Premium Essay

Sensory Science: Electronic Noses

In: Science

Submitted By LynetteC88
Words 1051
Pages 5
NAME LYNETTE CHIRIDZA

COURSE SENSORY SCIENCE
PROGRAM FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

LECTURER MR MPOFU

ASSIGNMENT ONE

QUESTION
Describe and explain the working principle of electronic noses and their application in the food industry.

ANSWER
Analysis of odour and flavour in food has traditionally been performed either by a trained sensory panel or by head-space gas chromatography mass spectrometry. These methods are time consuming and costly and there is need in the food industry for objective automated non-destructive techniques that can characterize odour and flavour in food. New methods should allow a high number of samples to be analysed within a short period of time with a sufficient reproducibility and accuracy. During recent years there has been a rapid development of a concept named electronic nose (artificial nose) based on chemical gas-sensor array technology which seems to fulfil these requirements (Russell et al, 2001)
The principle of operation of electronic noses is simple. Headspace gas from a sample is introduced to an array of sensors, which will respond to different degrees depending on the nature of the organic compounds present. The electronic nose derived its name because it in several aspects tries to resemble the human nose. Human olfactory perception is based on chemical interaction between volatile odour compounds and the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity. The signals generated are transferred to the brain through synapses and secondary neurons and further led to the limbic system in the cortex where identification of odour takes place based on neural network pattern recognition. In principle, the primary neurons correspond to the chemical sensors of the electronic nose with different sensitivity to different odorous. By chemical interaction between odour compounds and the gas sensors the chemical…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sensory Perceptions

...Sensory Perceptions The human body consists of 5 major senses. These senses are touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight. All 5 of these senses come together in the brain to create an experience I call being human. From birth, our brain takes in information provided by our senses to help us make decisions about whatever circumstance that we are in. “We make sense of this information based on previous experience (and subsequent learning) and by the combination of the information from each of the senses.” (The Senses Working Together, n.d.) If this information is inaccurate, any decision we make (based off of these inputs) will also be inaccurate. This means that sensory information, in and of itself, is accurate. Have you ever heard of someone screaming and shouting at a computer because it did not behave the way that the operator expected it to behave? More often than not, these malfunctions are due to human error. Computers simply take in information that is given to them, and process out information. If you do not get what you expected, then you most likely did not give the computer what you expected to give it. Our senses do just that – they take in what they are given. It is not the job of our ears to tell us if we like what we heard or not. An ear receives a sound or sounds, and sends them to the brain. How much more accurate can you be? Some may argue the point of how can taste buds be accurate? Some people think things are sweeter than others may think. This must be......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sensory

...Week 2 Assignment 1 Submission . If you are using the Blackboard Mobile Learn IOS App, please click "View in Browser." Students, please view the "Submit a Clickable Rubric Assignment" in the Student Center. Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center. Click the link above to submit your assignment. Assignment 1: "Sensory Perceptions" Can you really trust your senses and the interpretation of sensory data to give you an accurate view of the world? Describe and discuss the accuracy and the weaknesses of the human senses as they pertain to thinking in general and to your own thinking in particular. Write a two to three (2–3) page (approximately 500–750 word) paper that addresses the following: 1.Provide at least three (3) reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information. 2.Identify and describe at least three (3) factors contributing to the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory data. 3.Discuss the roles of “nature” and “nurture” with regard to the interpretation and evaluation of sensory data. 4.Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment. Your textbook may count as one (1) source. At least one (1) of your sources must be obtained from the collection of databases accessible from the Learning Resources Center Web page. The format of the paper is to be as follows: •Typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman font (size 12), one-inch margins on all sides, APA format. •In addition to the two to three......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Electronics

... Electronics FOR DUMmIES by Gordon McComb and Earl Boysen ‰ TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! Electronics For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 Copyright © 2005 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, e-mail: brandreview@wiley.com. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without......

