Free Essay

Rudyard Kipling

In: English and Literature

Submitted By mpace61
Words 1394
Pages 6
The Legendary Life of Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling was one of the greatest writers of all time. He was a gifted writer and a huge celebrity, and has provided us with countless writings that will continue to be enjoyed by future generations. There are two perspectives when it comes to Kipling’s canonization; those that believe based solely on his writing abilities think he should be canonized, and those who saw him as an only an outspoken political figure do not. The questions surrounding his use of a swastika show him to be a possible Nazi sympathizer and curve his support of canonization. The purpose of this research paper is to provide the insight and the facts to support the stature of his writing abilities, and to prove that on the merit of his writing alone, he is a true literary canon. Despite his political incorrectness, he should be considered a talented and remarkable author based solely on his literary creativity.
Kipling was born in December of 1965 in Bombay, British India; which is now known as Mumbai, India. He was an English poet, short story writer and novelist (Wikipedia). He was born to Lockwood and Alice Kipling, who were both highly respected people in their time. Kipling was in love with India and the people that inhabited it. Some of Kipling’s earliest and fondest memories are of him and his sister Alice’s trips to the bustling fruit market with their nanny, or her telling them Indian nursery rhymes and stories before their nap in the tropical afternoon heat. (Merriman) When he was six years old, he was torn from India and sent to a boarding house in England, where he experienced brutal and harsh treatment from his foster mother. He was regularly beaten by her and her son. This is where he began to develop his ability of imagining characters. He used this as a way to distance himself from the desolation that he endured. (BiographyChannel) He would spend his time hiding from his foster mother to read books and escape into their stories. Once she discovered he was sneaking away to read, she scolded him and confiscated all of the books his parents had sent him. He then began to imagine his own characters and stories while bouncing a ball against the wall so she would think he was simply playing.
After spending 5 years at the boarding home, his mother received news that he was becoming mentally ill and returned for him so he could attend the United Services College, where he became the editor of the school paper. (Merriman) Kipling's closest friend at Westward Ho!, George Beresford, described him as a short, but "cheery, capering, podgy, little fellow" with a thick pair of spectacles over "a broad smile." His eyes were brilliant blue, and over them his heavy black eyebrows moved up and down as he talked. (Advameg) His parents eventually sent him back to India where his father got him a job as a journalist. He began frequenting opium dens and brothels, which flooded his mind with material to write his earliest works. He began writing about drug addicts and sex. He essentially had began his career as a roving reporter, traveling to various parts of India and the United States. He wrote dozens of essays and short stories, the most notable of them being Barrack-Room Ballads, which made his writings quite popular with servicemen at the time. (Merriman)
In 1889 Kipling took a long voyage through China, Japan, and the United States. When he reached London, he found that his stories had preceded him and established him as a brilliant new author. He was readily accepted into the circle of leading writers. (Advameg) After moving back to England, he began writing about a new subject, the British soldier. He soon moved to the United States and married Caroline Balestier, the sister of his publisher. They settled on the Balestier estate near Brattleboro, Vermont, in the United States, and began four of the happiest years of Kipling's life. During this time he wrote some of his best work. (Advameg) They soon had his first child, Josephine, who inspired him to write some of his most renowned children’s literature. The Jungle Book and “Rikki-Tikki-Tavi” were by far his most popular works and are still read by children today. The Jungle Book, published in 1892, was eventually made into a movie in 1942, and animated by Disney in the 1960’s (Liukkonen). It is still quite a popular story among children today. The fascination of talking animals and a lost boy’s adventures still exists today. By the time he was 32, he was the highest paid novelist in the world. Some people relate Kipling with the swastika. Kipling occasionally used the defamed symbol on the bindings and covers of his books. These people view this as Kipling being a Nazi sympathizer. This does not seem to be the case. The pre-Nazi Swastika was a Hindu symbol of good luck, which he learned through his father’s knowledge of Indian art, but the suspicion still remains to this day. (Walker)
While in the United States, Josephine and Kipling both contracted pneumonia. Caroline was unable to watch after them both and was forced to care for only one of them. She chose to take Josephine to a nearby neighbor’s house to be nursed back to health, but Josephine was unable to survive the pneumonia. (BiographyChannel) After the death of Josephine, he returned to England for the rest of his days. This was a drastic turning point within his life. He no longer wished to live where his daughter had taken her last breath. Her death was a dreadful devastation to him. Kipling's later stories treat more complex, subtle, and somber subjects. They reflect Kipling's darkened worldview following the death of his daughter, Josephine, in 1899, and the death of his son, John, in 1915. Consequently, these stories have never been as popular as his earlier works. But modern critics, in reevaluating Kipling, have found a greater power and depth that make them among his best work. (Advameg)
Rudyard Kipling died of a hemorrhage on 18 January 1936 in London, and his ashes are interred in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey, London, England near to T. S. Eliot. Today his study and the gardens at ‘The Elm’ are preserved by the Rottingdean Preservation Society, and Bateman’s is held by the National Trust. (Merriman) There have been societies and other notable devotions made in honor of Kipling due to his overwhelming popularity as a legendary writer.
Kipling could be claimed the most popular writer in England in his time, and was consistently honored for his works. He had declined most of the awards which that were offered to him, including a knighthood, the Poet Laureateship, and the Order of Merit, but in 1907 he had accepted the Nobel Prize for Literature (Walker). Kipling was the recipient of many honorary degrees and other awards. In 1926 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature, which only Scott, Meredith, and Hardy had been awarded before him. (Foundation) He was considered a major “innovator in the art of the short story” and is a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was also the first English-language writer to be awarded the prize, and to this date he remains to be the youngest recipient (Wikipedia). Kipling will forever be one of the great historical writers that have entertained us all.

