Free Essay

Scrovegni Chapel

In: Historical Events

Submitted By lumbeeman
Words 1201
Pages 5
Giotto and Giovanni
Scrovegni Chapel

The Chapel was commissioned by Enrico Scovegni; his family fortune was through the practice of usury, (which meant the charging of interest when loaning money; a sin so grave resulted in exclusion from the Christian sacraments). Enrico’s father, Reginald was an erroneous case; he appears in the “Dante’s Inferno as the pro-typical user). Scrovegni called for two of the most famous artists of that time period, Giotto and Giovanni Pisano. Their talents and skill were needed for Scrovegni to atone for his sins; as well to bring an understanding of his power and importance.
The Chapel described as a simple barrel-vaulted room that provides broad walls, a boxlike space. A boxed space that becomes the showcase of Giotto’s paintings.
When we study about the Gothic Churches the structure the strength of its walls, we tend to as well look upon it now as a book that opens as we walk within its halls. We sense the projectory of the architecture, the history and the paint that is often held within its walls. We think of the debate of the structure, the formation of the history of the church. The kings, the servicemen and to simple town folk that walked upon the great stone and within the story itself. As Architectural as the Gothic quarter foil framework, the dimension of the linear perspective as it presents a coverage of the human mind of the time period as well as it vanishes into a linear motion of stone. We lean upon understanding of the differentiation and structure of the cross to find which symbolism it holds of its past and of its history.

“Giotto di Bondone; Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel;” Giotto covered the wall with “The Last Judgment, and the sanctuary hall with three highlighted scenes from the life of Christ. The Annunciation spreads over the two painted architectural frameworks on either side of the high arched opening into the sanctuary itself.”(Fourteenth century art in Europe; Cothren).
The dimensional display of figures and of the story more than explains a perception. The color allows even the angels to be held within the sky on the scene of “Raising of Lazarus”. The color of the painted cloth, layered. The given dimension of emotion and of solace, that seem to give space and depth of tapestry. The facial expressions hold the true “awe” of the moment. As Jesus walks within the Resurrection, the color and the gesture of expression gives serenity of fellowship and of comfort as Mary leans towards his Presence.

“His prodigious narrative skills of design and explorative telling of “Life”, bring alive the miracle and the changing of water into wine. The definitive design brings into imagery the Life of Jesus.
Giotto divided the side walls to form the pictures of life. A “Dado”, (the section of a pedestal between the base and cornice or cap, the lower portion of an interior wall), decorated uniquely.
The concentration of the dimensions of human quality touches upon the expressions of human quality and emotions.
The individual scenes and the overall artwork displayed, brings to life an entrance into more than a Chapel, but beckons at the doors of a sacred everlasting moment of history and faith.
Although Giotto was trained Florentine tradition, his principle and works were much produced elsewhere. His differentiation of his taught skills and training stand out within research just as much as his skill itself. He is described most through his skill of defining the moment the character and giving insight to its viewer.
Giotto was an Italian painter and architect of Florence in the late middle ages. Recognized as a contributor of “The Italian Renaissance”. Giotto’s methods seem to stand in awe themselves when we review the original methods of his training. He as well found within himself a story to bring out through his skill and talent that opens and defines the structure and tone of the chapel.
Giotto’s’ convention (his way of representing forms) is divided into 37 scenes, arranged around the lateral walls in (3) three tiered, beginning at the upper register.
The North Wall; “Jesus Performs His First Miracle” Changing the water into Wine at, ”The Wedding Feast” .To the right is, “The Raising of Lazarus” where boldly modeled and individual figures twist within space”. The lower register, Jesus’ grief stricken followers lament and mourn over the dead body. The works of Giotto described often as bringing to life the “touch, the sense of emotion the obvious anguish and even of human suffering”. The scenes and symbols are purposely intended to grasp the experience, to draw the viewers into the detail. It holds the faith of many, the understanding of life itself for even more.
As though the viewer is walking within the Heavens; watching as time itself unfolds the story of life. It would be easy for the viewer to find their own understanding and faith within the walls. Whether it is of the Savior, or of the sinner, each scene can grasp the mind as it defines the conscious.
A “Decorated Gospel”, celebrated by its intellectual creator, and by all that behold and find understanding. It is a comparison that stands well with the Great Books, it stands outside of its time, far within its grasp, and delights its seeker.
We can envision the time period, a wicked king, a somber artist, and as well find an emotion and a distraction that holds itself through to the paint as it blends for the viewer to find its next scene. As though it is a book that comes to life, each scene walking with its traveler The serve all that deployed its creation into existence.
The South Wall holds within the tragedy and tale of Judas, “The Kiss of Judas”. We see the scene as when the guards came for Jesus. Cane and Rod cast apart and towards. As Judas wraps his covered arm around Christ and we see the onlookers and the reactions of the emotions of will within the scene. Centers in on the halo like fixture upon Christ as he walks towards and beyond to the next scene of life.
When we think about the “Gothic” sense the stone, the story, the structure itself and all that it holds. We can find new insight to old understanding. We as well can find a better understanding of the human mind and will through history and through manifestation of creation. It would not be even possible to focus only on one area of any creation as great as The Scrovegni Chapel. Yet to introduce just a thought of topic and to intrigue its reader to seek more as well and to find all that is held within its old stone and wall.
I find the Chapters and Artwork amazingly intense. They delight the eye, succumb the mind and encase the thoughts. I find it is intriguing and as well has opened more insight and interest into me as a reader.

The Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel

References and Resources
Arts and Culture “An Introduction to the Humanities (Volume One)
A History of Art; (fourth edition; Stockstad & Cothren)…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Buddist Cave Chapels

...Landon Thompson EALC 145 Professor Cheung 9 April 2010 Buddhism and Buddhist Characteristics of the Cave Chapels Along with Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism is among China’s most influential religions throughout its history. Buddhism taught the Chinese to believe in the Four Noble Truths and to follow the Eightfold Path to achieve nirvana, or a state of complete understanding with the world. Buddhism’s influences stretched to all regions of the country; it became influential enough that Emperors even commissioned cave chapels to be dedicated to Buddhism and the Buddha. The cave chapels of Yungang, Longmen, and Dunhuang, although each different, are the most famous of the cave chapels and best capture the different styles and characteristics that were used throughout that time period. The Yungang caves in the Shangxi province of China are a series of caves, mostly carved into the cliffs. The Five caves of Tanyao are the most famous caved chapels in the Yingang area. Although they are each unique in their own matter, the five caves collectively are dedicated to the five previous Tabgatch rulers (Thorpe 164). The Five Caves of Tanyao (Caves 16-20), reflect the faith in a phase of reliance on lavish imperial patronage. The history of Wei, or Weishu, records that Fa Guo, the Administrator of Monks, required monks to pay homage to the emperor, declaring "the person who has the ability to advocate Buddhist faith is our sovereign. I am not paying...

Words: 1479 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

A Chapel Corrupted

...A Chapel Corrupted By: Ma. Gladys Repollo Being a pre-dominantly Catholic country, most schools in the Philippines dedicate areas for religious purposes, be it a chapel or a small grotto. AU-PHINMA is one of the many non-sectarian academes with this feature: the Holy Family Chapel was a project of the Pamantasan ng Araullo Faculty and Employees Association 1983-1984. However, the gymnasium is currently the preferred venue for the Holy Mass since it can accommodate more people. Celebrating the Eucharist in the chapel is now a rare occasion; it has become a mere structure just like the rest of its concrete neighbors. Ultimately, it has completely lost its essence with the students’ lack of discipline and respect for the place. They eat, gossip, and even date inside a supposedly place for prayer and reflection. Food wrappers, paper cups, and dusty shoe prints left on the pews are evidence of manifest irresponsibility and disrespect. Is the idea of caring for our second home, our alma mater, not reiterated enough? Paying tuition fees does not give us the license to litter, vandalize, and destroy. It should instead give us a sense of responsible stewardship for whatever we are paying for. The chapel deserves this kind of respect, as much as the rest of the campus does. The photo of a child praying inside our chapel recently posted on Facebook gained comments from tagged student leaders, professors, and alumni. They shared sentiments regarding its misuse, and they all hoped......

