Psychological Development Theories - Reflective Essay

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Vivalajeb
Words 1483
Pages 6
Why do our minds work the way that they do? Many theories have been developed in an attempt to answer this question. Many studies have also been conducted to investigate, prove and disprove these said theories. The information gained from these investigations into the inner workings of the human mind, have assisted in the construction of more effective methods for educating children and different methods for treating issues such as fears (Gonzalez-DeHass, 2012). In this essay, I will focus on two developmental theories that have proven to be significant to my life, namely, these are Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory (1928) and Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (1977). The former manifested in relation to my fear of spiders while the latter correlates to my humorous personality. Both of these theories will be discussed in further detail and applied to myself below.
The first developmental theory I will discuss is Ivan Pavlov’s Classical conditioning theory. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who created an artificial exterior stomach pouch for dogs which he used to conduct research on their digestive systems (Gonzalez-DeHass, 2012). Classical Conditioning Theory, or Pavlovian conditioning (1928), was an accidental discovery that Pavlov made in his observations while working with these dogs. He noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate in the presence of the lab technician who fed them even when there was no food present (McLeod, 2013). Further experimentation led to the definition of classical condition which “ involves learning to associate an unconditioned stimulus that already brings about a particular response with a new conditioned stimulus, so that the new stimulus brings about the same response.” (Gonzalez-DeHass, 2012).
So in what ways have I been classically conditioned? Well, when I was a child, I was bitten by a black widow spider…...

Similar Documents

Erik Erickson: Psychological Development Theory

...Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development Theory MGMT. 8010 – Management in Human and Societal Development Winter Quarter, 2011 Dr. Kenneth C. Sherman, Professor Everett Cordy, everett.cordy@waldenu.edu Student ID Number: A00186883 Walden University December 9, 2011 Abstract In this exercise, I explore the Psychosocial Development Theory of Erik Erikson. An explanation is given as to why this particular theory was selected for focus, and why Erickson appeals to me, both personally and professionally. Lastly, five (5) scholarly resources (in APA format), that I will consult as I begin to explore Erickson, are appended. Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development Theory I chose Erik Erikson as the theorist to study. I chose Erik Erikson because his psychosocial development theory is applicable to a wide-range of management situations where understanding how personality and behavior are developed and manifested is valued. I am interested to find out if Erikson’s development model can be applied in my research fields of interests of Employment Law and Conflict Resolution Management. Please find attached hereto a list of five (5) scholarly sources that I will consult as I begin to explore Erik Erikson. References Cornett, C. (2000). Ideas and identities: The life and work of Erik Erikson/Identities architect: A biography of Erik H. Erikson, Clinical...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Psychological Theories

...Psychological Theories 1. The Self-fulfilling theory The self-fulfilling theory deals with a prediction that directly or indirectly causes it to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. In other words, it is based on the believe will come true because you will subconsciously and consciously act in ways that cause the event to happen. Self fulfilling theory was developed by Robert K. Merton, an American sociologist. It seeks to explain how a belief or expectation, whether true or not, affects the outcome of a situation or the behavior of a person or group. According to this theory, we form certain expectations of people or events and either consciously or unconsciously convey those expectations with various cues and signs, either in the way we talk or behave, that led to people adjusting their behavior to match those expectations. The result is that the original expectation becomes true (Tim, 2010). The self-fulfilling prophecy is, in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior which makes the original false conception come 'true'. This specious validity of the self-fulfilling prophecy perpetuates a reign of error. For the prophet will cite the actual course of events as proof that he was right from the very beginning.[1] In other words, a prophecy, strongly held belief, or a delusion, declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people,......

Words: 3727 - Pages: 15

Reflective Essay

...POLS 432 Dr. Robert Wood Xu Zhao 0886325 Reflective Essay During 16 weeks, I had a lot of fun in this POLS 432 class. I chose this course because it was major required. As an international student, I felt a little scared at the beginning of the semester since I know nothing about the American policy and I don’t have any friends in this class. It took me a while to adapt into this class style. First, we started from Shambaugh/Weinstein book, and the West Wing episodes. Shambaugh/Weinstein book is about introduction of the Art of policymaking process. From the web book description, it says Author Paul J. Weinstein Jr., who was Chief of Staff of the White House Domestic Policy Council during Clinton's administration; he brought a unique and valuable insider's view to the book. This book also provides some real life examples that helped me a lot in reading some of the concepts. For example, I had no idea of how to write a memo when Dr. Robert Wood introduced us different types of memos. After class, I went back home and read the format of a memo and examples related to that memo, I got the idea about what is a memo look like and how to write it. Indeed, I think the time I get to know about what was going on and what this course is about is right before spring break. Dr. Robert Wood was very thankful. The midterm study guide he provided for us helped me a lot about knowing the course materials, especially the White House staff members. I have learned a lot while I......

