Free Essay

Rhetoric

In: English and Literature

Submitted By baller22
Words 2057
Pages 9
Nicholas Hamilton
Rhetoric 20
Amy J.
February 17, 2015
The Irony in Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche writes in his essay “On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense” about the understandings of knowledge, truth, and morality. Interestingly the translation of the original title for Nietzsche’s work might have been “On Truth and Lie in the Extramoral Sense.” This is interesting because the translated version that is given for readers is “Nonmoral”; however another possible translation could have been “Extramoral” which shows that his writing may either be something not consistent with morality, but it may also be overly moral as well. Kenneth Burke writes in his work “Four Master Tropes”, about the tropes of metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. He provides numerous definitions of irony as well as the three temptations of irony. Nietzsche’s writing and ideas about “truth and lies” are “ironic” based on the definition and examples Burke uses as well as the standard dictionary definition of irony. This irony accomplishes incongruity with what appears to be truth and lies and what it actually is; since there is no concrete truth, this is ironic in itself.
Individuals often confuse and misuse the term ironic, but Kenneth Burke gives his opinion of what irony is. He says, “Irony arises when one tries, by the interaction of terms upon one another, to produce a development which uses all the terms…they are all voices, personalities, or positions, integrally affecting one another” (432). He focuses on how terms are manipulated and changed around in order to produce a different result. This relates to how Nietzsche describes a liar as a person who misuses conventions in speech “by means of arbitrary substitutions or even reversals of names” (81). If the individual who is a liar does not purposely harm an individual with his/her substitution of language then it would be considered ironic, since the individual knows what the truth is. The standard dictionary defines irony as “the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.” Based on these two definitions of irony from Burke and the dictionary, Nietzsche illustrates irony in his work. Burke states there are three temptations of irony and there is some relation of Nietzsche’s writing and these temptations.
Burke discusses three different types of temptations that come from irony and the first one he begins with is the temptation of relativism. He defines this temptation as, “Relativism is the constant temptation of either dialectic or drama” (433). In dialectic, the truth of opinions is discussed, and throughout Nietzsche he is in a constant discussion of what the truth is. The irony in what Nietzsche discusses is that he is trying to discover what is truth when there is no absolute truth in anything. Burke later says, “The dialectic of this participation produces a “resultant certainty” of a different quality, necessarily ironic, since it requires that all the sub certainties be considered as neither true nor false, but contributory” (433). Nietzsche goes back and forth about what is considered being honest and what is a lie. Particularly his example of who the liar is reflects the temptation of relativism. Nietzsche says, “The liar is a person who uses the valid designations, the words, in order to make something which is unreal appear to be real” (81). This relativism temptation of the liar provides a new certainty that is different from other perspectives, so it cannot be proven as true or false.
The objective is to find out what perspective is being discussed. For example, during the Holocaust, the genocide of Jewish people in Germany, the Nazis, supporters of dictator Adolf Hitler, may have viewed the killing of the Jewish population as a necessary cause because it would solve a problem affecting their people. On the other hand, the Jewish population and many onlookers from the rest of the world viewed the Holocaust as a brutal, cruel, maltreatment of the Jewish population resulting in millions of individuals murdered. Depending on the perspective of who is retelling the story essentially determines what is being told, so it doesn’t mean one person is telling the truth or lying but is relying on what their culture and beliefs have caused them to look at that event. All individuals have knowledge of from this event is other people’s interpretations and opinions, which is ironic according to Burke because in a dialectic we are trying to discover what is the truth of those opinions.
The second temptation is hypocritical superiority of irony that Burke describes is supposed to be a temptation of humility not superiority. As Burke states, “True Irony, however, irony that really does justify the attribute of “humility,” is not “superior” to the enemy” (434). First it is ironic that Burke uses the word “true” to emphasize what he really believes irony is, and this is not the only time he does this. This is interesting because the way Burke describes this irony it sounds like Nietzsche’s discussion of the liar who is ironic and the liar who is purposely harming another individual. A white lie can appear to be ironic because if someone asks, “Am I fat” and someone responds saying “No” in order to be nice, that is showing humility because they are putting the other person’s feeling first instead of their own. A question that arises from that scenario is if the question in itself “Am I fat?” is ironic based upon the fact the individual asking, actually believes he or she is fat. Like Nietzsche says, “The ‘thing in itself’ is likewise something incomprehensible to the creator of language and not in the least worth striving for” (82). This ironic scene that is set up is substantiated by both the quote from Nietzsche and Burke, highlights the irony in Nietzsche’s work does in fact accomplish the effect Burke proposes.