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Halos in Christianity depicting the outer edge of the nimbus, usual for example in Giovanni Bellini. Christ began to be shown with a plain halo. Leonardo da Vinci (attributed), Benois Madonna. Floating semi-transparent haloes in perspective. Fra Angelico, himself a monk, was a conservative as far as haloes are concerned, and some of his paintings demonstrate the problems well, as in several of his more crowded compositions, where they are shown as solid gold disks on the same plane as the picture surface, it becomes difficult to prevent them obstructing other figures. At the same time they were useful in crowded narrative scenes for distinguishing the main, identifiable, figures from the mass of a crowd. Giotto's Lamentation of Christ from the Scrovegni Chapel has eight figures with haloes and ten without, who the viewer knows they are not meant to attach a specific identity to. In the same way, a Baptism of Christ by Perugino in Vienna gives neither Christ nor John the Baptist haloes, but a saint in the background, not usually present in this scene, has a ring halo to denote his status.[34] In the High Renaissance, even most Italian painters dispensed with haloes altogether, but in the Church's reaction to the Renaissance, that culminated in the decrees on images of the Council of Trent of 1563, their use was mandated by clerical writers on religious art such as Molanus and Saint Carlo Borromeo. Figures were placed where natural light sources would highlight their heads, or instead......

Words: 1544 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...of violence. Here were three rings. In the outer ring, sinners were boiled in a bloody Phlegethon river. Here lived Alexander the Great, Dionysius I of Syracuse, Guy de Montfort Obizzo d'Este, Rinier Pazzo, Rinier da Corneto, and Azzolino da Romano. In the middle ring were suicides and profligates. Suicides were turned into thorny bushes. The ferocious dogs always chased profligates. Finally, in the inner ring, the desert with a red-hot sand and rain of fire, lived blasphemers, usurers and sodomites. Here, Dante saw a warrior Capaneus, Brunetto Latini, Florentines Guido Guerra, Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi, Ciappo Ubriachi, Iacopo Rusticucci, and Giovanni di Buiamonte; and the Paduans Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani and Reginaldo degli Scrovegni. In the last two circles of Inferno were punished liars and traitors. Eighth circle had 10 trenches. Here were seducers, flatterers, clergymen, fortune-tellers, witches, hypocrites, thieves, forgers. In the 9th circle were traitors to their families (Cain, Mordred), country (Count Ugolino), friends (Ptolemy, Fra Alberigo), God (Brutus, Judas Iscariot and Cassius) After the Inferno went the Purgatory. Here were the people who had time to repent of their sins before death. In Purgatory were seven terraces, symbolizing seven sins. The first of them was a pride. Second was an envy. Dante met Aglauros and Cain there. Voices told stories about the generosity. On the third terrace of Purgatory lived those souls who succumbed to anger. Their......

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...the Shepherds, relief panel on the pulpit of Sant’Andrea, Pistoia, Italy, 1297–1301. Marble, 2 10 3 4 . The French Gothic style had a greater influence on Giovanni Pisano, Nicola’s son. Giovanni arranged his figures loosely and dynamically. They display a nervous agitation, as if moved by spiritual passion 14-8 Giotto (di Bondone), Madonna Enthroned, from the Church of Ognissanti, Florence, Italy, ca. 1310. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 10 8 6 8 . Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Giotto displaced the Byzantine style in Italian painting and revived the naturalism of classical art. His figures have substance, dimensionality, and bulk and give the illusion that they could throw shadows 14-9- Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation, Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6 6 3 – 4 6 3 – 4 . In this fresco painted in several sections, Giotto used the diagonal slope of the rocky landscape to direct the viewer’s attention toward the head of the sculpturesque figure of the dead Christ 14-22-Milan Cathedral, Milan, Italy, begun 1386. Milan Cathedral’s elaborate facade is a confused mixture of Late Gothic pinnacles and tracery and Renaissance pediment-capped rectilinear portals. It marks the waning of the Gothic style. 15-1-France, the duchy of Burgundy, and the Holy Roman Empire in 1477 15-4- Robert Campin (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece (open), ca. 1425–1428. Oil on wood, center panel 2 1 3 – 8 2 7 – 8 , each wing 2 1 3 – 8 10 7 – 8 . Metropolitan......

