Sci110 - Heat Energy

In: Science

Submitted By hnic224
Words 1423
Pages 6
Heat, Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Matter

The Kinetic Theory explains the differences between the three states of matter. It states that all matter is made up of moving particles which are molecules or atoms. In solids, the particles are so tightly bound to each another that they can only vibrate but not move to another location. We also known there are different phases of matter the three are highlighted in are text, they are solids, liquids and gases. In liquids, the particles have enough free space to move about, but they still attract one another. In gases, the particles are far apart and can move about freely since there is much free space. Solids change into liquids, and liquids into gases, when the particles gain more kinetic energy, like when being heated and are able to move apart from one another. When the molecules vibrate more quickly upon heating, some of it escapes from the matter

heat, measurement of energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred—i.e., heat flows—from the hotter body to the colder. The effect of this transfer of energy usually, but not always, is an increase in the temperature of the colder body and a decrease in the temperature of the hotter body. A substance may absorb heat without an increase in temperature by changing from one physical state (or phase) to another, as from a solid to a liquid (melting), from a solid to a vapour (sublimation), from a liquid to a vapour (boiling), or from one solid form to another (usually called a crystalline transition). The important distinction between heat and temperature (heat being a form of energy and temperature a measure of the amount of that energy present in a body) was clarified during the 18th and 19th centuries. [ (Britannica, 2011) ]…...

Similar Documents


...will be:  a) increasing   11. Motion can be measured in all three variables; speed, velocity and acceleration:  b) False  12. The net force on object is regarded as:  d) the sum of all the forces acting on the object  13. The second law of motion states that:  b) a body of 1.0 kg in mass requires 1 Newton force to accelerate at 1.0 M/S2    14. The momentum of an object is given the product of the mass of the object and its velocity:  a) True   15. In the absence of external forces the momentum of a group of interacting objects tend to disintegrate. a) True   16. Which of the following source of energy is most widely used today:  d) petroleum  17. The unit of a joule is equal to 4.184 calories and this can be used to measure the amount of: b) work   18. If a large truck is moving down the highway, which of the following has influence on the amount of kinetic energy of the truck: b) velocity   19. Power is described as:   c) both a & b   20. Which of the statements below is not correct about the gas model of state of matter.  c) Gas molecules tend to be stagnant at all times due to space restrictions....

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Solar Power as Away of Providing Heat and Electrical Energy from Heat

...Solar power as away of providing heat and electrical energy from heat The Sun the heat of the sun is about equivalent to burning a billion trillion tons of coal an hour. Even though only a small fraction of that heat ever reaches the earth it is still more then enough to power the whole world. People seemed to realize the importance of the sun around 30,000 BC. This was when people first started planting crops of wheat. They realized plants did better when planted in the sun over the shade. This caused them to worship the sun as a God. Many cultures built large and extravagant temples to worship the sun in. Other cultures built places to observe the sun in, such as Stonehenge in England. Different Types of Solar Panels There are three main types of solar panels. They are flat plate collectors, focusing collectors, and solar cells. The first kind is a flat plate collector. Flat plate collectors are fastened on the top of the roof of a house. They usually either heat the house or its water. A flat plate collector consists of a black rectangular frame, two or three sheets of glass, and copper plumbing. A flat plat collector uses the greenhouse affect. The sun rays go through the glass but can’t get out through the glass. The sun rays heat the water-filled copper tubes. Then the water is used to heat the home or water. Another type of a solar panel is a focusing collector. They consist of a mirror or......

Words: 5219 - Pages: 21

Introduction to Physical Science – Sci110

...  Introduction to Physical Science – SCI110 Assignment #2 Week 4 Melissa Garrett Assignment #2: Paper Due Week Four: In a documented essay of 900 - 1200 words please address the following issues, in your own words:   * How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? * What is heat? * What is temperature? * What is the relationship between heat and temperature?  * How are they different? * What are the various properties of a substance that determine its heat capacity? * What are the various sources of heat? Conclusions about the structure of matter have been developed by physicists and chemists over the past 150 years. To understand it further let us look at the structure and the processes that occur to determine the state in which it exits. Matter typically exists in 3 common states or phases: solids, liquids, and gases. It is made up of molecules. “A molecule is the smallest particle of a compound or a gaseous element that can exist and still retain the characteristic properties of that substance” (Tillery, B., Enger, E., Ross, F., Integrated Science 2009 Custom Edition, p.98). According to the Kinetic theory of matter, these molecules are in constant, random motion. Through the force of cohesion, molecules interact and attract each other. In the case of solids, which have a definite shape and volume, the molecules vibrate “in a fixed equilibrium position with strong cohesive forces” (Tillery, B., Enger, E.,......