Words: 1058 - Pages: 5

Reflective Essay

...REFLECTIVE ESSAY FOR MARKETING, INNOVATION AND DESIGN Reflective writing is an intricate process of inscription, what one learned from a particular area and how it would be useful in the future. In my reflection I would construct an assertive image of what exactly happened during the marketing module. Looking at the outcome of my reasons to pursue my MBA, my strengths, and the areas I want to improve on. The marketing, development and Innovations module has the learning and developing goals for me as I see a clear need to reintegrate into the learning environment, since I do not have a first degree, I was exempted because of my eight years of management experience. Being part of a working world and doing a MBA means that I would be faced with many challenges, personally, professionally and educationally. However, I embraced the challenge even at times it was difficult to juggle my commitments. Initially my thoughts were that marketing module was simply about sales, however, it was mainly about Innovation and design. From the first lecture, the main thing that attracted me towards marketing was the efficient teaching style of the Lecturer, practically the way of explanation, teaching methods and the learning tools that the lecturer used which were mainly power point slides, which was then emailed to the class. The Lecturer motivated and encouraged me, this factor has positively contributed to the amount of interest I formed towards the subject. The marketing module......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Reflective Essay

...REFLECTIVE THINKING ESSAY TWO This week I am going to focus on two things, the first being the most significant thing I learned last week. I learned last week that the leadership style that I seem to fall into is the Management by Exception style. The reason I use this style is due to the nature of the activity of my shop which tends to be idle until we get jobs specific to Aero Repair. I tend to stay in the MBE-Passive style while the shop is idle and move into the MBE-Active as the work arises. I discovered that as the shop is idle it is easy to fall into this style of MBE-Passive and kind of take a back seat and deal with things as they come up. When the shop gets work it tends to be time sensitive and require strong leadership, this is when I tend to adopt the MBE-Active style. The second thing I would like to cover this week is, if I could change one thing about my leadership, it would be to try and develop myself more into a Transformational leader. I feel that by developing myself more in this leadership style, it would have a direct impact on my personal development as a supervisor, and have a positive impact on my subordinates. By capitalizing on the idle time my shop has between major jobs, I could work on developing the four I’s within this leadership style. The key to this development would be to take a more active role in developing my subordinates as leaders, conducting training sessions, and working on my own personal technical growth. By being proactive......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Reflective Essay

...Reflective Essay Name Institution Date Having bestowed with the responsibility of Accountancy managerial in Southwest airlines, I was tasked with overlooking after all accounting operations in the organization. As an astute manager, I had to observe the contributions of the non–managerial employees as an important contribution that can facilitate the success of the organization. Thus, I took the necessary steps and measures to recognize and consider the efforts of all employees in the organization. This is one of the philosophies that drove me as an accountancy manager in the Southwest Airlines. My philosophy of management was partly derived from the Bolman and Deal philosophy where Harris had quoted a question on how much a manager shows the concern and sensitivity to people. He argues that the amount of consideration and sensitivity that he can show to his/her employees are directly proportional to the few grievances, less absenteeism and lower turnover in the organization ( Bolman & Deal, 2008). Organizational conflicts in the organization are inevitable and as a manager, I would address the competing interest to mitigate the destructiveness caused by the conflicts in the organization. In my managerial style, I try to build attentiveness in building and developing ties with both friend s and allies in order to ease conflict resolutions whenever it arises ( Bolman & Deal, 2008). The flow of communication is what I have given due attention as a manager. Not......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Reflective Essay

...REFLECTIVE ESSAY #1 1. I would be described as a very relaxed leader; someone who likes to have fun and enjoys leisure time. Some will describe me as a team player and compassionate whereas some will say I can be the life of the party. However, when mission is a priority, I expect for my subordinates to perform the task and produce results in a timely manner. 2. At times I can be difficult but only when challenged. For example, I tend to think more of the morale benefits as opposed to what benefits the mission. Though I can be outspoken and loyal, I can also be the worst follower. Learning the traits of an effective follower will help me portray great leadership skills thus perform my job well along with my subordinates and taking pride in our expertise. 3. I use a combination of country club to authoritarian leadership style. At times I will tell my troops to complete a task, no questions asked. Other times I will be in a lassie faire attitude and tell them to do whatever they want. Because of the inconsistencies of my leadership style, my troops are left confused and not knowing what to do. Therefore, I feel my leadership style is ineffective. It is my goal as an NCO to role model a great leader and NCOA has been a beneficial part of my improvement. 4. According to the classroom exercise, I am definitely an orange type of temperament. I don’t always set the right example because of my outspoken attitude towards leadership. My theory is to work hard......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Reflective Essay