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Sistine Chapel Research Project

...The Sistine chapel was the only one of Michelangelo’s large scale projects that was insisted by religious leaders such as Julius II and Paul III (Harris, 1976, p 20). The main fresco of the Sistine chapel took four years to complete (1508-12). The last Judgment was created twenty three years later after completing the Genesis ceiling fresco. It is located on the altar of the Sistine chapel. The Last Judgment was commissioned by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) shortly before his death, and confirmed in 1535 by his successor, Pope Paul III (1468-1549) who was considered the first Counter Reformation Pope. As a religious artwork it was the largest single fresco mural painting of the 16th century ( It was part of the mannerism movement in art and architecture between the 14th and 15th century to show the distortion and exaggeration of human proportions to represent an ideal of beauty rather than its natural form. The last judgement is depicted as a Counter-Reformation painting that reflected embarrassment of the Roman Catholic Church after the failure to stop the protestant reformation (Kedler, 1969, p 160). Furthermore it was created after the Sack of Rome in 1527 by troops of Emperor Charles V, in which compelled the Pope to abandon the Vatican and flee to Orvieto. These events were perceived by some as an indication of a divine wrath by God. The painting was presented to the Catholic community as universal message of the second coming of......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Kiss of Judah

...blending was difficult, the final effects were produced by hatching”(Reed, 169). This helps the viewer understand why the sky looks a little incomplete. When doing cross hatching this type of drawing looks like lines that criss cross each others which causes spaces in between the lines. This piece of work is located in the Arena Chapel. The Arena Chapel is located in Padua, Italy which is very near to Venice. The Arena Chapel got its name because of how close it was to a former gallery. This specific chapel had six windows and was in the shape of a rectangle. Giotto did much of his work in the chapel. In an article speaking of the chapel the author said, “The design of the Chapel lent itself to Giotto’s artwork because of it large flat uninterrupted surfaces”(Ermel, 112). This shows that Giotto himself painting many of his artwork inside the chapel on the walls and the ceiling using his same fresco ideas. With this idea he had to paint really quickly because the plaster would quickly dry. This piece of are was intended to only be seen in the Arena Chapel for Scrovegni Family. Giotto's work was intended for all audiences in the chapel and in Naples. Giotto was asked by the King to paint the kingdom and he quickly agreed. Giotto's Betrayal of Christ fresco has a certain affect on me. When I look at this work of art I feel that the painter was trying to hide something from the audience. His use of overlapping figures and having them seem constricted......

Words: 2214 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

History of Kings Royal Chapel

...History of the Building: Founded by King Henry VI and built between 1448 and 1515, King’s College Chapel is considered as one of England’s greatest Medieval buildings.[i] Its reputation comes from the purity of its architecture: despite a long construction history, the chapel’s builders remained true to its initial plane creating a unified interior and robust exterior. King Henry VI was only 19 when he laid the first stone of the 'College roial of Oure Lady and Seynt Nicholas' in Cambridge on Passion Sunday, 1441. At the time this marsh town was still a port so, to make way for his college, Henry exercised a form of compulsory purchase in the centre of medieval Cambridge, levelling houses, shops, and lanes, and even a church between the river and the high street. It took three years to purchase and clear the land.[ii] In 1455 the Wars of the Roses began when Richard Duke of York challenged Henry's kingship. The subsequent story of the building of the Chapel and the Wars of the Roses are closely intermingled. For the first 11 years of the war, the construction continued under Henry's patronage, even though the annual grant of £1000 from the king's family estates, the Duchy of Lancaster, became irregular. Then, in 1461, Henry was taken prisoner and he was killed in 1471. The new king, Edward IV, passed on to the College a little of the money that Henry had intended for his Chapel, but very little building was done in the 22 years between Henry's imprisonment and the death......