Burke continues with his second temptation of irony and redefines what true irony is to him. He states, “True irony, humble irony, is based upon a sense of fundamental kinship with the enemy, as one needs him, is indebted to him, is not merely outside him as an observer but contains him within, being consubstantial with him” (435). In an example to better understand what Burke is saying is pretending that this enemy is knowledge. This need for knowledge from individuals is something that affects the individual personally. No matter how much knowledge the individual receives it is only what the person accepts as truth will be the knowledge they obtain and agree with. This temptation of irony is again linked to the concepts of Nietzsche as he says, “For this pride contains within itself the most flattering estimation of knowing. Deception is the most flattering effect of such pride…” (80). Relating to the liar Nietzsche discusses, who appears to be ironic, deception in the correct circumstances that results in happiness for others demonstrates the form of humility that Burke proposes. Whether or not an individual knows the truth, putting pride aside to better the life of someone else is the ultimate humility and the second temptation of irony.
The last temptation of irony is picking favorites or simplifying the irony in order to make it easy to understand. Burke states, “Irony is sacrificed to ‘the simplification of literalness’ when this duality of role is neglected” (437). Reducing the meaning of what is being said so the reader can easily make sense of it only harms the potential use of irony in that sentence. The difference in this temptation of irony, it does not seem like Nietzsche simplifies his language for his irony or metaphors to be easily interpreted. Burke compares two sentences to stress the difference of irony being used successfully and when it is overly simplified, causing it to lose its ironic affect. The example he gives is, “slavery is ‘bad,’ and is so treated in the rhetoric of proletarian emancipation” compared to “without the slavery of antiquity, no modern socialism” (437). The difference in Nietzsche’s writing is he maintains the abstract use of language where there is no straightforward, simplified interpretation. One example of this can be pulled from anywhere in his work, but this is a good example of how he does not rely of the simplification of literalness, “We know nothing whatsoever about the essential quality of ‘honesty’; but we do know of countless individualized and consequently unequal actions which we equate by omitting the aspects in which they are unequal and which we now designate as ‘honest’ actions” (87). If Nietzsche simplified this he possibly could have said, “Although we do not have definite knowledge of how to determine the quality of honesty, there are ways that we can try to distinguish certain actions to qualify them as being honest.” In Nietzsche’s writing it appeared that this temptation of irony was not demonstrated, and some of his major points and examples in his texts also resembled the effects of irony.
There are other examples of irony in Nietzsche’s writing that produces an effect on his overall argument that correlate with the temptations of irony or the definition of irony that Burke provides for the reader. Nietzsche says “We believe that we know something about the things themselves when we speak of trees, colors, snow, and flowers; and yet we possess nothing but metaphors for things.” This is interesting because we say these things with no knowledge, only a preconceived notion of what something appears to be when the name is said. Why do individuals instantly think of a long log of wood with branches and leaves growing out of it when the word tree is used? Nietzsche goes on to say, “Truths are illusions which we have forgotten are illusions; they are metaphors that have become worn out and have been drained of sensuous force” (84). This sentence creates a sense of irony because of the sentence structure that Nietzsche uses to describe what truths are. Based on Burke’s definition he produces a development that uses all the terms in order to accomplish this meaning of truth.
Nietzsche and Burke really have something in common, which as stated earlier, how perspectives could really provide a difference in how things are viewed. Nietzsche really makes the reader think in this section of his essay that focuses on the impossibility of having multiple perspectives when he states, “If we could only perceive things now as a bird, now as a worm, now as a gnat, or if one of us saw a stimulus as red, another as blue, while a third even heard the same stimulus as a sound–then no one would speak of such regularity of nature, rather, nature would be grasped only as a creation which is subjective in the highest degree” (87). Individuals often imagine what life is like to be an animal they will more than likely have the perspective they have as a human because it is almost impossible to develop a new perspective on life like that. Even if it wasn’t an animal, people wonder what they look like in the eyes of others, but they can never truly experience that other perspective because they will continue to see themselves through the lens of their on eyes. Although individuals can watch videos of them or look in the mirror and try to guess how others perceive them, it still remains a nearly impossible task.
Throughout this essay it is discussed what is considered to be true, a lie, or a lie that is ironic. Kenneth Burke tries to determine what is true irony, and Nietzsche is in a constant debate of how people know what is truth and what is a lie. Ironically Nietzsche says there is no concrete truth; however Burke is able to give a definition to what true irony is. Based on the temptations Burke gives, his definition of irony, as well as the standard dictionary definition of irony, Nietzsche accomplishes irony in his work that is not purposeful. Not all irony is not always on purpose, and in Nietzsche writing, the intent was not to write an essay full of irony that is coherent to the effects of irony that Burke proposes.

