Role of the Nervous and Endocrine System

In: Science

Submitted By gichaaga
Words 2354
Pages 10
Control and co-ordination
The role of the Nervous and Endocrine system.

The endocrine system and the nervous are basic systems in the body of animals that assist in the relaying of impulses or communication from one body part to another. They can both act together for these functions or separately. However, it will be prime for us to understand both functionalities. The nervous system constitutes of the foundation in which the body’s communication system is built. It constitutes of a group and network of neurons that assist in its function. The nervous system is divided into two: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral is made up of the nerves and their entire network throughout the body. On the other hand, the endocrine system is made up of glands that are positioned throughout the body. These glands secrete hormones that control or regulate such processes in the body such as growth, blood flow and pressure, digestion and metabolism. The nervous system deals with body needs that require a quick response such as breathing, while the endocrine system deals with the much slower but vital processes in the body, such as cell growth. As earlier explained, we are going to go further to explain both systems starting with the nervous system. The nervous system as indicated earlier constitutes of a network of neurons that develop much further into nerves. [pic]Nervous system It is made up of two most important sections namely; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. In more analysis, the central nervous system is the centre as the name suggests of the body communication. The nerves linked to various body parts and systems merge here. It receives and integrates impulses…...

Similar Documents

The Endocrine System

...SENSES AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TUI University Montest Bumpers Module 5 Case Assignment Anatomy and Physiology Professor Karmardi Mills December 17, 2012 What happens with a patient who develops a cataract? How does cataract formation represent a variance from normal anatomy & physiology? What happens in sensorineural hearing loss? How does sensorineural hearing loss represent a variance from normal anatomy & physiology? SENSES AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM For years now researchers believed that cataracts are developed because the proteins in the eye change as people age. The changes in these proteins cause the lens to become cloudy. Smoking, poor nutrition, eye injury, exposure to excessive sunlight, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, also may be factors that put people at higher risk of developing cataracts. Cataracts develop slowly. Some of the first signs people experience is a difficulty in reading the newspaper, or they experience blurry vision. Over a period of time the eyes become more sensitive to light, and seeing at night becomes especially difficult. A common symptom is that people with cataracts often say they feel they have a film over their eyes, as if they are looking through a piece of gauze. The condition actually may benefit some people who always had trouble seeing things that are near to them, such as the words in a book. The cloudiness of a cataract changes how light is focused and temporarily results in better......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Nervous System Outline

...Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System Function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. _____sensory_______ _______receptors______ at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory impulses are integrated in the brain as _______sensations_______, this is the integrative function of the nervous system. Conscious or subconscious decisions follow, leading to motor functions via ______effectors________. | The Central Nervous System is made up of the ____brain_________ and ______spinal cord______ ______________. | The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of the _____spinal_________ and ________cranial__________ nerves. | Neuroglial Cells fill spaces, support neurons, provide structural frameworks, produce myelin, and carry on phagocytosis. Four are found in the ________________ and the last in the __________________. _______________________ cells are small cells that phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris. ________________________form myelin in the brain and spinal cord. __________________ are near blood vessels and support structures, aid in metabolism, and respond to brain injury by filling in spaces. ________________cover the inside of ventricles and form choroid plexuses within the ventricles. ______________________ cells are the myelin-producing neuroglia of the peripheral nervous system. | ......

Words: 1869 - Pages: 8

Endocrine System

...Endocrine System Functions: Help regulate: • Chemical composition and volume of internal environment • Metabolism and energy balance • Biological clock (circadian rhythm) • Contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers Control growth and development Regulate operation of reproductive systems Nerve impulses Neurotransmitter Endocrine system Hormones Hormones : regulate physiological activities of target cells in the body Endocrine glands Secrete the products (hormones) into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells, rather than into ducts Exocrine glands Secrete their products into ducts ( ex. sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands) Major Endocrine organs of the body Target cell: organs regulated/affected by the hormones Role of Hormone Receptors Down-regulation • When a hormone is present in excess, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease • Decreases the responsiveness of target cells to the hormone Up-regulation • When a hormone is deficient, the number of receptors may increase. Makes a target tissue more sensitive to a hormone. Classification: (How far from their site of production they act) Circulating hormones (endocrine) Pass into the blood and act on distant target cells Local hormones Act locally without first entering the blood stream Chemical classes of Hormones Lipid-soluble Hormones • Steroid hormones • Thyroid hormones (T3/T4) • Nitric oxide Water - soluble Hormones •......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