Words: 1253 - Pages: 6

Strayer Sci110 Assignment 1

...Physical Sciences Ertugrul Alsan  Dr. Zahra Paraste Panah 05/05/2013 . SCI110 1. Astronomers use indirect methods to measure stellar distances. While triangulation and observation of parallax can be used for nearby stars, these methods fail for very distant galaxies and star systems. For these, astronomers use Cepheid variables – stars that change their luminosity in a known manner over precisely calculated intervals. If one Cepheid whose distance is known appears brighter than another whose distance is to be calculates, then the apparent magnitude and period of oscillation of the dimmer object can be used to calculate its distance relative to the brighter Cepheid (Freedman and Kaufmann, 2008, p. 638). In physics, mass of neutrinos is estimated indirectly through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These particles are of three types – electron, muon and tau neutrinos – and they interchange (oscillate) between different types with mathematically defined probabilities. The mixture of neutrino types in a set of observations can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on their mass values (Escrihulea, Tortola and Valle, 2011, p. 1). In chemistry lattice formation enthalpy is measured indirectly through the Born-Haber cycle. This is a stepwise calculation method in which a series of enthalpy changes is used to derive the final value. The lattice formation energy is deduced from the values of enthalpy of formation of each intermediate......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Heat Pump

...trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S chris arkins This note TEC 6, originally published in February 1999, was reviewed by Chris Arkins in January 2004. This summary page includes recent updates to the topic since publication. SUMMARY OF actIONS tOwarDS SuStaINable OutcOMeS Introduction Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. The industry has seen a growing emergence of ground source heat pump (GSHP) installations throughout Australia over the last five years. A broad spectrum of facilities ranging from domestic housing, hospitals, education facilities, commercial offices and civic buildings to name a few, are now realising the environmental benefits offered by GSHP systems over more commonly used air conditioning systems. This summary note provides a brief overview of the previous note and provides an update on changes that have occurred since. basic Strategies Heat rejection is fundamental to all air conditioning systems. Typically, unsightly roof mounted air cooled condensers and cooling towers are by far the most commonly used method for rejecting heat from a building. Ground source heat pumps are somewhat different to the norm. Basically GSHP are refrigeration machines that provide heating and cooling by using ground water and the earth as a medium to reject and/or absorb heat and as such do not require......

Words: 3545 - Pages: 15


...Heat of Fusion of Water 4-1: Heat of Fusion of Water The molar heat of fusion for a substance, ∆Hfus, is the heat required to transform one mole of the substance from the solid phase into the liquid phase. In this assignment, you will use a simple coffee cup calorimeter and a thermometer to measure the molar heat of fusion for water. 1. Start Virtual ChemLab, select Colligative Properties, and then select Heat of Fusion of Water from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Calorimetry laboratory with a beaker of ice on the balance and a coffee cup calorimeter on the lab bench. 2. Click on the Lab Book to open it. Record the mass of the ice on the balance in the data table. If the mass is too small to read, click on the Balance area to zoom in. Note that the balance has already been tared for the mass of the empty beaker. 3. 100 mL of water is already in the coffee cup. Use the density of water at 25 C (0.998 g/mL) to determine the mass of water from the volume. Record the mass in the data table. Make certain the stirrer is On (you should be able to see the shaft rotating). In the thermometer window, click Save to begin recording data to the lab book. Allow 20-30 seconds to obtain a baseline temperature of the water. 4. Drag the beaker from the balance area until it snaps into place above the coffee cup and then pour the ice into the calorimeter. Click the thermometer and graph windows...

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Heat Conversion

...Heat Conversion Name Institution Heat Conversion Matter refers to any substance that occupies space and has weight. It comprises of atoms and molecules that are constantly in motion due to energy that they possess. Energy is present in all matter mostly in form of heat energy. Energy takes various forms and can change from one form to another form. Other than heat energy, various forms of energy include electrical, light, mechanical, chemical, sound and nuclear energy. These different forms of energy can cause a substance to heat up by simply increasing the speed of the molecules in the matter. Molecules therefore, have characteristics of warmth and coldness depending on the form of energy they possess. Since the particles are constantly moving, they possess kinetic energy, which is also one of the various forms of energy. Relationship between heat and kinetic theory of matter Kinetic theory of matter explains that, matter is in a constant random movement. Applying heat on molecules cause the particulars to move in a random motion. Heating transfers heat to nearby molecules in a substance, which becomes excited and then stimulates the surrounding molecules into motion. The process of molecules excitation continues until all molecules move in a vigorous random motion (Goswami et al., 2010). In this process of molecules excitation, the kinetic theory of matter links together with heat. Heat Heat is the transfer of energy that results from......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4


