Science

In: Science

Submitted By hunz3
Words 666
Pages 3
Neurotransmission: 1) Pre-synaptic membrane depolarisation 2) Pre-synaptic Ca2+ influx 3) Activation of 2nd messenger by Ca2+ 4) Priming of vesicles 5) Docking of vesicles 6) Fusion which causes quantal (smallest amount) release of neurotransmitter 7) Diffusion of neurotransmitter across synaptic cleft 8) Removal of neurotransmitter by hydrolysis 9) Neurotransmitter interacts with its receptor on the post-synaptic membrane 10) Post-synaptic receptor is activated 11) Propagation of action potential in post-synaptic neurone

* Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP) = when depolarisation increases the excitability of a neurone (Na+ & Ca2+) * Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (IPSP) = when hyperpolarisation decreases the excitability of a neurone (Cl- & K+)

Receptors Transduce extracellular information into intracellular responses

Directly (GABA) | Indirectly (G-proteins) | Kinases | Fast response | Slow response | Slower response | Directly alters ionic currents | Indirectly alters ionic currents | Indirectly alters ionic currents by phosphorylating 2nd messenger or receptor directly | Does not amplify signal | Amplifies the signal e.g. Noradrenaline receptor | e.g. tyrosine kinase receptor |

Acetylcholine can act on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. * Nicotinic Ach receptor channel activation causes depolarisation and action potential excitation and leads to muscle contraction * Muscarinic Ach receptor activation releases α-GTP, β and γ from the G protein. This activates the K+ channel and causes membrane hyperpolarisation which decreases heart rate

Receptor subtypes:- * Consists of up to 6 subunits * Each receptor usually involves 2-4 different subunits * Identification of these receptors can lead to the development of highly specific drugs which reduce…...

Similar Documents

Science

...Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1] In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophy below).[2] Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch of philosophy.[3] However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, "science" more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use."[4] This narrower sense of "science" developed as scientists such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton began formulating......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Science

...The present era is the era of science. Science has undoubtedly done a great service to mankind. Man, a rational being, has been curious to explore mysteries of nature and this led to many discoveries being made in various part of the world. But he is never satisfied with the acquired knowledge and is always keen to unravelle mysteries of the universe. He has conquered the land and air. His incredible lust for knowledge has revolutionised human life and raised the standard of life. He was able to invent innumerable ways of making his life comfortable and happy. Every sphere of life has been revolutionised by science. There have been innumerable inventions. One of the greatest inventions is the invention of medicines. There has been a series of tests carried out using animals as subjects and various medicines have been tried out on these animals to check their efficacy. Many fatal diseases can now be cured because we have the drug to fight those diseases. It has reduced the rate of infant mortality and increased the life span. Before these inventions millions of people died for lack of medical care. Science has given us many machines that have made our lives very comfortable. Buses, cars, sewing machines, mixes, grinders, etc. are all machines that are used every day by us and the discovery of electricity has made it possible for us to change night into day and summer into a comfortable cool season It is now easy to cultivate fields as we have tractors. New forms of......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Science

...Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge"[1]) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[2][3] In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to a body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. A practitioner of science is known as a scientist. Since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern period the words "science" and "philosophy of nature" were sometimes used interchangeably.[4] By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch of philosophy.[5] In modern usage, "science" most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe.[6] In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature such as Newton's laws of motion. And over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Science

...Science to me is everything that surrounds us. It's to discover information about this world we live in, study this information, and use it however we will; a process that has started long, long ago, and will continue in generations to come. Everything in our world that we use somehow or someway was made by science. It started with discovering something new; then study what it can be capable of. See where this new founded information can be fit into use. Science was used to create something new. In this day and age science has taken us to an entirely new place. From better batteries, to faster computers, to better gas mileage, there has just been a huge breakthrough in science. It is both chemistry and physics. In science of chemistry there is discovering elements and using these elements in chemical bonding. For physics, there are already discovered laws, and properties; such discoveries as gravity, motion, force, speed, velocity, acceleration, etc. Science even branches off as far as the universe and its discoveries. Whether the discovery is 200 years old, 100 years old or present, it's science nonetheless. Science is all around us, from the laptops we use to the cars we drive, something had to be discovered and study for us to able to use either. Maybe it was chemical combustion to get the energy from oil so our cars can move, or even some physics to help us understand how much energy we can save if we make something for aerodynamic. Science is to discover information......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Science