Works Cited
Advameg, Inc. Rudyard Kipling Biography. 2011. 5 December 2011 <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ki-Lo/Kipling-Rudyard.html>.
BiographyChannel. Rudyard Kipling Biography. 2011. 18 November 2011 <http://www.biography.com/people/rudyard-kipling-9365581/videos/rudyard-kipling-full-episode-2074893909>.
Foundation, The Nobel. Rudyard Kipling. 9 December 2011 <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1907/kipling-bio.html>.
Liukkonen, Petri. Rudyard Kipling. 2008. 18 Novemeber 2011 <http://kirjasto.sci.fi/kipling.htm>.
Merriman, C.D. Rudyard Kipling. 2006. 8 December 2011 <http://www.online-literature.com/kipling/>.
Walker, John. The Kipling Society. 1927. 16 November 2011 <http://www.kipling.org.uk/index.htm>.
Wikipedia. Rudyard Kipling. 15 November 2011. 16 Novermber 2011 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudyard_Kipling&oldid=460696707>.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling

...JUNGLE BOOK by Rudyard Kipling The stories of Jungle Book are stories told in the third person by a narrator, as one might tell bedtime stories to children. Only in "The White Seal" and "Servants of the Queen," is the narrator actually mentioned, and then he is not identified. The reader gets the sense of a wise older narrator, one who is intimately familiar with Colonial Indian and the jungle therein, but not of it, as a British colonial officer would be. The narrator, for the most part, is impartial and allows the stories' characters to tell the story. Only occasionally does he interject, such as at the end of "Tiger, Tiger," when he tells us that the rest of Mowgli's story is a story for grownups. This is also true at the beginning of the "White Seal," where the narrator tells us of the winter wren that originally told him the story. The narrator does not share his opinion of the story and the characters' actions. The reader is left to draw his own conclusion. Kipling is a product of his 19th century British colonial experiences, and the British/ Native and Indian caste class differences are alluded to in several of the stories. In "Toomai of the Elephants," the reader is told that Big Toomai works for the government, but it is to Petersen Sahib, a white man, that he reports. Additionally, whereas Petersen's interaction with the boy, Little Toomai, is undoubtedly well meant, it still carries a vaguely condescending tone. This difference is also evident in......