Works Cited
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense." Philosophy and Truth (1870's):
79-91. Print.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Rhetoric vs Sophistry

...Stephen Mailloux’s (1995, ed) discussion of “Sophistry and Rhetorical pragmatism” (pp1-30) and West and Turner’s (2010, pp.312-327) discussion of “Rhetoric”. This essay is a review of Stephen Mailloux’s discussion of Sophistry and Rhetorical pragmatism (Mailloux, 1995) and West and Turner’s discussion of Rhetoric (West & Turner, 2010). The writings in question discuss the origins and evolution of Rhetoric, with Mailloux introduce a historical and philosophical criticism of “sophistic Rhetoric as applied in the modern American context” (for example, neopragmatism and poststructuralism), and evaluated in the rest of the book, whilst West and Turner enlighten the reader about the heurism and globalism of Aristotle’s Rhetorical theory with a focus on the discipline of public speaking. Mailloux introduces sophistic Rhetoric as founded on the pragmatic doctrine that “Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, and of things which are not, that they are not”, a phrase attributed to the Sophist Protagoras (Patrick, 2006). Others Sophists of note include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias and Thrasymachus – quoted in Plato’s Republic as saying “… ‘Just’ or ‘right’ means nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger party” (Plato & Lane, 2007)). West and Turner’s account of the Rhetoric show that the first teachers of Rhetoric were the "Sophists”, who were nomadic teachers of public speaking that were respected for their intellect and subsequently paid......

Words: 2288 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Rhetoric of Hrm

...The Rhetoric of HRM is Soft But the Reality is Hard HRM Viewed as a Rhetorical Device Mulvaney, P (2012) Page 1 Paul Mulvaney N00128352. Course DL243f Contents Introduction....................................................................................................3 Where does the HRM rhetoric–reality gap exist........................................4 Why has management used HRM as a rhetorical device...........................5 How has HRM rhetoric penetrated work culture.......................................6 Conclusion......................................................................................................7 References.......................................................................................................8 Page 2 Paul Mulvaney N00128352. Course DL243f Introduction The gap between the soft rhetoric contained within corporate communications and the sometimes hard realities of organisational life has received much attention within the HRM literature. The debate centres on the issue of managements’ ability and intent to implement soft HRM practices, which appear to offer value to both sides of the employment relationship. The following paper aims to address the where, why and how of HRM rhetoric’s influence on employment. The key issues are: Where and in what context is there a lack of congruence between the perceived promises of management and employee experience? Why and to what end has management......

