Phonics: Restoration of a Valid Instructive Technique

In: English and Literature

Submitted By utahgizmo
Words 577
Pages 3
Phonics:
Restoration of a Valid Instructive Technique Millions of people in the United States suffer in silence to the inability to read. Due to the illiteracy rates today not only do these individuals suffer, but the economy of the country does too. Since the omission of the use of phonics, in exchange for a whole word method of learning, illiteracy rates have risen in high numbers. Restoring the use of phonics will improve the literacy rates in many schools. Phonics is simply the system of relationships between letters and sounds in a language. Learning phonics will help students learn to read and spell. Written language can be compared to a code, so knowing the sounds of letters and letter combinations will help students decode words as they read. Knowing phonics will also help students know which letters to use as they write words. In 1930, John Dewey and Arthur Gates moved society away from the use of phonics when they invented a new method to teach reading called the whole word method. Since the implementation of this method the United States dropped from number one in literacy ratings to nearly last in just a few short years. According to a recent report of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), there are over 33 million K-12 students reading at least two grades below level-over two thirds of all K-12 students (Levine, 2003). Illiteracy in schools leads to many students giving up and dropping out. With these drop outs, many aspects of society are penalized. Unemployment rates skyrocket, government assistance needs rise at an alarming rate, and criminal activities flourish. The development of the No Child Left Behind program has aided in raising funds for early learning development, but does not aid the older students already affected by illiteracy. “The Gates Foundation has taken a serious position on the adolescent education…...

Similar Documents

Techniques

...Natalie Reynolds English 1102 section 97 Mandi Sena January 22, 2014 Techniques Gothic Literature, sometimes referred to as Gothic horror, is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. The Gothic literature feel is achieved through manipulating literature elements to portray the story or poem how the writer/speaker wants. There are ten main elements that can be manipulated; the setting, the environment, atmosphere, protagonists, emotions, damsels in distress, foreboding, the supernatural, decay of characters, and finally, drama. When writing gothic literature one must use their personal techniques in manipulating the elements to achieve the gothic qualities desired; William Faulkner, Edgar Allan Poe, and Sylvia Plath all use different techniques in their writing and this is what gives each of their pieces of literature a different feel. For example in William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily he uses techniques unique to himself. Such as, writing the story in an alternating kind of way to help the readers to carry the action forward in their own minds by suggesting doubt in the story line, this allows us to be surprised at the end when we find out what really happens. This back and forth style of writing is prominent throughout the whole story, but the biggest example is that Emily starts out dead and then the writer proceeds to continue the rest of the story from back when she was alive. His story also has a creepy setting where anything......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Restoration Hardware Product

...Product Over the last decade, Restoration Hardware has endured many challenges to be where they currently stand in the home furnishings industry. After facing bankruptcy in 2001, Gary Friedman, former Williams-Sonoma Inc. executive, was brought on to the Restoration Hardware team in hopes of revamping the company (Berfield, 2014). In doing so, Restoration Hardware found it self with a new overall vision, especially for their products. This luxury brand offers furnishings such as furniture, bath ware, baby and child products, and everything in between (Restorationhardware.com, 2014). Since Restoration Hardware’s rebirth, a main focus was to change the perception of their products. One way to do this was to reproduce antique artisan designs with high quality materials. Friedman traveled with a team to many parts of the world to gain knowledge and inspiration for the reproductions, resulting in beautifully crafted and aesthetically pleasing contemporary designs (Marks, 2009). Restoration Hardware’s products may be high in price, but with high price comes high value. The target market is not only paying for high quality pieces of furniture or linens. Given that most of the products are based on vintage items, a sense of nostalgia may be brought on to the consumers by resembling home furnishing that were present in their households as children. Aside from that, the products bring a particular ambiance into the home that can give an impression of high class and wealth to......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Restoration

...Evaluation of the Ecological Restoration Projects at The University of California, Santa Barbara’s Lagoon Authors: Matthew Edmiston Cat Bradley Chris Anderson Abstract: The University of California, Santa Barbara’s lagoon has undergone several ecological restoration projects over the past two decades. Some efforts have proven to be beneficial, while others still need improvement. This paper addresses and evaluates five different locations around the lagoon, the various restoration projects at the sites, and what more could be done at each habitat in order to assess the ecological restoration efforts in the UCSB Campus Lagoon area. The sites addressed are the San Nicolas degraded wetlands, Campus Point, the coastal sage scrub, Manzanita Village and the bioswales. Overall, each of the sites have finished going through extensive  restoration, with techniques such as solarization and re-introduction of native species. Most of the ecosystems are now returned to their pre-disturbed state, but continued efforts are needed to preserve the locations. 1.0 Introduction: The term “ecological restoration” is generally defined as “the return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance” (NRC Report, 1992). Although this term is often oversimplified, it includes a complex web of cultural, social and political aspects as well as environmental aspects. Due to its complexity, and in many cases, the many competing jurisdictions involved, it is......