Words: 2148 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Summary of "Comments on Moro Massacre" by Mark Twain

...phillipine-american war. During the war the main influence on the views of americans was the poem called “The White Manʼs Burden” by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling who was british but influenced americans by the latter taking his poem as a justification for imperialism. The poem also refers to non whites as “half devil and half child.” Itʼs emphasis lay in the christianization and introduction of white or western values to non whites across the world.The moro where called that because it meant muslim in the Philippines. Not only were they non white but they were practicing a different religion. These conditions set up the attitude in which american armed forces conducted themselves. This was epitomized in the moro massacre; the moro were inherently thought of as less than human and no quarter was given to them as those are rights human beings are given. This view was played out in the greater Philippines as there were numerous war crimes and atrocities committed against the Filipino people which include erection of concentration camps, “kill everyone over ten” orders, scorched earth tactics et.al. The rebels were also guilty of atrocities that they mated towards american soldiers. However the reason the moro massacre stands out is the resultant deaths of women and children. Comments on the Moro Massacre by Mark Twain. March 12th 1906. The White Manʼs Burden by Rudyard Kipling Febuary 12th 1899 http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/ Philipine-American War......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Imperialism

...HIS 102: Paper # 1 Imperialism There are many different opinions about imperialism and the “Age of Imperialism.” From a variety of people, like economists, writers, soldiers, and senators, all vary in opinion and idea about imperialism. This essay compares and contrasts the views from a J. A. Hobson, Rudyard Kipling, Frederick Lugard, and Albert Beveridge. In J. A. Hobson’s document, “Imperialism,” Hobson argues that the motivation for imperialism was not driven by the well being and advantages for the nation, but by the interests and private gains of different social classes. By reading this document, you can get the impression that Hobson felt that imperialism was a result from demoralization of certain classes. According to Hobson, imperialism was not just inessential for a nation, but obscene as well. This clashes with why Hobson felt that the underdeveloped countries were so desirable to build their economic assets with. He summarizes that these desirable and fortunate investments appealed to the favored classes because it gave these classes more than what was needed in sources of income. Also, Hobson was one hundred percent against imperialism and argued that the impact of imperialism was negative. In the text he states, “It is the besetting sin of all successful States, and its penalty is unalterable in the order of nature” (456). That statement lets the reader know exactly how Hobson felt about imperialism and its impact as a whole. Hobson even mentions in the......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Rudyard Kipling

...Rudyard Kipling – THE BUTTERFLY THAT STAMPED The Butterfly that stamped is one of the stories from the collection Just So Stories, book written by Rudyard Kipling. The stories seem to be fairy tales but in all of them, we can find something human, something adult and enlightening. The main story is probably happening in the Kingdom of Israel, because of a King named The Most Wise Sovereign Suleiman-bin-Daoud – Solomon, the Son of the David, was a King of Israel around 950 BC . The exposition part is quite confusing because of many foreign-sounding names and without knowledge of some history is almost impossible to understand what the writer wanted to introduce. Soon the narrator changes the mood and one very hilarious story begins. The entire story was written readable, but to understand the message you should little bit think about. On the other hand, thanks to usage of dialogue, I can imagine to tell or read the story to children as a bedtime story. The story is showing us the relationship between men and women. All of the four important characters in this story are showing us something up-to-date. It is unbelievable because the book was written in 1902, the story is set to about 1000 BC and even now, in 2012, we can recognize the symbols and the old facts about people. The main character, the most interesting, and the first person we meet, is the Suleiman-bin-Daoud. We can say that is could be the stereotypical sovereign of this age in this place with magnificent......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