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Rhetoric and Ethics

...Rhetoric and Ethics Assignment "The Ethic of Expediency" by Steven B. Katz discusses the ethical problems of technical writing. The author suggest that the ethic of expediency enables deliberative rhetoric and gives impulse to most of our actions in technological capitalism. Katz explains that the problem with deliberative rhetoric and technical communication is epistemology and ethics. He uses a Nazi memo as a technical writing sample, which embodies the rhetoric and ethos of the Nazi Party but fails to take any account for ethics. He also uses Aristotle's Politic and Rhetoric to make the connection between rhetoric, ethics, technology, and expediency. Katz concludes that the deliberative orators aim is utility, to determine means to ends- a question of expediency. Aristotle believed that practical wisdom must be accompanied by moral virtue to supply the right end. Hitler used Aristotle’s work to form the ethos in Nazi Germany. However, with Hitler, there was no distinction between "practical wisdom" and "moral virtue", between expediency and the good as long as rhetoric serves its end, that is, the State. His belief in the efficacy of science and technology as the basis of ethics and politics resulted in mass extermination. Based on the ethic of expediency, rhetoric for Hitler was pure technique, designed not to encourage debate, but rather to indoctrinate. Hitler created an ethos of expediency to carry out his program for the “greater good” of Germany. Katz believes that......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Persuasion Thought Rhetoric

...to affect people’s attitudes, opinions, and behavior. Rhetoric refers to the study of persuasive writing. As we use the term, it denotes a broad category of linguistic techniques people use when their primary objective is to influence beliefs and attitudes and behavior. Is Rob Reiner “a perennial political activist millionaire”? Or is he an “untiring advocate of social reform willing to spend his considerable fortune for just causes”? The different impressions these two descriptions create is largely due to their differing rhetorical meaning. Does Juanita “still owe over $1,000 on her credit card”? Or does Juanita “owe only a little over $1,000 on her credit card”? There’s no factual difference between the two questions—only a difference in their rhetorical force. The thing to remember through these next few chapters is that rhetorical force may be psychologically effective, but by itself it establishes nothing. If we allow our attitudes and beliefs to be affected by sheer rhetoric, we fall short as critical thinkers. Now before we get in trouble with your English teacher, let’s make it clear that there is nothing wrong with trying to make your case as persuasive as possible by using well-chosen, rhetorically effective words and phrases. Good writers always do this. But we, as critical thinkers, must be able to distinguish the argument (if any) contained in what someone says or writes from the rhetoric; we must be able to distinguish the logical force of a......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

On Rhetoric: Baldwin, West, and Morrison

...Matters, to highlight the uncomfortable truths in the status quo and stir up public discussion about the deterioration of democracy in contemporary society. Criticizing free-market fundamentalism, aggressive militarism, and escalating authoritarianism, he argued that we must work to appeal to the democratic tradition in our populace. He pointed to the inequality in our society and to the disruptions of peace in regions such as the Middle East and Palestine and suggests that such issues ought to be resolved to allow for greater democracy. He also emphasized the importance of rhetoric and literature, which can serve to reinforce democratic traditions: he argued that “progressive democrats must come swinging back with a much more persuasive and inspiring rhetoric that speaks to the democratic issues of equality of opportunity, service to the poor, and a focus on public interest” and fight the conservative rhetoric (West 74). He also eulogized Emerson, for he demonstrated a genuine commitment to activism in his literature: Emerson writes, "Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness" (West 69). West also highlighted the importance of democratic tradition and the idea of democratic identity present in literature, as manifested in works of Baldwin, Morrison, Emerson, and so on. Toni Morrison believes literature should reflect society to cast light on the living......