Words: 3573 - Pages: 15

Some Men Are Afraid of Hair Restoration

...can't help but wish he had more hair. You've seen people on TV and on the Internet grow back their hair using the latest trends in hair restoration. The problem is you don't know how to convince your husband that he doesn't look good with a shaved head. No matter what his objection is, there is a way to talk to him that will get your point across. "But I don't want to hurt his feelings..." Men just don't admit it, but they also care about how they look. They also want to appear young, handsome, and oozing with sex appeal, especially to their wives. But don't expect them to say it. Try to explore his feelings about his hair loss, but do it in the right setting. For example, ask him to accompany you to the salon for hair extensions or keratin hair therapy. While awaiting your hair treatment, browse hair restoration ads and brochures together. In a casual tone, find the perfect timing to say, "Honey, don't you miss having hair?" "But he thinks it's fake and expensive..." Perhaps he has seen people who have previously undergone hair transplants with less than satisfying results. Old techniques in hair transplantation often resulted in transplants that were pluggy and resembled doll hair, drawing more attention than the balding scalp. Using the latest technique in hair transplantation called follicular unit grafting, a hair restoration surgeon with sufficient experience and artistry can create virtually undetectable hair transplants for your husband. This also means he......

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

Valid Visa

...application for a protection visa within the meaning of s45(2)(b) of the Act. That way included a requirement that the form prescribed in the Schedule be completed in accordance with the directions contained in the prescribed visa application form. It is clear, indeed common ground, that this was not done in the present case. 13 Section 46 sets out the criteria for a valid visa application. Relevantly, it provides as follows: "(1) Subject to subsection (2), an application for a visa is valid if, and only if: (a) ... (b) it is made in the way required by subsection 45(2), including any way required by subsection 45(3)." Subsection 45(3) is not relevant to the present case. 14 Section 47 deals with consideration of a visa application. Subsection (1) imposes on the Minister a duty "to consider a valid application for a visa" and subs (2) makes clear that duty continues until one of various events occurs. Subsection (3) provides: "To avoid doubt, the Minister is not to consider an application that is not a valid application." Subsection (4) reads: "To avoid doubt, a decision by the Minister that an application is not valid and cannot be considered is not a decision to refuse to grant the visa." did not 15 It is conceded by counsel for the Minister in the present case that Mr Samuel make an application "in the way required" by s45(2) of the Act, unless it is correct to say that s25C of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 applies to the case. That section provides as follows: "Where......

Words: 3803 - Pages: 16

Restoration

...a building is considered. (Text taken from PPG15). The Heritage Works and Liverpool City Councils future use feasibility studies (Circa 2008) were marketed locally; the study established a long term use for the Wellington Rooms, with development proposals to refurbish the building into the home of the North West National Dance Centre. Liverpool City Council is reported to be entering into negotiations to compulsorily purchase the buildings lease. 8.0 Appraisal of Repairs BS 7913: 1998 Guide to Principles of Conservation of Historic Buildings advises; 7.1.2 Minimum intervention, a conservative approach of minimal intervention and disturbance to the fabric of an historic building in which there is a presumption against restoration is fundamental to good conservation. The stock of historic buildings is finite and every loss significant. The destruction, alteration or renewal of parts of a building can be similarly damaging and should always be carefully considered and properly justified. It is important to understand and work with the fabric of a building, not against it, and to be flexible and imaginative. The principle of minimum intervention in conservation is well established. Ideally a building should be used, kept in good order and maintained on a regular basis. If a building can no longer be used for its present or former purpose, more substantial alterations can become necessary, amounting to a conversion of the building from one use to another.......

Words: 3390 - Pages: 14

Phonemic Awareness vs. Phonics

...Understanding Phonemic Awareness and Phonics for K-3 Instruction Grand Canyon University: RDG 512 August 27, 2014 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of how phonemic awareness and phonics impacts reading and writing for beginning readers. A definition of both phonemic awareness and phonics will be given as well as strategies to teach both. Developmental stages, appropriate ages for teaching these skills and strategies, and the purpose of both will be explained. Different assessment options will also be discussed. Introduction Children begin learning sounds and words from the time they are born. They are even exposed to hearing their mother’s voice while still in the womb. It is important that children are exposed to letters and words at an early age as well as have books read to them. These are factors in learning how to read. Two of the most important elements that emerging readers need to know in order to successfully read are phonemic awareness and phonics. These two concepts are different, but must work as a team for one to read. In the beginning grades, teachers must concentrate greatly on both of these concepts to make sure that the students have the foundation that is needed in order to begin reading. In this paper, definitions of both phonemic awareness and phonics will be shared along with strategies that can be explicitly taught to assist in learning how to read. The sequence of developmental stages, the......