...HEAT 4.1 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM 1. Define: The measure of the degree of hotness of an object. (a) Temperature Measured in SI unit Kelvin, K A hot object is at a higher temperature than a cold object. Form of energy, measured in Joules, J (b) Heat Heat is transferred from hotter object (higher temperature) to colder object (lower temperature) When an object is heated, it will absorb heat energy and the temperature will increase. When an object is cooled, it will release heat energy and the temperature will decrease. (c) Thermal Two objects are in thermal contact when heat energy contact can be transferred between them. (d)Heat transfer When two objects with different degrees of hotness come into thermal contact, heat energy is transferred between the two objects. (e) Mechanism of Thermal Equilibrium Energy is transferred at a faster rate from the hotter object to the colder object. Energy is also transferred from the colder object to the hotter one, but at a slower rate. There is a net flow of energy from the hotter object to the colder object. (f) Thermal When two objects are in thermal equilibrium, there is Equilibrium no net flow of heat between them. Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature 60 The hotter object cools down while the colder object warms up . After some time, energy is transferred at the same rate between the two objects. There is no net heat transfer between the objects. The two objects are said to be in thermal......

Words: 3461 - Pages: 14

The Study of Heat, Kinetic Energy Theory of Matter, and Temperature

...The Study of Heat, Kinetic Energy Theory of Matter, and Temperature Name University Physical Science Professor 17 July 2011 Abstract In this paper, I will discuss the similarities and differences between heat, temperature, and the kinetic energy theory of matter. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the study of heat relates to the kinetic energy theory of matter. It will also discuss what the study of heat is. I will then explain what temperature is. I will follow this by then explaining what the relationship between both heat and temperature are. Next, I will give the difference in both heat and temperature. I will then give examples of the various properties of a substance that will determine its heat capacity. Lastly, I will give the various sources of heat. How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? The study of heat is explained through science. It is not a theory of sorts like kinetic theory of matter is. Heat is what makes kinetic energy. The more heat that is produced the higher the kinetic energy level of an object or substance is or has. The kinetic energy theory of matter is a scientific theory that states that matter consists of small particles in a rapid random motion. The kinetic energy theory gives the differences of three states of matter; solids, liquids, and gases. The result of heat in these three states of matter has different effects on each. For instance, if you gave the same amount of heat off for all......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Heat and Temperature

...Running head: Study Of Heat Heat and Temperature Marcus A. Bullock SCI 110 Intro to Physical Science The Study Of Heat and Temperature Heat is a function of the velocity of all the molecules of a substance. Kinetic theory and heat transfer are both in motion, in Kinetic theory all states of matter are in vigorous motion and heat transfer is associated with the motion of atoms or molecules. The kinetic theory of matter says that all matter is made of particles that are in constant motion. Matter is made of constantly moving particles, which tells us how the matter in solids, liquids, and gases behaves. The reason heat relates to the kinetic theory is because, gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure to rise. Heat study is explained through the movement of warmer and cooler objects, the changing of temperature. It is not a theory of sorts like kinetic theory of matter is. Scientist state that heat is defined as “something” that moves between objects when two objects of different temperatures are brought together. The more heat that is produced the higher the kinetic energy level of an object or substance it has. Temperature on the other hand, can be defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. Temperature is the measure of the average heat or thermal energy of particles in a substance. The relationship between heat and temperature is......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Heat and Temperature

...Introduction to Heat and Temperature Gonzalo Leon Strayer University 2012/01/27 Introduction to Heat and Temperature Relation between the Study of Heat and Kinetic Theory Kinetic theory can be describes as a scientific theory of the movement of an object. Kinetic theory relates to capacity of a subject to do work on another object due to their motion. Kinetic theory of matter explains that the same is compose of tiny pieces of, atoms or molecules in continues motion. The theory states that the actions of matter inside an object and the actions heat generates. Kinetic theory explains as well the temperature transition by the means of transmission, where thermal powers shows to be conducted throughout matter, heating up cooler regions. This reaction is the delivery of heat or heat flow. Kinetic theory relates to the study of heat due to the fact that once heat is produced, kinetic energy is created as well. Heat energy can convert or transfer its self into kinetic energy that could make a subject move. Definition of Heat and Temperature Heat: Heat could simply be summarize as been energy. It is the delivery of Kinetic energy from one subject to a different one. Heat is conveyed in three different ways: radiation, convection and conduction. An example of heat by radiation could be infrared energy when this one strikes a surface. Heat by conduction occurs when two subjects are in direct contract with one another. Heat by convection can occur as the movement of a......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4