Words: 1435 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Visual Rhetoric

...Eng 105-Comp 1 Proposal Essay November 1, 2013 Stimulation For my visual rhetoric I plan to use an electronic based visual due to my lack of ability to design and draw. I feel that the significance in my claim deserves a strong visual to go with it at which I would not be able to do justice with my drawing. My visual is going to use a very dark grey background to show emotion of depression or remorse. It will also shows bright colors that represent the flag of the United States as well as writing at which would define the purpose of the claim. The images in the visual argument are going to be positioned in a downward diagonal line with a larger image in the middle outlined by a black border to show importance. The smaller images give two different views one is in color as if they are watching it on the television and the other is absent of color and provides still space with a black and white photo of a famous person. The repetition although small is in the alignment and the size of the photos. The smaller photos are identical in size and our consumed by the main picture by the same amount of space. The color of the United States flag is going to convey patriotism and emotionally draw in the audience. The showing of the bold white lettering of the typography is going to show that there is a bold and strong allegiance to the United States flag. I feel that this statement will define the argument and can be presented in other ways and still convey the claim. The......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Rhetoric

...John Staine Heinrich Critical Book Review 2/13/14 LSTU 261 Rhetoric in its most simplistic form is language; more specifically rhetoric is persuasive language. Rhetoric is something that we use every day whether we know it or not, we are always using it. In Jay Heinrich’s strong argumentative book, “Thank you for Arguing,” he stresses the importance of rhetoric heavily. Heinrich argues that rhetoric is the key component to arguing and everyone can benefit from knowing how exactly to use rhetoric. His main intent is to show how rhetoric has shaped this country and how history is formed from its critical use. My view on this importance of rhetoric is at the same levels of Heinrich’s. I do believe that rhetoric is key to arguing and even beyond arguing, with getting by in the society in which we live in. I also agree with Heinrich’s idea on not arguing for a win but for a purpose, for a goal. Argument in the future tense will help bring strength to the situation itself. In the book Heinrich uses real life examples, ranging from his personal life, to television, to music, all the way through our history as a country. I noticed that Heinrich doesn’t really state the opposition of his argument, one could assume that if you do not use rhetoric effectively then you will not succeed in our society and that is it. I would also have like to see examples of rhetoric stripped down in a less complex form, for example someone using it that doesn’t really know the depth of......

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Importance of Reagan's Rhetoric

...President Reagan’s use of rhetoric in his speeches throughout his political career was essential in establishing a cohesive and successful relationship with the American people. His charismatic nature and unfaltering authenticity in every single speech defined him as a true leader – one who might finally be able to restore faith in the American presidency in a country perpetually traumatized by the Watergate Scandal. Reagan brought indisputable political beliefs established on a solid sense of conservatism as well as a solid moral code built on firm religious values. These two features that Reagan exemplified laid the groundwork for an administration that was characterized by consistent and unyielding principles. The perfect example of this aspect of his administration is prevalent in his rhetoric. His small anecdotes, perfect word choice, and references to past great leaders all underscored his incredible ability to communicate the successes and lessen the defeats that faced his administration. Through his use of consistent and unique rhetoric from his first major speech in 1964 continued to his farewell speech in 1989, Ronald Reagan established motifs of freedom, limited government, moral renewal, and hope for the future that ultimately rescue American pride in the executive branch and in the country as a whole. In Ronald Reagan’s second inaugural address, which spans just over three pages, he used the word freedom 17 times. He took one of the most complex and hard to......