The Endocrine System

...The Endocrine System BIO / 101 The Endocrine System The endocrine system is defined as any system within an animal that regulates the functioning of the organism or is used in the production of hormones. These systems can range anywhere from a simple center in the nervous system to a more intricate collection of glands that are in the human endocrine system. Qualified endocrinologists have been analyzing the advancement of the endocrine systems and the roles that they play in an animals’ adaptive behavior in an environment as well as their production of offspring. It is surprising to find that the research of endocrinology in mammals has been advanced by research in non-mammal animals. For example, the mechanisms in the body that control salt and water content were discovered in fishes first, this led to the discovery of comparable functions in mammals. The understanding in how the endocrine system is structured in non-mammals offers critical information into understanding how the human endocrine system functions. The most basic endocrine system deals with the secretion and storage of hormones within nervous tissue or neurohemal organs. These hormones can be secreted directly into circulation of the body or stored into organs that have direct contact with the blood vessels that allow the hormones to be put into circulation. There are cells located within the endocrine glands that stem from various nerve cells that have traveled during the evolutionary process to......

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Nervous System

...Task 211.4.4-01-05, 07-09, 11 Nervous System Organization of Nerve Tissue Lab Exercise 1: The Multipolar Neuron A. What is the function of a neuron? Neurons carry and transmit electrical impulses generated by both internal and external stimuli. B. What is the difference between a neuron and a nerve? Neurons are the cells that exchange messages from the internal and external environments. Nerves consist of many neurons that transmit different signals to the brain. They form structural and functional units of the nervous system made up of neurons. C. What gives a multipolar neuron its name? It is named multipolar because of the multiple branches, processes, and extensions that stem off the cell bodies. D. What are the functions of the dendrites and axons? Dendrites receive incoming signals for the nerve cell. Axons carry outgoing signals of the cells to other cells in the body. Exercise 2: Structures of selected neurons A. Which slide contained bipolar neurons? The pyramidal cell slide. B. Which slide contained unipolar neurons? The dorsal root ganglion slide. C. What was unique about the dorsal root ganglion compared to the other two slides? The dorsal root ganglion was more round in shape compared to the perkinje and pyramidal cell slides. The nissle substance, nucleus, and satellite......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Endocrine System

...The Endocrine System Dirty Sanchez BEH/225 Introduction to Behavioral Science 19 March 2014 Mrs. Piggy The Endocrine System Human behavior can be affected by several factors; a person’s upbringing, the surrounding environment, and one’s personality. These are all examples of what one sees on the outside of the body. Inside the body, there is a system that can have several effects on human behavior. This system is called the endocrine system. This system is made up of glands that secrete hormones into the lymph system, also known as the bloodstream. Glands such as the thyroid and adrenal secrete hormones that affect human behavior. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which regulate the human body’s metabolism. The adrenal glands secrete hormones such as, adrenalin and noradrenalin which can be related to fear and anger. The endocrine system’s secretions of hormones throughout the human body plays a large role on how a human behavior. The Role of the Endocrine System Like the nervous system, the endocrine system goes hand-in-hand in controlling and coordinating the reflexes and reactions of the human body. The endocrine glands create and execute communications throughout the body that are just as important as the nervous system (Coon & Mitterer, p. 74, 2012). Through secretion of chemicals, also known as hormones, the endocrine system secretes......

Words: 746 - Pages: 3

Enteric Nervous System Disorders

...Enteric Nervous System Disorders The enteric nervous system functions both gastroenterological and neurologically. Within the Gastroenterlogically, the Enteric Nervous System is in charge of the following: “Movement patterns of the gastrointestinal tract Control of gastric Acid Secretion Regulation of fluid movement across the epithelium Changing local blood flow Modification of nutrient handling Interactions with gut, immune and endocrine systems. (” Examples of functional disorders of the ENS: “IBS Functional dyspepsia Constipation Diabetes-related motility disorders Parkinson Disease (” IBS Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects the large intestine. This is a chronic condition that should be managed long term, but doesn’t cause changes in bowel tissue, or increase risk of colorectal cancer. Cause/ How does this happen? Information on the exact causes for IBS is still not known, however, it is believed that the following factors play a role: * A genetic predisposition (e.g., family history of IBS) to developing IBS * An intestinal infection prior to symptom onset * Chronic stressful life events, or other psychosocial factors The walls of the intestines are lined with layers of muscle that contract and relax in a coordinated rhythm as they move food from your stomach through your intestinal tract to......