Words: 1909 - Pages: 8

Valid Contract

...Valid Contract 1. Offer and Acceptance. In order to create a valid contract, there must be a 'lawful offer' by one party and 'lawful acceptance' of the same by the other party. 2. Intention to Create Legal Relationship. In case, there is no such intention on the part of parties, there is no contract. Agreements of social or domestic nature do not contemplate legal relations. 3. Lawful Consideration:Consideration has been defined in various ways. According to Blackstone,"Consideration is recompense given by the party contracting to another." In other words of Pollock, "Consideration is the price for which the promise of the another is brought."consideration is known as quid pro-quo or something in return. 4. Capacity of parties.The parties to an agreement must be competent t contract. If either of the parties does not have the capacity to contract, the contract is not valid.According the following persons are incompetent to contract. 5.Free Consent.'Consent' means the parties must have agreed upon the same thing in the same sense. (1) Coercion, (2) Undue influence (3) Fraud (4) Mis-representation (5) Mistake. An agreement should be made by the free consent of the parties. 6.Lawful Object .The object of an agreement must be valid. Object has nothing to do with consideration. It means the purpose or design of the contract. 7.Possibility of Performance. If the act is impossible in itself, physically or legally, if cannot be enforced at law. ...

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Hair Restoration and Cranial Prosthesis

...According to the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery, an estimated 66.8% of males and 33.2% of females in the United States had a nonsurgical hair restoration process in 2012. [1] Hair replacement is a reliable option for individuals who experience hair loss due to heredity and medical related issues. Individuals needing hair replacement options have the option of surgical and non surgical. Surgical is considered as hair replacement which removes small pieces of the scalp that contain hair follicles and relocates them to an area on the head that is losing hair. The American Hair Loss Council describes non surgical hair replacement options as hair additions or hair prosthetics. [2] Examples of hair prosthetics include hair extensions, hair pieces, partial hair prosthesis, and toupees. These particular hair pieces will contain human hair, synthetic hair, or a combination of both. Hair loss comes in two major forms; heredity and medically. Medically, two common hair loss forms come from chemotherapy and alopecia areata. Chemotherapy is the use of medicines or drugs to treat a disease, such as cancer. Cancer cells tend to grow fast, and chemo drugs kill fast growing cells. Although these drugs travel throughout the body they can affect normal healthy cells that are fast growing too. The normal cells most likely to be damaged by chemo are hair follicles. Hair loss during chemo is a form of alopecia which causes thinning of hair and/or losing hair on all......

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Valid Contract

...Course: Name Valid Contract Yours Name Professor’s Name [optional] University Elements for a Valid Contract to exist A valid contract does not need to be legally valid, it can be written in simple English and fulfill the needs of all the parties involved in that contract. Although, a contract may not be legal but it should be a written contract so that future issues can be settled on the basis of the written agreement signed by the parties (Rousseau, 1993). For a contract to be legally valid, it is necessary that all the parties that are in contract must be in agreement, i.e. one of the parties should offer and the other should accept the offer. Secondly, there must be exchange of some value, like, goods and services, cash or something else, or a promise that such exchange will occur between the parties (Rousseau, 1993). The following are the elements of a valid contract: Offer and Acceptance: There must be an agreement between the parties involved in the contract. As a basic rule for a contract, one party should make offer and another should accept the offer to make the offer valid. This can be done both written or orally (Rousseau, 1993). Define time for acceptance: The offer must be made with a valid deadline and there must be a time limit within which the offer should be accepted. Offers with no deadline may lead to uncertainty as sometimes the party who offered may like to withdraw the offer or the party showing acceptance may delay a lot. Give the......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Techniques

...------------------------------------------------- Techniques and terms[edit] All social engineering techniques are based on specific attributes of human decision-making known as cognitive biases.[3] These biases, sometimes called "bugs in the human hardware," are exploited in various combinations to create attack techniques, some of which are listed here: Pretexting[edit] Pretexting (adj. pretextual), also known in the UK as blagging or bohoing, is the act of creating and using an invented scenario (the pretext) to engage a targeted victim in a manner that increases the chance the victim will divulge information or perform actions that would be unlikely in ordinary circumstances.[4] An elaborate lie, it most often involves some prior research or setup and the use of this information for impersonation (e.g., date of birth, Social Security number, last bill amount) to establish legitimacy in the mind of the target.[5] This technique can be used to fool a business into disclosing customer information as well as by private investigators to obtain telephone records, utility records, banking records and other information directly from company service representatives. The information can then be used to establish even greater legitimacy under tougher questioning with a manager, e.g., to make account changes, get specific balances, etc. Pretexting can also be used to impersonate co-workers, police, bank, tax authorities, clergy, insurance investigators — or any other individual...

