Pharmacology of Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia

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Submitted By poch
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Atenolol is a Beta adrenoceptor Antagonist which is more efficient in Blocking Beta 1 receptors. It is one of the most used drugs for treating hypertension since it is a cardioselective drug. It lowers the blood pressure and the heart rate and may be safe for asthmatics. The main indication is for angina pectoris, hypertension and arrhythmias. Its main action is to prevent sympathetic vasoconstriction and to reduce prostatic smooth muscle tone. One of the main problem with taking atenolol is that a daily dose is not sufficient and the behavior of the patient towards taking the drug continuously is dependent on this.
Doxazosin is an Alpha 1 Blocker. It selectively blocks alpha 1 receptors in arterioles and venules. It dilates both resistance and capacitance vessels which result in a reduction of arterial pressure. It produces less reflex tachycardia when lowering blood pressure. Retention of salt and water occurs with the intake of these drugs, so a diuretic must be taken in order to counteract these effects. Thiazide diuretics should not be given to patients with hyperlipidemia because it will just worsen the condition because thiazide diuretics deplete sodium and potassium (Ames).
Hydralazine dilates arterioles but not veins. The bioavailability is low with an estimation of 25% because it is rapidly metabolized by the liver during the first pass. It is mainly used in severe hypertension and works better in combination with Nitrates. It is effective in heart failure. It has a half-life of 1.5 to 3 hours but due to its binding to avascular tissue, the vascular effect is prolonged and is longer than the blood concentrations. The main adverse effect is headache, nausea, anorexia, palpitations, sweating and flushing. It is said that hydralazine had the ability to increase the turbulence of arteriole blood flow which could in turn result in the accumulation and…...

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