Words: 1071 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Renaissance Art

...familiar for centuries. In addition, the decline of Constantinople - the capital of the Byzantine Empire - caused many Greek scholars to emigrate to Italy, bringing with them important texts and knowledge of classical Greek civilization. All these factors help explain why the Renaissance started in Italy. Renaissance Artists If the framework for the Renaissance was laid by economic, social and political factors, it was the talent of Italian artists that drove it forward. The most important painters, sculptors, architects and designers of the Italian Renaissance during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries include, in chronological order: Cimabue (c.1240-1302) Noted for his frescos at Assisi. Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) Scrovegni Arena Chapel frescos. Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1427) Influential Gothic style painter. Jacopo della Quercia (c.1374-1438) Influential sculptor from Siena. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) Sculptor of "Gates of Paradise" Donatello (1386-1466) Best early Renaissance sculptor Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Famous for work on perspective. Tommaso Masaccio (1401-1428) Greatest early Florentine painter. Piero della Francesca (1420-92) Pioneer of linear perspective. Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506) Noted for illusionistic foreshortening techniques. Donato Bramante (1444-1514) Top High Renaissance architect. Alessandro Botticelli (1445-1510) Famous for mythological painting. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Creator of......

Words: 1465 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Thanks Giving Chapel

...long pathway leading to the Chapel. The pathway was designed in a slope below street level surrounded by aqueducts. About half way down the pathway on the right hand side there are stairs leading to the Wall of Presidents that made of concrete. The Wall is surrounded by trees and a waterfall wall. As people step into this space the waterfall masks the noise and traffic so one can relax and recharge again. After visiting the Wall of Presidents, keep strolling downward to lead to the focal point of the square the Chapel of Thanksgiving. The chapel is sit at the highest point on the site. This spiral shaped chapel is made of white Texas marble aggregate. Below the chapel is the Hall of Thanksgiving. This is an exhibit area where the story of the American Thanksgiving is stored; also there is a small shop for gifting and for people to make donations. Opposite to the Hall of Thanksgiving is the entrance to the chapel. The stairs connect to the bridge that connects to the chapel entrance. Before entering the chapel, there is a dove engraved on the glass window above the doorway, which was designed by a glass engraver John Hutton, to symbolize “The Spirit of Thanksgiving.” Inside the chapel, a marble cubic altar sits on a granite base surrounded by chairs. The ceiling is topped with the tall spiral stained glass window “Glory Window” that is designed by a French stained glass artist Gabriel Loire. The Thanksgiving Chapel and the Little Chapel in the Wood are both......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Chapel Essay

...Eryn Lasica Chapel 115 December 8, 2014 Pastor Tim Final Chapel Paper As we close this fall semester here at GCU we can look back on the impacts that we have made on other people’s lives but we can also look at the impact that others have had on us. Tyler Johnson was a speaker on September 29 at chapel that impacted me greatly with his discussion with us students that Monday morning. His topic of choice was love and how we can incorporate love with our theme of making a difference. One John chapter four, versus ten through twelve was the scripture that Tyler referred to throughout his entire speech. We are all in different places with our relationship with God and many of us seek new experiences with God. Tyler refers to the quote, “love is the key that unlocks the door to ultimate reality” through his entire time with us students to help us understand what love really is and what it means. We don’t all define love the same way and love doesn’t start with us but with God. Love is the heart of the universe and God in his very nature is a community of self-giving love. God is the engine of love and the call to love is to love one another. Through love there is something better on the other side and if we love, then God lives within us and we remain in Him. If we never understand the Bible then we are never truly living the Bible which means we aren’t really living the loving life that God has shown us to live through his examples of His life on earth. To love another......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chapel Hill Light Rail Expansion Plans

...I. Table of Contents Page 1: Executive Summary Page 2: Goals of the Study Page 2: Peer Corridor Descriptions Charlotte Denver Phoenix Sacramento Salt Lake City Page 5: Economic Indicators Property Values Business Development Transportation Times and Costs Environmental Indicators Air Quality Indexes (AQI) Carbon Monoxide Concentration Trends Ozone Concentration Trends Health Indicators Asthma Rates Traffic Fatalities Results and Conclusion II. Executive Summary This paper serves as an addendum to the previously existing Transit Oriented Development in the Triangle Region report compiled by the Triangle J Council of Governments. It analyzes the impacts of light rail transit in regions that are comparable to the Triangle Region (as defined by the region surrounding Duke to NC State to UNC). This study focuses on the effects of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) as a result of light rail implementation. Additionally, we examine how light rail impacts the following sub-categories: environment, economic, and health indices. These indices shape our assessment of whether or not light rail is a worthwhile investment in the Triangle Region. In order to enable politicians to make the best decisions regarding light rail, we provide a comprehensive analysis of peer corridors that are similar to the Triangle Region. Based on population growth projections for the Triangle Region, we find it necessary to offset the corresponding increases in traffic rates and......