Words: 9621 - Pages: 39

General Aviation Hangar Restoration

...General Aviation Hangar Restoration Read the following case to answer the following questions. 1. Describe the nature of the project, and its key objectives. 2. Define “Dummy Activities” and describe their role in this project. 3. Describe the key problem(s) in this project and the strategies used to address these problems. Introduction This case example, although for a very small project, illustrates some interesting features of planning using critical path analysis. although there are only 17 activities, the precedence logic is a little complex to draw clearly owing to the number of crossed links, and we show how this difficulty is easily overcome by inserting dummy activities at three of the crossover points. Our case example demonstrates the application of pert (program evaluation and review technique), in which the estimated duration for each activity can be subjected to a probabilistic study in an attempt to forecast the most likely completion time for the entire project. Finally, this case will demonstrate how a project manager need not accept the results of time analysis without question, but can plan to apply extra effort to expedite critical activities (usually for additional cost) to bring the planned project completion date forward. Project Background CEN-CONSTRUCT is a medium-sized business located in Sydney, Australia that is owned and operated by a family. It is principally a consulting company that specializes in aviation civil engineering...

Words: 1531 - Pages: 7

Is Wikipedia a Credible and Valid Source

...Is Wikipedia a Credible and Valid Source of Information? Management 521 July 25, 2011 Is Wikipedia a Credible and Valid Source of Information? Abstract Team A debated on whether Wikipedia is a credible and valid source of information. The team was divided into two groups, one side for and one side against. Among the five team members only one (the author) sided for Wikipedia as a credible and valid source. The debate lasted for seven days. Great points were raised by each team members to prove what they sided for. Is Wikipedia a credible and valid source of information? Wikipedia is an online source of information; it is the counterpart of Britannica in the modern computer world. “Wikipedia is about as good a source of accurate information as Britannica, the venerable standard-bearer of facts about the world around us,” according to the study: Wikipedia as accurate as Britannica by Daniel Terdiman. The modern computer world brought major changes around us; it introduced a modern way of doing research through the evolution of Wikipedia. “If we value the pursuit of knowledge, we must be free to follow wherever that search may lead us. The free mind is not a barking dog, to be tethered on a ten-foot chain” (Stevenson Jr., 1900-1965). “Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, but it is not helpful in many ways. It is uncomfortable to use as source of information for both academic and professional writing because of the fact that anybody with access to the internet...

Words: 1083 - Pages: 5

Valid Argument

...Sometimes an argument will not follow the order described above. For instance, the conclusions might be stated first, and the premises stated afterwards in support of the conclusion. This is perfectly valid, if sometimes a little confusing. Arguments are harder to recognize than premises or conclusions. Many people shower their writing with assertions without ever producing anything which one might reasonably describe as an argument. Some statements look like arguments, but are not. For example: "If the Bible is accurate, Jesus must either have been insane, an evil liar, or the Son of God." The above is not an argument, it is a conditional statement. It does not assert the premises which are necessary to support what appears to be its conclusion. (Even if we add the assertions, it still suffers from a number of other logical flaws -- see the section on this argument in "Alt.Atheism Frequently Asked Questions".) Another example: "God created you; therefore do your duty to God." The phrase "do your duty to God" is neither true nor false. Therefore it is not a proposition, and the sentence is not an argument. Causality is important. Suppose we are trying to argue that there is something wrong with the engine of a car. Consider two statements of the form "A because B". The first statement: "My car will not start because there is something wrong with the engine." The statement is not an argument for there being something wrong with the engine; it is an......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Restoration of Everglades

...Restoration of the Everglades Everglades or, ‘the river of grasses’, are a vast expanse of freshwater marshes which extends from Lake Okeechobee South to the tip of Florida. There are various forms of habitat that exist on the marshland-open water sloughs, open water sloughs, cypress swamps, hard wood hammocks, mangrove swamps and pinelands. It is also home to many species such as the black bears, panthers, alligators some of which are on the verge of extinction (Ichthyology, n.d). The flora and fauna surrounding the Everglades with its unique ‘sheet flow of water’, had made the place one of the hottest tourist spots. The scenario started changing in the late 1980’s with the beginning of developments like creation of agricultural farms for growing sugarcane and vegetables, building up of new canals and levees for protecting the farms and the cities from floods and increase in the infrastructure in the east of the everglades. Some parts of the marshland started facing drought and others flood. Earlier it used to cover an area of 10,360 kms but today it has been reduced to half its size. The primary reason for this condition was the pollution caused by companies like Big sugar, construction companies and various other factors (Marjory Stoneman Doughlas, 1969). The Big sugars comprise of a group of sugarcane growers mainly U.S sugars and are primarily responsible for destroying the Everglades. Farmers of these agricultural farms use high content phosphorus......

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7