...FOUNDATION KGABARENG TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL GRADE 8 & 9 MATHEMATICS, NATURAL SCIENCES AND ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES TEACHER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: 2014 DRAFT TIMETABLE TEACHER DEVELOPMENT AUG AUG SEP SEP SEP Thur 28 Fri Wed Thur Fri 29 3 4 5 Classroom-based support: Mathematics Classroom-based support: Natural Sciences Classroom-based support: Natural Sciences Classroom-based support: Mathematics Classroom-based support: Economics and Management Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Economics and Management Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Natural Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Mathematics SEP SEP SEP SEP Sun Fri Sat Fri 7 12 13 19 Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Natural Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Mathematics Classroom-based support: Mathematics Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Mathematics Classroom-based support: Natural Sciences Classroom-based support: Economics and Management Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Economics and Management Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Natural Sciences Classroom-based support: Economics and Management Sciences Development of subject content knowledge & teaching skills: Economics and Management Sciences Classroom-based support: Mathematics Development of subject......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Science

...The word 'science' is derived from the Latin word 'scientia' which means knowledge. Therefore, science is about gaining knowledge either through observing, studying, experience, or practice. Entire knowledge acquired through science is about discovering truths, finding facts, uncovering phenomenon hidden by the nature. Observations and experimentation, in science, support in describing truth and realities through systematic processes and procedures. For me, science is an intellectual set of activities designed to uncover information about anything related to this world in which we live. The information gathered is organized through scientific methods to form eloquent patterns. In my opinion the primary objective of science is to gather information and to distinguish the order found between facts. What Science Means to Me as an Upcoming Scientist Science exposes several ideas along with significant themes so that I could test them independently and without any bias to arrive at solid conclusion. For this purpose exchange of data and materials is necessary. I am able to generate real and tangible facts supported by reliable evidence. Work of scientist is based on theoretical science. It means, in theoretical science, there is only a sign, just a hint on which discoveries could be made, facts could be found. While studying science I am always working for determining truth, based on my perceptions, judgment, observation, experience, and knowledge collected through several means...

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7

Science

...de búsqueda Science Buddies www.sciencebuddies.org/Traducir esta página Free Topic Selection Wizard, science fair project ideas, step by step how to do a science fair project, Ask an Expert discussion board, and science fair tips for ... Science Fair Project Ideas Hundreds of detailed science fair project ideas for all grade levels ... About Us What is Science Buddies? The award-winning, non-profit ... Science Fair Project Guide Ask an Expert - Background Research Plan - Research Paper Parent Resources The Science Buddies Parent page offers information and resources ... Student Resources Student Resources ... Science Buddies has additional ... Advanced Project Guide Advanced Project Guide ... About Advanced High School Science ... Más resultados de sciencebuddies.org » Science Buddies, más de 1000 ideas y recursos para ... wwwhatsnew.com/.../science-buddies-mas-de-1000-ideas-y-recursos-par... 19 de dic. de 2014 - Science Buddies es una excelente herramienta educativa que nos provee de una colección impresionante de ideas y recursos para utilizar en ... Science Buddies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_BuddiesTraducir esta página Science Buddies, formerly the Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation, is a non-profit organization that provides a website of free science fair ... Science Buddies |......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Science

...Science (from Latin: scientia meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.[1][2][3][4] An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section below).[5] Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the two words, "science" and "philosophy", were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, "natural philosophy" (which is today called "natural science") had begun to be considered separately from "philosophy" in general.[6][7] However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, science is "often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use."[8] This narrower sense of "science" developed as a part of science became a distinct enterprise of defining "laws of nature", based on early examples such as Kepler's laws,......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7

Science

...Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science science Science science science science......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Science

...non-living material. Many people believed this because they had observed worms and flies apparently springing forth from lifeless material like decaying meat or fruit. In 1859, the great scientist Louis Pasteur proved the absurdity of spontaneous generation. He demonstrated when the decaying material was insulated from flies and insects, no larva ever appeared. Now more than ever, modern science confirms that life is extremely complex and can only arise from pre-existing life. This is why the best efforts of evolution scientists have not been able to produce a single cell of life even in the controlled environments of expensive high-tech laboratories. Now with the marvels of 21st-century microscopes, scientists understand that even the simplest and smallest organism is, in effect, a virtual factory containing thousands of exquisitely designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, far more complicated than the International Space Station. In fact, each microscopic cell is as functionally complex as a small city at rush hour! Now as we delve deeper into the cellular world, science reveals a virtual Lilliputian world of enormous complexity that has pushed the theory of evolution to a breaking point. It is likely that if Charles Darwin was alive today and could see a single cell magnified 50,000 times through electron micrographs, he would utterly renounce his theory as foolishness. Because it is increasingly obvious there is no scientific explanation for the......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