Words: 419 - Pages: 2

Endocrine System

...Breonna Mosely 7/17/2014 Dr. Ganser Endocrine system effects on Sleep Deprivation Deprived sleep is a universal widespread problem observed in both children and adults. It is a vital process that helps in the functioning of learning, memory processing, cellular repair, and brain development. Statistics show that the average total hours of sleep have decreased per person to less than 7 hours per night over the past 3 to 4 decades. Many people experience sleep loss due pressures at work, stress, and our day to day lifestyle. The reduced hours of nocturnal sleep have shown to lead to serious health problems such as depression, obesity, hypertension, along with many other diseases. It also affects cognitive performance and emotionality. (1) The Endocrine system is responsible for the body’s stress systems and the release of the stress hormones necessary for adaptation and survival in the environment. Sleep deprivation are associated with increases in the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis, increased levels of cortisol and autonomic sympathetic activation and increased catecholamine levels during wakefulness. Increased sympathetic levels causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Just briefly waking up from sleep for only a few seconds is associated with autonomic reflex, causing a temporary rise in heart rate and BP to the level seen while awake. This is more related to disruption and discontinuity of sleep than to the duration of sleep deprivation......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Nervous System

...The Nervous System and Special Senses Abstract This paper contains a brief discussion on the overview of the nervous system and the organs that play a major role in the system. It goes into further detail of the nervous system by separating into the central nervous systems and its functions, the peripheral nervous system and its two branches under the system; including what it is responsible for and briefly how it works. The paper then discusses the special senses. It focuses on the eyes and ears and how they function to perform their major duties. The Nervous System and Special Senses One of the most complicated systems of the body, the nervous system is responsible for many different body functions. It is composed of two primary cell types-neurons and neuroglia. The neurons are responsible for transmitting impulses to different parts of the body. The neurons are usually identified by the way they travel, such as afferent (sensory) - moving toward the brain or spinal cord, or efferent (motor) -moving away from the brain or spinal cord (Nervous System and Special Senses). The neuron is a special structure in itself. It is composed of a cell body, a nucleus, dendrites, axons, and a myelin sheath. The dendrites carry impulses to the cell body, while the axons carry the impulses from the cell body and out to muscles, glands and other dendrites. Neuroglia is much simpler than neurons. Their main function is to support the neurons and bind them to other neurons or......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

The Nervous System

...The Nervous System Noradrenaline - Noradrenaline is a hormone that is produced naturally by the body. It is synthesized and released by the central nervous system, and also by a division of the autonomic nervous system called the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine acts on target cells by binding to and activating noradrenergic receptors located on the cell surface. It is the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nerves in the cardiovascular system and is released as a response to stress. Function: The sympathetic nervous system triggers a response that is commonly referred to as our 'fight or flight response.' When faced with a dangerous situation, our body needs to decide whether to stay and face the problem, or run away. So, In order to make our body work as efficiently as possible, norepinephrine causes several changes in our body function. These include the following: 1. An increase in the amount of oxygen going to our brain - this helps us think clearer and faster. 2. An increase in our heart rate - this pumps more blood around our body, helping our muscles work faster and more efficiently. 3. An increase in glucose (or sugar) release - this additional sugar gives our muscles something to 'feed on,' which helps them work better and faster. 4. An increase in breathing rate - when we breathe faster, we are delivering more oxygen to the body and brain. This helps our entire body work better. 5. A shutting down of metabolic......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

The Nervous System

...Chapter 12 The Nervous System All neural tissue in the body Neurons send(motor) and receive (sensory) signals Neuroglia support and protect neurons 1. Central Nervous System- (CNS) brain and spinal cord; process and coordinate sensory (internal and external data) motor commands(control peripheral organs), higher function of brain ( intelligence, memory, learning and emotions) 2. Peripheral Nervous System- (PNS) a;; neural tissue outside the CNS. Delivers sensory( input) info to the CNS carry motor (output) commands to peripheral tissues and systems. Nerves are bundles of axons with connective tissue and blood vessels Function Division of PNS Afferent- from PNS sensory receptors (detect stimuli or change) to CNS-access Efferent- from (motor commands) CNS to PNS muscles and glands(effectors)-exit 1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)- voluntary and involuntary (reflexes) muscle contractions 2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)- self regulating a. Sympathetic- flight or fight stimulating effect b. Parasympathetic- rest and digest relaxing effect Neurons Structure a. Multipolar several dendrites 1 axon; Bipolar 1 dendrite and 1 axon; Unipolar 1 dendrite and 1 axon b. Cell body contains DNA (protein), nissil bodies for protein synthesis occurs and it ha dense areas of RER and ribosomes (make gray matter), dendrites that receive info. From other neurons, axon long tail that carries electrical signal (action potentials), axoplasm the......