...Reflective Essay on Managing Compex Situations Name Course Details Professor’s Name University Affiliation City and State Date Reflective essay on Managing Complex Situations Introduction As a health care assistant working with the district of nurses, I have gone through some of the most complex situations that often leave me with complex decisions. Ideally, some of these situations have greatly impacted on my understanding of various patients who I handle on my day-to-day activities in the health care sector. While working with District Nurses who are involved with visiting patients in various homes in the community, I encountered patients with various psychological and physiological disorders. Prudently, it is worthwhile to note that the patients who we visited had various health problems that ranged from individuals who were housebound and could not travel to seek medical attention. Besides, some of the patients had nursing needs such as leg ulcer dressing, wound dressing, pressure ulcer dressings, and catheter insertion as well as its removal. Description One of the most complex situations that I experienced was trying to take blood from an elderly patient with dementia. Since the patient was at her residential home and had never seen me before, she was not aware of my main purpose for visiting. Moreover, I had no prior knowledge of her state with dementia. At the time of my arrival, the patient was comfortably sitting in her chair while cradling her...

Words: 2876 - Pages: 12

Reflective Essay

...Reflective Essay I actually remember doing something similar to this my junior year in high school, the assignment was entitled “Me as a Writer.” How far have I truly come as a writer since then? Focusing on what this class has taught me, I can already say without any doubt that my writing has improved compared to what it was my first day of college. There were so many aspects of this class that positively influenced me as a writer. To name just a few: the discussion board, the assigned readings, and you as the instructor. The discussion board made me more open to criticism, it taught me that in order to become a good writer you must first learn to be a good communicator. You have to be able to communicate your ideas with others and listen to the ideas of others. It’s a sort of give and take process. Before, I was more closed minded on other people’s input on my work, I thought I could do just fine by myself for the most part. Now, I’m willing to listen to criticism and I understand how to use that criticism in order to better my writings. The readings were also super beneficial to my development as a writer. I learned so much about how to be an effective writer. I learned how to use certain techniques to improve the quality of my work. The readings allowed me to take a step back and see the art of writing as a whole, and then allowed me to focus in on specific characteristics of writing. For example, Kleine’s article taught me that I needed to become a more balanced......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Reflective Essay

...Reflective Essay Before I returned to school, after taking an almost 15 year hiatus, I had been told by several people that psychology was boring. I found the opposite to be quite true. Quite a few questions that I have had over the past decade were answered as well as ones that I never realized I wanted to learn the answers to. I learned a lot of new things and I thoroughly enjoyed it. While discussing ‘Biology of Mind’, I found that the brain structure had me on the edge of my seat. While I enjoy learning how and why things work the way they do, I feel that the brain caught my attention. A few weeks prior to the spring semester beginning, my uncle had a severe brain injury due to a tree falling on him. After I was told about his new behavior, I was at an advantage as to understand why there was such a drastic change. I was able to understand that his limbic system was affected. He was very aggressive and angry toward the staff at the hospital which was caused from the damage to his amygdala. He also displayed damage to each brain hemisphere, some symptoms were more severe than others. The damage to his frontal lobe caused him to try to leave the hospital every chance he could, not able to resist the urge to stay. Within approximately two weeks after the accident he struggled to recognize family and friends caused from damage to his occipital lobe. He also suffered from short-term memory loss which is an effect of damage to his parietal lobe....