My Boy Jack

...Abdallah H Saggaf History 102 03/08/2013 MY BOY JACK My boy jack is a very powerful movie that really moved me in a way that no other movie has in a long time. When I found out that this is about Rudyard Kipling’s son was based on a real event, my reaction to the film were even more sharp. When the movie was finished and the credits started rolling, I sat quietly, pondering the fear of war and all the sacrifices that come with it. It is indeed breath taking. The cast of the film is very genuine. David Haig, whose face looked very familiar to me more than his name, really stood out. Not only does he look like the real Rudyard Kipling, but it is said that he spent over 20 years practicing to fit the real Kipling’s story to stage and screen. David plays Kipling role with great arrogance and patriotism. Even though what he was doing was not pleasant, putting his son in a dangerous situation, for most people it was credible. Harry Potter’s Daniel Radcliffe on the other hand is unforgettably good as the boy who enters the fray of WW1 despite being completely incompetent. Even though Jack had very poor eye site, this did not hold back Kipling’s actions to help his son join the army force. His performance as Jack is very real that as some point, I internally screamed NO! when he directs and leads his group to fight. Daniel Radcliffe brings both power and sadness at the same time in his role, especially when he speaks to his father for the last time and takes off. ...

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The White Man's Burden

...man’s burden The white man’s burden is a poem written by Rudyard Kipling, a British author and poet with ori- gins in the British India. The poem was written in 1899 when Rudyard Kipling was 34 years old – it was posted in the magazine McClure’s with the subtitle “United States and the Philippine Islands”. “Take up the white man’s burden Send forth the best ye breed. Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives need.” (Kipling; The white man’s burden; 1st stanza pt. 1) The poem is a quite long description of the burden mentioned in the title and refers to a bur- den, which the “white man” has put on his own shoulders. It is rather satirical when read, as the poem indirectly can be interpreted as a discrimination of the white mans (British) imperialistic in- spirations and perhaps even megalomania – as one might have expected from the author. The mean- ing of the title is interpreted as following: The burden of the white man is to “serve his captives need” as written in the first stanza. By this, Kipling refers to how the white man, with a perhaps imperialistic ideology, is to rule the people suppressed by the British colonies, later described as “new-caught, sullen peoples, half-devil and half-child” (Kipling; TWMB, 1st stanza pt. 2). This description of the captives is a caricatured pic- ture of what Kipling believes the white man saw his captives as, while implying the satiric element of the poem. Kipling presents the imperialistic view of the white man, where......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Efefefefefef

...www.the-criterion.com The Criterion: An International Journal in English ISSN 0976-8165 Empire and Excess: Kipling and the Critique of Said’s Orientalism Sourit Bhattacharya Edward Said’s Orientalism remains one of the most influential books of the last quarter of twentieth century. In an informative manner, Said locates the seeds of Orientalism right in the medieval European imagination that solidifies itself in the nineteenth century. It is through knowledge, power, reason, scientific technologies and disciplinary set-up, philosophical supremacy and commercial benefit that the Europeans tried to redefine and restructure the East. The result was the emergence of a new form of ‘power’ based on information and control. Behind all the sacrificial and religious garb of the ‘white man’s burden’, Said notes, there runs hideous machinery that distorts the forms of knowledge, and remoulds the subject-object relationship in a Eurocentric mirror reflection. The orient becomes a textual study, a place, seen in mass, and considered to be transformed in such implacable homogeneity. Said writes: “In the system of knowledge about the Orient, the orient is less a place than a topos, a set of references, a congeries of characteristics, that seems to have its origin in a quotation, or a fragment of a text, or a citation from someone’s work on the Orient.”1 The Orient, like the ‘terra nullius’ notion of Australian imperialism, never exists, or exists in a manner which is vast,......

Words: 3727 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

White Man

...inferior. According to Rudyard Kipling line 8 they are”Half-devil and half-child”. He describes the black man as somebody who should be glad to be able to serve the white people and at the same time escape famine. “The White Man’s Burden” also makes it possible to prevent sickness (line 22). The black man ought not to have any aspirations (line 26). In the last stanza Rudyard Kipling says if the black man had tried to be a free man he would prefer to go back to slavery (stanza 4). 2. What must the white man do? b. The white man has to educate the blacks and suppress them because they are not able to handle their own lives. The white man has to look after the blacks. 3. What is the White Man’s Burden? c. The White Man’s Burden refers according to Rudyard Kipling to the very important job that the whites carry for the blacks. For example they teach them how to become real people like themselves. However, you can also interpret the phrase “The White Man’s Burden” as a burden of work that the black man carries out for him. 4. Analyse the illustration: d. The illustration shows a white man carrying a black man. In background there is a house which is situated on a hill. You also see a dead man in the foreground. To the left there is a ship. I reckon that the illustration should be understood literally. This is because it is closely related to the text; “The White man’s Burden”. In the first stanza of the poem Rudyard Kipling describes how the newly...