...Running head: HEAT 1 Heat Adrienne Branch Professor Olivia Uitto Science 110- Introduction to Physical Science April 27, 2012 HEAT 2 How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? The philosophers Democritus and Lucretius stated that matter is composed of particles. They also believed that these particles were in constant motion and in the state of solid, liquid, or gas (Gibbs, 2010). They called this theory the Kinetic Theory of Matter after the word kinema, which is Greek (Gibbs, 2010). In the study of heat we learn that whenever heat is added to a substance, molecules and atoms vibrate faster. Due to the quickly vibrating atoms, the area between the atoms get larger (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). The state of the matter of the particular substance is determined by the motion and space between the particles. The more an object expands, the more space it takes up (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). During this process, the mass of the particular object will not change. Solids, liquids, and gas all expand when heat is added. When an object cools, molecules vibrate at a slower pace. The atoms start moving closer together again and the matter begins to contract. During this process as well, the mass will remain the same (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). Several good examples of the Kinetic Theory of Matter relating to heat is with sidewalks and railroad tracks which are solids. They......

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5


...the study of heat relate to the Kinetic of matter?” Heat is transferred into motion. This is done by kinetic matter. It moves at a rapid motion, making the heat that’s being transferred combine with the motion of atom and molecules. Therefore, matter takes on changes when heat is constantly being applied. For this reason, the process is called the kinetic theory. Heat takes on 3 stages and they are solid, liquids and gases. Solids forms there shape by arrangements of molecules. For example, ice has a shape but, changes when melting. Solids form around a fixed close position fitting making it stronger and Causing solids to maintain its shape. Liquids are closer together but, will change its form because space is provided. Gases are higher and 10 times the distance between that of solids and liquids. Therefore, allowing the particles to move freely and use the space available to them. “What is heat?” Heat can be describing that something that move between object when 2 objects of different temperature are brought together or energy transfer that move between object of different temperature (energy transfer). For example, when you rub your hand together, then you will feel the heat (warm) in center of your hand. There are two kind of energy. It’s call “External energy” and “Internal energy”. External energy is define as the total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday-sized object. Internal energy is the total kinetic and potential energy of the......

Words: 923 - Pages: 4

Energy Sources

...Energy Sources Connie Collins Strayer University Prof. Alisha Etheredge SCI110 July 18, 2012 There are many ways energy can be converted from one form of energy into another form of energy. Three of the ways are through action of forces, which is where gravity accelerates a falling object that converts potential energy to kinetic energy. Gravitational forces, electric and magnetic force fields, and frictional forces are some examples. A pendulum is a great example of potential and kinetic energy working at the same time. When the pendulum swings upward all the energy is considered potential energy, when it begins its downward swing it gains kinetic energy and loses potential energy (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2008). Another way would be atoms being absorbed or emit photons of light. Examples of this are photothermal, photoelectric, and photochemical. The last way is Nuclear reaction with examples of fission and fusion (Debian Gnu/Linux, 1999-2011). Technology devices are considered energy converters. They convert electrical or chemical energy into radiant or mechanical energy. For example a light bulb uses electrical energy and converts it into light while the rest is converted into heat. Light and heat are forms of radiant energy. Washing machines convert mechanical energy and ovens convert thermal energy. Our bodies also convert energy into our muscles by converting chemical energy into glucose which in turn converts into mechanical energy to make muscle......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4


...First discuss how energy can be converted from one form to another, giving specific examples. The seven major forms of energy are: sound, chemical, radiant (light), electrical, atomic (nuclear), mechanical, thermal (heat). Remembered as “SCREAM Today” The two states of energy are potential and kinetic. (Clarkson, edu.2008). Energy can be converted to useful forms by various means. Energy and its conversion between forms can be expressed quantitatively. When converting energy, a significant fraction of that energy can be lost from the system (in the form of heat, sound, vibration, etc.) For example: in a power plant burning coal will produce heat energy, heat energy transfers to the water causing water to turn into steam, steam move the turbine due to pressure, energy is now transfer from heat to mechanical energy, then mechanical energy is converted to electrical by the generators, here we have a good example of energy converted to another form. Another example: leave a stone from a certain height and it will fall straight down. all the potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy. (, 2012). Define what we mean by fossil fuels and explain why there an attractive source of energy. Fossil fuel consists of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content. They are attractive because they are or were, readily available, can be easily transported and can be refined to......

Words: 954 - Pages: 4