Roitts Essential Immunology

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Potenciales de membrana

Las células nerviosas y musculares tienen la propiedad de ser células excitables, o sea que pueden:

Generar potenciales eléctricos y en muchos casos Transmitirlos como señales a lo largo de sus membranas.

¿Cómo se genera un potencial de membrana?

Los potenciales de membrana básicamente se generan con la participación de 2 iones principales:

• Na+ • K+

Estos iones difunden a través de la MEMBRANA CELULAR SEMIPERMEABLE de estas células (nerviosas y musculares), siguiendo las reglas de la difusión:

CARGA ELÉCTRICA: Los iones de cargas opuestas se atraen y los de carga similares se repelen.

CONCENTRACIÓN: Las partículas separadas por una membrana permeable difunden a través de la membrana siguiendo su gradiente de concentración, siempre tendiendo a igualar la concentración a ambos lado de la membrana.

O sea que:

[pic]

El Sodio tiene carga positiva y se encuentra en mayor concentración fuera de las células, por lo tanto ambas fuerzas crean una tendencia al sodio de entrar en las células.

El Potasio tiene carga positiva, por lo que tiende a entrar hacia la célula (con carga negativa), sin embargo su gradiente de concentración es mayor dentro de las células por lo tanto también tiene una tendencia a salir.
Sin embargo al sumar las fuerzas que tienden a hacer entrar estos iones y hacerlos salir obtenemos que (OJO, acá solo hablamos de tendencias):

[pic]

¿Cómo se distribuyen las cargas eléctricas dentro de una célula?

[pic]

EL POTENCIAL DE REPOSO

El potencial de membrana de las fibras nerviosas en reposo (cuando no transmiten señales) es aproximadamente – 90 mV, y este voltaje es generado por:

• BOMBA DE Na+/K+: Produce gradientes de concentración de estos iones en la…...

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