Words: 127080 - Pages: 509

Premium Essay

Definition of Words Used in Sensory Science

...Definitions of words used in Sensory Science A glossary of words associated with Sensory Science. Absolute threshold: See stimulus threshold. Acceptance measurement: Consumer test to determine the acceptance of (new) products. Generally involves a comparison of new products with those already on the market. Acquired preferences: Preferences which are acquired during life as a result of learning or conditioning processes.   Adaptation: Ability of a sense to show a change in perception as a result of the continuing effect of a constant stimulus; the stimulus threshold of the affected sense becomes adapted to the stimulus intensity level. Adaptive response: An appropriate action in which the individual responds successfully to some environmental demand. Adaptive responses require good sensory integration, and they also further the sensory integrative process. Additivity: Addition effect of sensory impressions in a mixture so that the perceived overall intensity is equal to the sum of the intensity of the single components. Affective tests: Tests to evaluate the popularity of an aroma and/or taste impression (also called hedonic tests).   Aftertaste: Sensory impression that lasts longest after swallowing. Analysis of variance: Multivariate statistical method. An independent variable Y, one or more independent variables X. Are there X differences between the products for term Y? Analytical testing: See objective testing.   nosmia: Olfactory disorder resulting in......

Words: 3597 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Sensory Data

...“can you really trust your senses and the interpretation of sensory data to give you an accurate view of the world?” We use our senses in everything that we do. We use our eyes to see, our nose to smell, our ears to hear and our tongues to taste. Those senses communicate with our brains by sending tiny amounts of chemical substances called neurotransmitters across a synapse , the microscopic space between” adjacent” neurons. Many factors like proper rest, medication, and ones mental state come into play when considering the trust of your senses. For example, someone who has not gotten the proper amount of rest, their ability to perceive and interpret their senses may not be as sharp as someone who is well rested and alert. Although each of them may be looking at the same thing, the rested individual will probably notice numerous details that the weary person will not. Next, several medications cause side effects that can weaken senses such as taste and sight. If you see a muffin that you eat on a regular basis, you already know what it tastes like, however, that same muffin may taste completely different if you are taking a medication that has diluted your capability to taste. The same thing applies for those who have an obstruction to the ear; they may have trouble hearing things at a higher frequency than someone who has not. These issues can cause doubt in the accuracy of your senses and the interpretation of sensory data. Chapter 4 of Thinking (in text citation) states,......

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Forensic Science Assignment 3

...FORENSIC SCIENCE 3.1 [pic] The frontalis, orbicularis oris, laris oculi, buccinators and zygomaticus are muscles that are responsible for showing facial expressions such as surprise, anger, fear, disgust, amongst other emotions. The temporalis and the masseter muscle are responsible for chewing movements. The sterncleidomastoid and trapezius are neck muscles and can be associated with the throat. 3.2 The principal organs that comprise the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord, nerves and ganglia. These organs also consist of various tissues including nerve, blood and connective tissue. All together the organs and various tissues carry out the activities of the nervous system. The activities of the nervous system can be grouped together as three overlapping functions. The first of these functions is sensory. There are millions of sensory receptors that detect changes which occur on the inside and outside of the body. They monitor things such as temperature, light and sound from the external environment and from the internal environment they detect variations in pressure, PH, carbon dioxide. All of this gathered information is called sensory output which is converted into electrical signals called nerve impulses which are transmitted to the brain. These signals are then brought together to create sensations, to add a memory or to produce thoughts. The decisions that are made each moment based on the sensory input is the second function,......

Words: 2083 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Subliminal Perception & Extra Sensory Perception

...Subliminal Perception & Extra Sensory Perception Subliminal Perception is the ability to notice stimuli that affect only the unconscious mind. This concept used subliminal messages, which are brief auditory or visual messages presented below the absolute threshold so that there is less than 50 percent chance that they will be perceived. In a state-of-the-art technology, subliminal perception is done by continually flashing a message through computerized digital words on a screen at a very fast speed. The repeated flashing stimulates the potential or prospective buyers to unconsciously absorb the message. If the message in a TV advertisement during commercial break, is to eat pizza pie at Pizza Hut, generally consumers whenever feel hungry they tend to go to Pizza Hut and order pizza pie. On the other hand, supraliminal perception is the perception of stimuli that are above level of consciousness or awareness. Experiences that can be evoked by sensory receptors are strong enough to perceive and remember. Extrasensory Perception is the perception of objects or events through means other than sensory organs. Eyes, ears, mouth, nose and skin are sense organs used for personal experience to the external world. Bem and Honorton presented “psi”, as unusual processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. ESP experiences are described below: 1. Telepathy – It is a direct......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Science