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Endocrine System

...The Endocrine System: Diseases and Age Related Changes Unit 10 assignment The Endocrine System: Diseases and Age Related Changes Unit 10 assignment CUSHING’S DISEASE: Cushing’s disease is when the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic. The pituitary gland is a part of the endocrine system. This is disease is caused by a tumor or hyperplasia of the pituitary gland. The most common cause of this disease is known as adenoma, a benign tumor. With this disease the pituitary gland begins to overproduce ACTH which then causes the body to respond by over producing cortisol. Too much cortisol in the system can interfere with the bodies way of handling inflammation. ADDISON’S DISEASE: Addison’s disease is a chronic endocrine system disease where the adrenal glands don’t produce enough cortisol or aldosterone. Cortisol is the body’s way of handling stress; it also helps break down all of your macronutrients. Aldosterone helps the kidneys regulate the amount of salt and water in the body. There are two types of Addison’s disease; primary adrenal insufficiency which is when the initial problem is with the adrenal glands themselves. The other form is known as secondary adrenal insufficiency which when the adrenal glands are affected by an outside problem. ACROMEGALY: Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder caused when pituitary gland produces too much of a growth hormone during adulthood. Acromegaly is not a common disorder and is not usually noticed......

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Nervous System

...Name________________________________Block_____Date______________________ Ch 7 The Nervous System Notes Lisa Peck I. Organization of the Nervous System (pp 222-224) Nervous system- the master controlling and communicating system of the body 3 functions: 1. sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring inside & outside body stimuli- changes sensory input- gathered information 2. processes and interprets the sensory input integration- nervous system makes decisions about what should be done 3. effects a response by activating muscles or glands (effectors) via motor output Regulating and Maintaining Homeostasis nervous system - fast-acting control via electrical impulses endocrine system- slow-acting control via hormones release into the blood Structural Classification (p 223) 2 subdivisions: Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of: brain spinal cord functions: integrating center.........interpret incoming sensory information command center..........issue instructions based on past experience & current conditions 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of: nerves 2 types: cranial nerves- carry impulses to and from the brain spinal nerves- carry impulses to and from the spinal cord ganglia- groups of nerve cell bodies function: communication lines, linking all parts of the body Functional Classification 2 (pp 223-224) only deals with peripheral nervous system (PNS) 1.......

Words: 2870 - Pages: 12

Nervous System a specialist for further evaluation of a nervous system disorder. Outline characteristics of the disease each patient is suffering from by answering the questions associated with each case study. Answer in your own words. Case Study 1 Name | Myelin S. Heath | Patient # | 12312312 | DOB: | 03/05/1986 | Physician | Dr. Delgadillo | Date: | 02/16/20XX | Interoffice Referral Form Ray D. Ology, M.D. A Doctor’s Office, North Campus 1515 N. Medical Plaza #151 Anytown, Anywhere 12345 Dear Ray, Myelin visited my office yesterday complaining of numbness in his right leg and face. He has also been experiencing muscle weakness and mild depression. I noticed a delay in his visual response in both eyes. I have referred Myelin to your facility because of possible multiple sclerosis, and I am requesting an MRI of the brain and spine. Please fax the results to me as soon as possible. Regards, Ruben Delgadillo, M.D. Answer the following questions. 1. What could have caused Myelin’s disease? The symptoms discovered, such as delayed visual response and muscle weakness would lead me to think that the mylelin, which forms a sheath around the neutron, has deteriorated and is causing a decrease in impulse velocity and is impairing functions. This degeneration is causing a misfire of incomplete impulses. So, the deterioration in the cause of the disease. 2. What structure(s) and function(s) of the nervous system are affected by multiple sclerosis? ......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

The Circulatory and Nervous System

...Marieb, E. (2008). Fundamentals of human anatomy and physiology, 8th ed. The Circulatory System is the main transportation and cooling system for the body. The Red Blood Cells act like billions of little UPS trucks carrying all sorts of packages that are needed by all the cells in the body. Instead of UPS, I'll call them RBC's. RBC's carry oxygen and nutrients to the cells. Every cell in the body requires oxygen to remain alive. Besides RBC's, there are also White Blood Cells moving in the circulatory system traffic. White Blood Cells are the paramedics, police and street cleaners of the circulatory system. Anytime we have a cold, a cut, or an infection the WBC's go to work. The highway system of the Circulatory System consist a lot of one way streets. The superhighways of the circulatory system are the veins and arteries. Veins are used to carry blood to the heart. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Most of the time, blood in the veins is blood where most of the oxygen and nutrients have already been delivered to the cells. This blood is called deoxygenated and is very dark red. Most of the time blood in the arteries is loaded with oxygen and nutrients and the color is very bright red. There is one artery that carries deoxygenated blood and there are some veins that carry oxygenated blood. To get to the bottom of this little mystery we need to talk about the Heart and Lungs. The heart is a two sided, four-chambered pump. It is made up mostly of muscle.......

Words: 2798 - Pages: 12