Piaget Theory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Sandra Davis
PSY 390
May 21, 2012
Brian Newbury

Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Classical conditioning, synonymous with Pavlovian and respondent conditioning, is one of two types of learning (the other type of learning is operant conditioning) that provide a systematic approach to understanding human and nonhuman behavior and the potentiality of changing behavior. Learning significantly affects our way of living, functioning, and survival. Learning's predictability qualities assist in directing behavior. Kowalski & Westen (2009) affirm, "Learning is essentially about prediction-predicting the future from past experience and using these predictions to guide behavior" (p. 156). The most rudimental aspect of the theory of classical conditioning transcribes to the conditioning of a neutral stimulus to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response brought about by the unconditioned stimulus.
Theory of Classical Conditioning
The classical conditioning procedure involves introducing a neutral stimulus that in due course becomes a conditioned stimulus; this systematic approach to conditioning enlists a formerly neutral stimulus to elicit a response after pairing with a stimulus that already automatically elicits that same response. In other words, an unconditioned reflex (response) occurs naturally, without prior learning; salivation, the unconditioned response (UR) occurs at the sight of food, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Unconditioned stimulus (US) produces an unconditioned response (UR), a response that does not require learning. In Pavlov's dog experiments, immediately prior to presenting the US (the food), Pavlov introduced a neutral stimulus (a ringing bell), which normally does not elicit a response (salivation). After pairing the two…...

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...Introduction Over the years there have been a countless number of theorists developing their own models on Cognitive Development, with the two most recognised being the theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. Although it is difficult to present the title of ‘superior theory’ to either one of these theorists, the merging of certain aspects of each scheme provides teachers with an ability to devise effective learning strategies that cater for individual students. As a direct result of these Piagetian and Vygotskian concepts, students possess the ability to develop and learn at a rate more specified to their learning ability. Review of Literature Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, the assimilation-accommodation model, is composed of four stages, sensorimotor (0 - 2 years), preoperational (2 – 7 years), concrete operational (7 – 11 years) and formal operational (11 – adult). Candida Peterson (2004) claims that within Piaget’s theory, each stage must be sufficiently achieved by the individual in order to advance to the next stage, although there is debate about whether we all do reach the final stage. Piaget believes that the most significant aspect of a child's cognitive development is the interaction between peers, rather than elders, the outside environment, as illustrated by Youniss (1982). Piaget recognised that the rate of cognitive development is determined by four factors, biological maturation, activity, social interaction and equilibration, as......

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