...Science split second late or a few inches off the mark, and few would remember. Instead, running with his back to the ball, Willie Mays extended his arm and placed his glove squarely under the 420-foot center field drive. The New York Giants win Game 1 of the 1954 World Series, and Mays, his glove, and “The Catch” earn their place in history. Few of our limb movements will ever gain such immortality, but what we accomplish every day is remarkable, nonetheless. When we catch a tipped wineglass or launch a dart toward a bullseye, hardly a second thought is given to the intricacy of neural circuits that orchestrate such precise movements. How do these circuits control skilled behaviors? Because rodent limb movements are strikingly similar to those of primates ( 1), and mice provide a means of manipulating neuronal subtypes selectively ( 2), as a postdoc with Tom Jessell I reasoned that a detailed quantification of mouse reaching, together with a genetic dissection of spinal circuits, might help disentangle core features of mammalian skilled motor control ( 3). Reaching appears simple, but deceptively so. Motor neurons fire, propelling the arm to target. Yet reaching does not arise from an isolated burst of motor output; rather, motor neuron activity is continually tweaked to shape appropriate limb kinematics ( 4– 6). One strategy for updating motor output is to use proprioceptive feedback from muscles to evaluate outcome and correct course...

Words: 2639 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Neuro Sensory

...Nursing 122 Fundamentals of Neuro-Sensory nursing --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Review major structures and functions of both central and peripheral nervous system. (Carolyn Jarvis, Physical Examination and Health Assessment, 3rd ed., pages 688-692 Structure and function of the CNS and PNS --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Potter and Perry, Fundamentals of nursing (8th), Chapter 16 p. 210-211 Types of Data --There are two primary sources of data: subjective and objective. Subjective data are your patients’ verbal descriptions of their health problems. Only patients provide subjective data. For example, Mr. Jacobs's report of incision pain and his expression of concern about whether the pain means that he will not be able to go home as soon as he hoped are subjective findings. Subjective data usually include feelings, perceptions, and self-report of symptoms. Only patients provide subjective data relevant to their health condition. The data sometimes reflect physiological changes, which you further explore through objective data collection. --Objective data are observations or......

Words: 23163 - Pages: 93

Free Essay

The Science Laboratory

...Unremarkable but adequate lighting, expressionless decor, cold, clinical atmosphere. Smooth, innocuous classical background music at low volume to help concentration for the experimenters. When we step in the room, the typical malodorous, sulphuric smell, that can be found in science laboratories, swishes our nose. On the right, in the spacious lab, there is a small, wooden cabinet filled with chemical liquids. Sanguine, emerald, metallic grey, xanthous and yet the colours go on. As we take a detailed look at the liquids, we automatically lean closer to the cabinet, and its frowzy, stuffy smell hits our nose. In a hitech science laboratory, we would not have imagined such smell. In the entire room, there are only ten tables for the individual learning. A teacher is more useful, when they teach individually, especially when it comes to a scientific subject. Each table has an electronic balance, a huge, intact microscope and an aseptic lavatory. After a quick survey of the interior, our eyes come to a woman, sitting near to the window. Brown, short, straight hair, slender, attractive face with black, thick frame glasses. She reads with great concentration, her eyes rarely look up from the book. Every now and then she takes a long, deep breath and her shoulders slowly rise and fall. Her metal bracelet clings on the grey, hardware table with every move, when she turns a page. Suddenly, an agonised, thin voice splits in the air. As we look at a young......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sensory Perception

...Sensory Perception PHI 210 Strayer University Sensory Perception PHI 210 The sensory system is a part of the nervous system. It is responsible for processing our sensory information, and it is the way in which we make contact in our everyday lives through our five senses – sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste. (IML Training, 2012) Our sensory receptors allow us to pick up information – ears, eyes, nostrils, tongue and skin. All senses evolve to collect their distinct type of information about our environment and to inform us of our status within it. (Goldstein, 2009) The brain is deeply connected to sensory data creating memories. Thinking and memory go hand in hand. When life senses filter our brain, our senses link to our brain as we think. Memory allows us to push forward and experience the future. How and what we think has a lot to do with our ability to remember. Poor or distorted memory stifles thought and can make it difficult. No one has a perfect memory; hearing and listening to recollections from others which may create accurate versions of our life experiences is advised. At times of sickness or fatigue, our perceptions can very well deceive our brain. (Goodpaster, 2007) In describing perception, it is the interpretation of what is sensed. Transmissions from physical events to the retina can be interpreted in the form of patterns, colors and shapes. These same physical events filter through the ear and can be interpreted as voices,......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Noses in the Philippines