The Science of Science

...SCIENCE HAPPENS WHEN CELLS DO SCIENCE! Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce bibendum lectus et facilisis faucibus. Morbi tempus iaculis facilisis. Maecenas ut vestibulum diam. Etiam fermentum lectus ac consectetur ultricies. Nullam id tellus in nibh iaculis maximus quis quis metus. Sed porttitor est quam, fringilla placerat lectus maximus eu. Aenean cursus venenatis imperdiet. Fusce tincidunt vehicula mi eu venenatis. Aliquam dignissim mi nec tincidunt pharetra. Suspendisse rutrum odio a mi placerat, a suscipit orci pharetra. Nam at leo quis massa congue laoreet id eget erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Praesent dictum in erat sollicitudin aliquet. Proin sit amet quam facilisis, vulputate tellus a, ullamcorper est. Nam et sollicitudin erat. Maecenas in libero ac purus facilisis semper. Donec dictum sapien at eleifend sagittis. Nullam sem diam, elementum ac iaculis vitae, dapibus a orci. Nullam mollis, mi et hendrerit lacinia, dui tellus volutpat enim, eget viverra nisl nisl at nulla. Etiam at sem tincidunt, hendrerit est a, lobortis orci. Integer bibendum erat non mi congue hendrerit. Sed feugiat rhoncus tempor. In a interdum ipsum, a laoreet felis. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Aenean sit amet lacinia odio. Aenean sed gravida elit, ut mollis odio. Fusce sed justo suscipit, porttitor velit ac, efficitur enim. Nam cursus dictum purus sit amet tempor.......

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Science

...Chapter 132 - Science and Technology Section SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Science and technology provide people with the knowledge and tools to understand and address many of the challenges. Students must be provided with opportunities to access, understand, and evaluate current information and tools related to science and technology if they are to be ready to live in a 21st century global society. The study of science and technology includes both processes and bodies of knowledge. Scientific processes are the ways scientists investigate and communicate about the natural world. The scientific body of knowledge includes concepts, principles, facts, laws, and theories about the way the world around us works. Technology includes the technological design process and the body of knowledge related to the study of tools and the effect of technology on society. Science and technology merge in the pursuit of knowledge and solutions to problems that require the application of scientific understanding and product design. Solving technological problems demands scientific knowledge while modern technologies make it possible to discover new scientific knowledge. In a world shaped by science and technology, it is important for students to learn how science and technology connect with the demands of society and the knowledge of all content areas. It is equally important that students are provided with learning experiences that integrate tools, knowledge, and processes of science and......

Words: 8232 - Pages: 33

Science

...science Science[nb 1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations andpredictions about the universe.[nb 2] In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. Ever since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In theWest during the early modern periodthe term "Science" and "Natural Philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably to refer to the study of natural phenomena[2]:p.3 and, until the 19th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a branch of philosophy.[3] In modern usage "science" most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist began to be applied to those who sought knowledge and understanding of nature.[4] Modern science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Science

...Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding1. It is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural processes under controlled conditions. (There are, of course, more definitions of science.) Consider some examples. An ecologist observing the territorial behaviors of bluebirds and a geologist examining the distribution of fossils in an outcrop are both scientists making observations in order to find patterns in natural phenomena. They just do it outdoors and thus entertain the general public with their behavior. An astrophysicist photographing distant galaxies and a climatologist sifting data from weather balloons similarly are also scientists making observations, but in more discrete settings. The examples above are observational science, but there is also experimental science. A chemist observing the rates of one chemical reaction at a variety of temperatures and a nuclear physicist recording the results of bombardment of a particular kind of matter with neutrons are both scientists performing experiments to see what consistent patterns emerge. A biologist observing the reaction of a particular tissue to various stimulants is likewise experimenting to find patterns of behavior. These folks usually do their work in labs and wear......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Science

...Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1] An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that found for example in Aristotle, whereby "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see "History and philosophy" section below).[2] Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the two words, "science" and "philosophy", were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") had begun to be considered separately from philosophy in general.[3] However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, "science" is a term which more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, and not the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use."[4] This narrower sense of "science" developed as a part of......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2