Words: 4643 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Rhetoric Strategy in Artistic Writing

...Student’s Name: Eric Elias Kiruja Instructor: Professor Kirui Course: English literature Date: 15th May, 2004 Rhetoric strategy in Artistic Writing Pathos, logos, and ethos is clearly a tool and an instrument of writing that appeal to the seat of emotion, reason and ethnic. The strategy pays dividends to the extent that it calls to these three aspects of life to address issues. Scholars and majority writers in their scholarly and oratorical works have relied so much on the use of the rhetorical style of writing to construct pathos logos and ethos. “Letter from Birmingham Jail," by Martin Luther King Jr (Francisco, 23) is a profound example of this style at play. The three ideologies independently can survive any intellectual argument; they don’t have to work in tandem. This paper seeks to decipher the effect of using the rhetorical strategy to address racial injustice, and diverse religious ideology. Martin Luther employs the use of pathos and logos to create such a strong emotional appeal. To some extent, all human beings are caught in the inescapable network of mutuality. Martin Luther contends that whatever affects one person directly affect another indirectly. Martin Luther King Jr. in a sense achieves a deep sense of pathos by appealing to the logos. The emotional stylistic appeals clearly put the issues on steroids by drawing from particular aspects that cut across geographical location. The racial injustice is a threat...

Words: 1921 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Theory of Rhetoric

...English 472 Spring 2007 Herrick Notes Herrick, James. A History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction. 3rd edition. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2005 Chapter Eight Enlightenment Rhetorics • late 17th – early 18th century known as the Age of Enlightenment • periods marks a transition in western thought when the questioning of the received truths of Christian tradition, the elevation of rationality over other sources of truth, looking for solutions to social problems by means of the scientific method, and perceiving the universe as governed by inviolable physical laws • 18th century marks a period in which rhetorical theory turned away from its traditional concern for the invention of arguments and toward aesthetic matters of style and good delivery • change influenced by Ramus and Descartes who moved argument and proof out of the domain of rhetoric and into the domains of logic, dialectic, and math • a rhetorical theory that distinguished the discovery of knowledge through reasoning from the communication of that knowledge • thus invention is subordinate to concerns about style, taste, delivery and the imagination • rhetoric again moved to the forefront of education but less concerned with inventing/producing public discourse and more concerned with consuming public discourse Vico on Rhetoric and Human Thought • Giambattista Vico 1668-1744 • Italian philosopher, Lawyer, historian, student of ancient Rome, rhetorician ...

Words: 1865 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Rhetoric Analysis

...Institution Date The aim of every advertisement is to reach out to as many people as possible and relay the intended information to them. The hallmark of its effectiveness is only measurable through determination of its levels of persuasion. It is not very easy to appeal to a given mass and have the ability to change their beliefs, behaviors, intentions, motivations and attitudes. To do so, there are a number of factors, that different and distinct, that must be brought together intricately to create a complex appeal mechanism. To achieve the intended purpose within the set limits, an advertisement or campaign must employ the different modes of persuasion that are ethical strategies used for rhetorical appeal. These strategies are categorized rhetoric devices that classify the appeal that an advertisement might have on the audience. They are; pathos, logos and ethos. Pathos is an appeal on the emotions of an audience. It is responsible for eliciting sympathy and empathy from the target audience. Logos is the logical appeal that an advertisement might have on the audience. It is the aspect that deals with facts and figures. Ethos is particularly concerned with the authority the proposers of a given campaign have on the given field. The qualifications that a creator or an advertiser may have with regard to the content of their advertisement will definitely influence the audience’s ability to relate with the advert. In 2007, a UK charitable organization that offers......

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Rhetoric

...Raksha Rao Professor James Wynn Rhetoric and Public Policy 2 April 2014 Rhetorical Analysis: Euthanasia Particular Analysis There are three key audiences of the text for William F. May's “Rising to the Occasion of Our Death.” The first audience, in this case, would be legislative organizations or lawmakers who have researched and studied similar cases regarding euthanasia. Since May was as an ethics professor at Southern Methodist University, his tone is decidedly intellectual. An uneducated individual would find it more difficult to read his essay; for example, in declarations such as “Advocates of active euthanasia appeal to the principle of patient autonomy,” May's syntax and tone is formal, informative, and utilizes heavy technical jargon (May 662). In other words, it is authoritative, and enables the audience to view him as a credible source due to his syntactical confidence. Other organizations, lobbyists, or lawmakers who are researching evidence on euthanasia would certainly benefit from reading his expert opinion on the matter. Moreover, his desire to develop a “judicious, regulated policy” is a certain acknowledgement that he is attempting to legally call for regulations on euthanasia (May 662). The second audience that May is appealing to are conservative Christians, who are distinctively pro-life. As his article was originally published in well-circulated The Christian Century magazine, addressing this audience exposes members of May's audience who......