...among Filipinos are the most common relatively flat noses. Evolutionary, this has been due to the climate, because people living in colder regions have longer and bigger noses due to the colder air, which so has the opportunity to warm up more before going to the lungs. Because of the hot temperatures close to the equator, this was not necessary for people living in the Philippines. Still, today you find several variations of noses among Filipinos as well as in more western regions. The different kind of noses range between really flat noses, really small noses, really wide, but also not so wide noses and you can even see people with pointy noses already. Still I guess the flat noses with the rather round tips are still the most usual kind. Therefore, a lot of Filipinos still think it is a sign of low class or lower social status if you have a wide flat nose compared to a small and peaked nose. But I also think that this is an assumption which is losing its credibility. One of my German friends here in the Philippines has a white, pointy and relatively bigger nose compared to the Filipinos and a lot of Filipino people tell her, that they like her nose and think her nose is really pretty, so I guess having a pointy nose is some kind of beauty feature here as well. Especially since it is all over the world a sign of beauty among models. I actually like both kind of noses, since I think it depends on the face around it – every nose can be pretty or not pretty in the relation to......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sensory Adaptation

...Introduction: Adaptation in sensory evaluation of food refers to the slow drop of sensation (in constant magnitude) after the stimulus has been fully switched on (Lawless & Heyman, 1993). They also added that after a certain time this sensation can completely disappear or in some instances the taste persists that shows a degree of taste adaptation. This idea usually occurs when the perceived taste intensity of one product reduces the other different product. For example, water can taste sour or bitter after a salt adaptation. On the other hand, taste interaction masks the interaction between mixtures of different tastes (Lawless & Heyman, 1993). A solution of sucrose (sweet) and quinine (bitter) will taste less sweet than a pure sucrose solution of the same strength. According to Lawless and Heyman (1993), these sensations are distinguished by taste buds present on the tongue namely fungiform, circumvallate and foliate. They contain 30 to 50 taste receptor cells (TRCs). TRCs protrude hair-like cilia called microvillae to the surface of the taste buds that form the taste pore. This then comes into contact with the saliva. It is believed that flavoursome molecules from food bind to microvillae at the top of the taste cells. After binding, the taste-producing compounds (tastants) transfer sensations to the tongue and beyond by different pathways. For chemicals that produce sweet, umami and bitter tastes they use similar receptors called G- protein coupled receptors......

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Adaptation of Sensory Receptors

...Candi Smith-Wiggleswire 2-12-2009 Adaptation of Sensory Receptors Sensory receptors account for our ability to see, hear, taste, and smell, and to sense touch, pain, temperature, and body position. They also provide the unconscious ability of the body to detect changes in blood volume, blood pressure, and the levels of salts, gases, and nutrients in the blood. These specialized cells are exquisitely adapted for the detection of particular physical or chemical events outside the cell. They are connected to nerve cells, or are themselves nerve cells. Many of them are enclosed in sense organs. Others are the endings of nerve fibres that ramify within the skin, the muscles, bones, and joints and the other organs of the body. Yet others are nerve cells within the brain that are sensitive temperature, to dissolved gases, salts, and other substances in the fluid around them. In human beings there are just four basic types of sensory receptor — sensitive to mechanical stimulation, light, chemicals, and temperature — but they vary enormously in their form. The particular kind of stimulus to which they respond is largely determined by the structure of the sense organ around them or by their location in the body. Some animals have receptors sensitive to magnetic fields or to electrical fields. All sensory receptors in the human body operate on the same general principles. Their membranes contain particular protein molecules that are activated and change their shape when......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sensory Perceptions

...Sensory Perceptions Strayer University Abstract As Human beings we are blessed to have five senses. These senses are sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. These senses make “normal” life manageable for us. All five are equally as important as the next. However it is not impossible to live without one or two of them. Sometimes losing one our senses can enhance the rest. There are three reasons to believe that our senses are fallible. Seeing should not always be believing. Once we realize that our senses can be fooled, then we can begin to adjust to surface appearance and personal distortions. Sensory Perceptions Sometimes our senses can be accurate, and sometimes they can be inaccurate. The accuracy of our senses enables us to do things in our everyday lives. We are able to make judgments on what we are doing or will be doing next given our surroundings. Our senses act as our lenses, amplifiers, particle detectors, and pressure and heat gauges. These sensors are acutely sensitive. Our hearing reacts to a sound vibration at a frequency as high as 20,000 cycles per second and to a multitude of timbres that allow us to recognize different human voices. Our sight can detect a candle flame on a dark, clear night 20 miles away. Our sense of smell can detect a single molecule of bacon or coffee out of five billion molecules. Our senses feed our brain as much as our body. Sometimes our senses can be deceived. Our senses do not always deliver accurate data to our brain...

Words: 794 - Pages: 4