actually, | to say nothing of, | | too, | let alone, | much less | additionally, | | nor, | alternatively, | on the other hand, | not to mention (this), | |

[back to list]
Introduction:
such as, | as, | particularly, | including, | as an illustration, | for example, | like, | in particular, | for one thing, | to illustrate | for instance, | especially, | notably, | by way of example, | |

[back to list]
Reference:
speaking about (this), | considering (this), | regarding (this), | with regards to (this), | as for (this), | concerning (this), | the fact that | on the subject of (this) |

[back to list]
Similarity:
similarly, | in the same way, | by the same token, | in a like manner, | equally | likewise, | | |

[back to list]
Identification:
that is (to say), | namely, | specifically, | thus, |

[back to list]
Clarification:
that is (to say), | I mean, | (to) put (it) another way | in other words, |

[back to list]

Adversative Transitions:
These transitions are used to signal conflict, contradiction concession, dismissal, &c.
Conflict:
but, | by way of contrast, | while, | on the other hand, | however, | (and) yet, | whereas, | though (final position), | in contrast, | when in fact, | conversely, | still |

[back to list]
Emphasis:
even more, | above all, | indeed, | more importantly, | besides |

[back to list]
Concession:
but even so, | nevertheless, | even though, | on the other hand, | admittedly, | however, | nonetheless, | despite (this), | notwithstanding (this), | albeit | (and) still, | although, | in spite of (this), | regardless (of this), | | (and) yet, | though, | granted (this), | be that as it may, | |

[back to list]
Dismissal:
either way, | whichever happens, | in either event, | in any case, | at any rate, | in either case, | whatever happens, | all the same, | in any event, | |

[back to list]
Replacement:
(or) at least, | (or) rather, | instead |

[back to list]

Causal Transitions:
These transitions signal cause/effect and reason/result, etc. . .
Cause/Reason:
for the (simple) reason that, | being that, | for, | in view of (the fact), | inasmuch as, | because (of the fact), | seeing that, | as, | owing to (the fact), | | due to (the fact that), | in that | since, | forasmuch as, | |

[back to list]
Condition:
on (the) condition (that), | granted (that), | if, | provided that, | in case, | in the event that, | as/so long as, | unless | given that, | | granting (that), | providing that, | even if, | only if, | |

[back to list]
Effect/Result:
as a result (of this), | consequently, | hence, | for this reason, | thus, | because (of this), | in consequence, | so that, | accordingly | | as a consequence, | so much (so) that, | so, | therefore, | |

[back to list]
Purpose:
for the purpose of, | in the hope that, | for fear that, | so that, | with this intention, | to the end that, | in order to, | lest | with this in mind, | in order that, | so as to, | so, |

[back to list]
Consequence:
under those circumstances, | then, | in that case, | if not, | that being the case, | if so, | otherwise | |

[back to list]

Sequential Transitions:
These transitions are used to signal a chronological or logical sequence.
Numerical:
in the (first, second, etc.) place, | initially, | to start with, | first of all | thirdly, (&c.) | to begin with, | at first, | for a start, | secondly, | |

[back to list]
Continuation:
subsequently, | previously, | eventually, | next, | before (this), | afterwards, | after (this), | then |

[back to list]
Conclusion:
to conclude (with) | as a final point, | eventually, | at last, | last but not least, | in the end, | finally, | lastly, |

[back to list]
Digression:
to change the topic | incidentally, | by the way, |

[back to list]
Resumption:
to get back to the point, | to resume | anyhow, | anyway, | at any rate, | to return to the subject, | | | | |

[back to list]
Summation:
as was previously stated, | so, | consequently, | in summary, | all in all, | to make a long story short, | thus, | as I have said, | to sum up, | overall, | as has been mentioned, | then, | to summarize, | to be brief, | briefly, | given these points, | in all, | on the whole, | therefore, | | as has been noted, | hence, | in conclusion, | in a word, | | to put it briefly, | in sum, | altogether, | in short, | |…...

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