Words: 3937 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

The Rhetoric of Cover Girl Advertisements

...Advertising seeks to obtain the greatest number of customers by spending the least amount of money. Therefore, advertisers must carefully consider their target audience and employ several rhetorical principles to convince their audience to buy a specific product. In January of 2009, Cover Girl released a new ad campaign featuring Ellen DeGeneres promoting a new anti-aging product. In the advertisements featuring Ellen, the advertisers at Cover Girl uses ethos, logos, and pathos in an attempt to convince women to buy their products. By identifying the ways in which Cover Girl’s new advertisements appeal to their audience, students of rhetoric can gain a more complete understanding of how advertisers employ rhetorical principles as tools of persuasion in order to motivate their audience to buy new products. Choosing Ellen DeGeneres as the new spokesperson for Cover Girl most overtly appeals to authority. Many women trust Ellen both because she maintains a level of respect both personally and professionally. On a personal level, Ellen presents herself as an average woman who happens to be funny. Cover Girl hopes that women will identify with Ellen because of her positive and prominent personal reputation. Furthermore, Ellen hosts a talk show that, among other things, establishes her as an honest and reliable source of information. Several American women watch Ellen’s talk show daily and trust her as an authoritative and reliable source of helpful information. For example,......

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Fallacy and Rhetoric

...Week Two Discussion Questions 1.Chapter 5 and 6 of critical thinking cover fallacies and rhetoric. What are two examples of persuasion that are not valid arguments according to the text? Why are these invalid arguments? Argument from Popularity is an example of an invalid argument. To to justify or defend an action or practice on the grounds that it is common or doing things because that's the way they've always been done are two types of arguments from popularity as stated in chapter 6. Just because most people believe something is a fact is not evidence that it is a fact. A peer pressure argument is another example of an invalid argument. Substantiating pride of membership in a group is exceedingly common. Nationalism is a powerful emotion that can lead to blindly endorsing a countries beliefs and practices. These are two examples of a peer pressure argument. A persons want to be excepted is not evidence that their beliefs are fact. 2.What are some methods you might use to determine the reliability of the data you gather? Why is it important to analyze your data to determine if it's reliable? A couple methods used to determine if your data is reliable. First compare your data to similar studies. Do not rely on just on source, but research multiple sources on the same topic. You can feel fairly confident that the data is complete and accurate if they agree with each other. Second research the authors of any written data your using as well as the...

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sylabus for Rhetoric

...NOTE: All matters associated with this course are subject to change at the instructor's discretion. Any and all changes will be communicated to students in writing. Course Description RHET 1302 will prepare you for college-level writing while helping you develop your critical thinking skills. Rhetoric is the study and practice of how people communicate messages, not only in writing and speech, but also through visual and digital mediums. In this class, you will develop skills to analyze the way rhetoric, in its various forms, addresses audiences. By paying attention to the strategies that good writers and speakers use to persuade their particular audiences, you will learn to reason better and to persuade others in your own writing, both through rhetorical appeals and through analysis of audience, purpose, and exigency that is at the heart of the study of rhetoric. For RHET 1302, you will read and reread texts and write multi-draft essays. Practically speaking, you will learn skills that you can use in your future course work regardless of your major. Student Learning Objectives • Students will be able to write in different ways for different audiences. • Students will be able to write effectively using appropriate organization, mechanics, and style. • Students will be able to construct effective written arguments. • Students will be able to gather, incorporate, and interpret source material in their writing. Required Texts Rosenwasser, David......

Words: 3351 - Pages: 14