Words: 1829 - Pages: 8

Psychological Theories

...2014 Psychology Theories Did you know there are over 7 different psychology theories? Psychology is studied differently by many different psychologists, and psychiatrists. Each theory is based around different mental processes, and body systems. The definition of psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context. Psychology is a very broad topic with many different beliefs and theories. Cognitive Psychology is a rather young theory of psychology. It studies mental processes including how people think perceive, remember, and learn. One of the main psychologists who contributed to this theory goes by the name of Wilhelm Wundt. Dr. Wundt is a german physician who is most praised for founding Structuralism which is basically a theory of consciousness. When we think about through processes we think about how we interpret information, and how we perceive it. Another theory of psychology, which is one of the most popular and well know theory, is the Psychoanalytic Theory which is connected to a very well know psychologist who goes by the name of Sigmund Freud. The Psychoanalytic approach focuses on the unconscious mind. The un conscious is the portion of the mind of which a person is not aware. This portion houses many memories that the brain represses, such as any type of childhood trauma or thoughts that would be considered frowned upon. One other main topic of the Psychoanalytic theory is what is......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Psychological Theory

...In learning theory, self development, adaptation and changes, occur through interplay of personal, behavioural, and environmental influences. As the triadic models suggested, people are producer of their own environment, not just products of it. Behavioural elicits social interaction which in turn can alter the course of behaviour. The environment which includes social interactions can alter personal characteristic. Behavioural explanations include classical, operant and vicarious conditioning. Classical conditioning may explain the association of the addictive behaviour with pleasure and excitement and so accounts for the initiation of the addictive behaviour. Operant conditioning explains behaviour in terms of rewards and punishments, and partial reinforcement can be a powerful factor in the maintenance of addictions. The social learning theory helps to explain why people start to gamble. Gambling can be initiate when an individual watches someone else gambling and winning, observing others getting rewarded for their behaviour. The expectation of winning leads a person to make the first bet, then the excitement become associated with betting and reinforces that behaviour. Behaviours with positive reinforcement are likely to be repeated. Operant conditioning proposes that any behaviour that produces a consequence that the individual finds rewarding, then becomes more frequent. Griffiths argues that gamblers playing slot machine may become addicted because of......

Words: 269 - Pages: 2

Psychological Theories

...Psychological Theory of Development: Erik Erikson 1. Erik Erikson was the first psychologist to do what? Ans1. Erik Erikson was the first psychologist to describe predictable stages of human development from childhood through adulthood. In his Theory of Psychosocial Development, he depicted a series of eight stages in which an individual's identity emerges and matures. 2. How many stages are in Erikson's theory? Ans2. In Erik Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development, he depicted a series of 8 stages in which an individual's identity emerges and matures. 3. Why are Erikson's psychosocial stages referred to as a "crisis"? Ans3. Erikson's psychosocial stages are referred to as a "crisis" because each stage presents a dilemma/crisis, in which the person is challenged to develop by new situation and circumstances in life. The individual needs to resolve the crisis. • When individuals resolve a crisis they developan ability which will help them with the challenge in the next stage. 4. What generally happens in each psychosocial stage? Ans4. Each stage presents a dilemma in which a person is challenged by new situations and circumstances in life. People are pushed through the stages by their biological clock and by the social clock of the society in which they live. The progress of the psychological clock influences the development of an identity. By resolving each dilemma successfully, the individual acquires basic strength needed to meet the challenges for the next......

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9

Psychological Theories

...Psychology Theories Much of what we know about human thought and behavior has emerged thanks to various psychology theories. For example, behavioral theories demonstrated how conditioning can be used to learn new information and behaviors. Psychology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human thought and behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of psychology's past, present and future. Behavioral Theories Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors. * What is Behaviorism? * Classical Conditioning * How Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning * Principles of Classical Conditioning * Operant Conditioning * Schedules of Reinforcement * What is Behavior Analysis? * Stages of Change * Conditioned Taste Aversions Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation,......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Reflective Essay

...ESSAY “Biological theories of major personality traits have been highly speculative with at least as much disconfirming evidence as confirming” The first who attempt to describe personality traits was the ancient Greek philosopher- Aristotle, he identified three personality traits such as, modesty, bravery and vanity. He was followed by Hippocrates who provided the idea that physical illness it is caused by the balance of bodily fluids; such as blood, black bile, phlegm and yellow bile. He argued that if a person had an excess of black bile than that person would have a melancholic temperament; underlined by the feeling of depressed mood. Those with phlegmatic temperament were described by being very calm and those with sanguine temperament were confident ant optimistic. Another great philosopher who wrote about personality traits was the German Immanuel Kant, who argued the fact that there are four types of personality and those personality traits were underlined by how active the person was and his individual's feelings. These philosophers were focusing about types of personality and not the personality traits. Trait theorists are aiming to find the basic structure of personality and to produce reliable ways of measuring personality differences. Gordon Alport identified 18000 words of which 4500 described personality traits. Alport conceptualised human nature as normally being rational creative, active and......

Words: 1537 - Pages: 7