Words: 4300 - Pages: 18

Free Essay


...Rothko chapel – NOTHINGNESS MATTER The Rothko Chapel is one of a modern of art’s object to prove how the simplicity within art objects and space, work together to send the message to the viewers. How the spatial memory, evokes emotion, sets up parameter and boundaries can govern the way people see and feel the space. Introduction The processing of visual sensation into perception of the world around us involves a complex interaction of the eye and brain. (Lawson 1999, p. 61). According to this quotation, people tend to experience the space to feel the ambient. When memories take part, it is responsible for retaining visual shapes, colors, information about locations and movement (Spatial memory n.d.). This allows one to remember where an object is related to another, recall the information about the object that also can produce their feelings about the object. There are many elements triggered by the memory that are able to evoke emotion, creates boundary and sets up parameter in perceiving the space. All circumstances evoke as an emotion for its viewers, such as happiness, awe, excitement, and fear. It justified by the situation when people are in a place which they do not like, a gallery with all blank paintings for example, they say: "this does nothing for me." I believe what they are actually saying is that the paintings did not evoke any sort of emotion in them. However, it does not mean that the paintings are bad, because it is not about the object itself......

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Last Judgment Critisism

...The title of the painting is Last Judgment by Giotto di Bondone better known as Giotto. This painting was created c.1305 at Arena Chapel also known as The Scrovegni Chapel, a church located in Padua, Veneto, Italy. The painting is an enormous 33 ft, 27 ft. ¾ inches. This is the largest fresco in the chapel. It covers the entire entrance wall and is the last image visitors see as they leave. It was created by using the sinopie method. The painting can be viewed on page 230 in A History of Western Art textbook. This painting is from the Renaissance Era which explains many of the advanced techniques used like modeling and the use of light. The Last Judgment has a large image of Christ in Majesty in the center and by using a raking scale he is larger than the rest of the characters showing his importance. He has a golden yellow tone mandorla which symbolized the coming together of the heavens and earth. Above Him is the army of Angels waiting for Jesus’ judgment. The twelve apostles sit to His left and right. There are two levels divided into the heavens that are painted above Him, and souls that are plunged into the mouth of hell below Him. As you can see Jesus' right hand gestures towards heaven, the blessed are rising up into heaven, and Jesus’ left hand gestures downwards towards hell which the damned are being thrown into the pits of hell for an eternity of suffering, seeing this shows movement in the painting. The painters humor is shown in the tiny soul hiding behind...

Words: 604 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Chapel Royal As the title Music at Court denotes, this article discusses the history and evolution of music in England’s royal households. In the early centuries, a group of selected chaplains had always formed a part of the royal household. However, these chaplains generally served as advisers and their roles were primarily political than musical. Nevertheless, these priests also assisted at the ceremonial occasions by some three or four clerici who possessed good singing voices and were drafted into the chapel for such occasions. As time went on, the occasional recruitment of these musical clerics ceased to satisfy the needs of the sovereign and a more permanent, concrete set of musical retainers were selected; a self-contained department of the household called the capella regis, which included chaplains, clerks and choristers. Beginning during the reigns of Edward I and Edward II (1272-1327), a specialized body of liturgical musicians called the “Chapel Royal” began to take shape. The Chapel Royal were a special group of musically inclined personnel maintained by sovereigns of England within the royal household, to perform divine service in the monarch’s presence. The Chapel Royal were in constant attendance to the sovereign and travelled with the royal household and discharged its duties in the chapel of whatever place the king then happened to reside. From these modest beginnings, the chapel eventually developed into one of the foremost secular liturgical......

Words: 2146 - Pages: 9