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Docs12

...Journal has illustrated the white man’s burden by Rudyard Kipling. Rudyard is writing how the white men came to help the wild, untamed and devilish black people. They worked for them. They ceased down all sickness. They helped to end the ongoing wars. They pulled out an "education" plan for the black people. All that to help the natives, for almost nothing in return. But they succeed. Also to be mentioned is that the white men were carefully chosen by their parents and were only the best of the best. The painting by The Journal shows how a white man is helping a black weakened man out of the war zone and into the school to get an education. In the background you can see the white men’s ships. That is because they arrived by ship. In fact if you look closely you can see the parts of the Union Jack on top of the school. That is because the white men actually were British. The other painting is a poster from 1885. This can also be referred to Rudyard Kipling’s poem; the white man’s Burden. Rudyard writes that when the white people arrived there were wars. In the beginning when the white men tried to stop the war they became the victims of war and were killed and eaten by the cannibals. These black people are described as half devil and half child. So maybe you could interpret it like this. They were cannibals because they were half devils. And the other half a child, so they ate them because they just didn’t knew better. Rudyard writes the white men should learn in......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Admirable Qualities of Rikki Tikki Tavi

...Rikki’s Admirable Qualities Rikki-Tikki-Tavi is a short story written by Rudyard Kipling. The story is about a mongoose named Rikki-Tikki-Tavi who is adopted by a British family who are living in a house in India. He was adopted not only to be a pet for the family, but to also protect the family from the dangerous snakes that live in India’s jungles. Rikki speaks to the other animals that live in the family garden and is warned of two very dangerous cobras, Nag and Nagaina. These cobras are angry at the family for moving into an area which they used to dominate. Rikki ends up killing both of these cobras and saving the family’s lives on multiple occasions. (Kipling) Rikki has many admirable qualities that were present during the story, these included his loyalty towards the family and his courage. Rudyard Kipling was an English writer, who wrote short stories poetry and novels. Most of his stories were based in the country of India, due to the fact that he was born in Bombay India. Some of his most memorable works were “The Jungle book”, “Rikki-Tikki-Tavi”, “Just So Stories”, “Kim”, and his poem “Mandalay”. Kipling was a very well known author in England in the late 19th and 20th centuries. It was once said by literary critic Douglas Kerr that “"He [Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Kipling

...In our presentation we are going to discuss Citing Periodical Print Publication (Magazine). But before we start we need to know what is periodical, which things can be called periodicals and what do we understand by magazine. Periodical: A publication issued at regular intervals, usually monthly or weekly. * Daily Newspapers * Monthly Magazines * Bi-Monthly (Two Months) * Quarterly (Every three months) * Semi-Annual (Every Six months) Magazine: Magazines are publications, usually periodical publications, which are printed or published electronically. (The online versions are called online magazines.) They are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. Example: McEvoy, Dermot. “Little Books, Big Success.” Publishers Weekly 30 Oct. 2006: 26-28 Print. Citing an article in a magazine using MLA: To cite a magazine published every week or every two weeks, we have to give the full date followed by a colon, the inclusive page numbers of the article and the medium of publication consulted. If the article is not printed on consecutive pages, we have to write only the first page number with a plus (+) sign, leaving no intervening space. We...

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Imperialism in Africa

...European and American companies that own the majority of Africa's most resourceful land, are reminders that a form of imperialism still exists. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Rudyard Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" depict the 19th century belief that it is the white man's destiny through God to colonize Africa and other under-developed nations. It is up to the reader to decide how each of these works are to be taken, and whether or not they will see the horror of it all. These two publications along with a 20th century African charter demonstrate that the imperialism existing in 19th century Africa still exists to some extent today. Rudyard Kipling's " The White Man's Burden" was published in McClure's Magazine in February of 1899, just three years before Heart of Darkness was released in Great Britain. Upon reading Kipling's piece, it is difficult to decipher his exact intentions. It is doubtful that Kipling meant his poem to be taken seriously as a whole. He addresses some very important issues of the time, but they can be read in a sarcastic, satirical manner. In the first stanza, Kipling says, "Send forth the best ye breed “/ Go, bind your sons to exile/ to serve your captives need;". He seems to be questioning whether the result of civilizing these "savages", or "captives" as Kipling ca...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Analysis of "The Ballad of East and West"

...examples, relating, too, to other literary texts: OH, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God’s great Judgment Seat; But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth, When two strong men stand face to face, tho’ they come from the ends of the earth! There is quite possibly no greater reason for artists' trepidation and anxiety than being misunderstood and misinterpreted. Yet, it is still a common occurrence, even in modern times. First published in 1889, Rudyard Kipling's famous and extremely complex poem “The Ballad of East and West”, and more specifically its four opening lines, is one of the works that have been freely quoted and, probably to Kipling's great disappointment, very often misquoted, therefore misinterpreted in the opposite sense of Kipling's intentions, creating a spurious and misguided reputation of its author. The four lines opening Rudyard Kipling's poem, “The Ballad of East and West,” are a reflection on the topic of equality and possibility of mutual understanding and respect of polar opposites. Let us break down the quatrain into two parts. The first two lines imply that the author believes in absolute contrariety of East and West. They suggest that there is no possible way of reconciliation of the two, that seemingly they are like day and night, black and white or oil and water - without any prospects of both of them meeting, coming together, working and......

Words: 1504 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

"The Pit That They Digged" by Rudyard Kipling

...This is a short story, by Rudyard Kipling, about a man and his fight against the administration. The author deals with the topic in an ironic manner. We will try and show the irony in the short story, and find out why the author chose to tell us this story using that particular literary device. Irony is connected to double meaning: the narrator states something while actually meaning something else, which the reader has to figure out*. In “The Pit that They Digged”, irony is found in several instances, and has several functions. The first few paragraphs show examples of situational irony. The main character, Hawkins Mumrath, is seen as about to die (‘lay down to die’), but actually does not (‘he rallied’), thus going against the expected (his friends and acquaintances ‘gave him up for lost’). This return to a state of good health does not bring a feeling of relief or happiness, on the contrary (he gets back to work ‘to the disgust of his juniors who had hoped promotion’). The situation turns into an administrative nightmare as well: the man is not dead, yet the Government makes arrangements for a grave to be dug for him, causing a zealous employee, Ahutosh Lal Deb, to try and get back the money spent on the grave. The situation is thus absurd: a man, quite alive, is asked to pay for his own grave. He writes letters (a sure sign of life) to put the situation to rights, but the administration is unwilling to see his point of view. The administration is presented as a caring......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Rudyard Kipling, "The Pit That They Digged", December 1889.

...This is a short story, by Rudyard Kipling, about a man and his fight against the administration. The author deals with the topic in an ironic manner. We will try and show the irony in the short story, and find out why the author chose to tell us this story using that particular literary device. Irony is connected to double meaning: the narrator states something while actually meaning something else, which the reader has to figure out*. In “The Pit that They Digged”, irony is found in several instances, and has several functions. The first few paragraphs show examples of situational irony. The main character, Hawkins Mumrath, is seen as about to die (‘lay down to die’), but actually does not (‘he rallied’), thus going against the expected (his friends and acquaintances ‘gave him up for lost’). This return to a state of good health does not bring a feeling of relief or happiness, on the contrary (he gets back to work ‘to the disgust of his juniors who had hoped promotion’). The situation turns into an administrative nightmare as well: the man is not dead, yet the Government makes arrangements for a grave to be dug for him, causing a zealous employee, Ahutosh Lal Deb, to try and get back the money spent on the grave. The situation is thus absurd: a man, quite alive, is asked to pay for his own grave. He writes letters (a sure sign of life) to put the situation to rights, but the administration is unwilling to see his point of view. The administration is presented as a caring......

Words: 1192 - Pages: 5