Personel Statement

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Valdaise Chedjou, 401072 GSB102f11, VME9e ch 30, 31 Page 321-329

Survey of Plant Kingdom Gymnosperms of Phyla Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Coniferophyta, and Gnetophyta

Gymnosperms are plants with exposed seeds borne on scalelike structures called (strobili). Gymnosperms are heterosporous. They produce two types of spores: Microspores occur in male cones and form male gametophytes. Megaspores occur in female cones and form female gametophytes. Gametaphytes of gymnosperms are microscopic and completely dependent on the large, free-living sporophyte. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from male cones to female cones, which house the eggs. Pollen is carried from the male cones to the female cones by the wind. Sperm of cycadophyta are flagellated. Phylum Ginkgophyta consists of one species, Ginko biloba, a large dioecious tree that does not bear cones. Phylum Coniferophyta are the large group of cone- bearing plant that includes the 5000 years old bristlecone pine, earth’s oldest living individual organisms. The cones they bear are reproductive structures of the sporophyte generation. Sporophylls bear spores in conifers; sporophylls of male cone are called microsporophylls. Microsporangium are the cells on the surface of each mocrosporophyll that produces spores. Sporophylls of female cones are megasporophylls; each bear two spore- producing megasporangia on its upper surface.
Pollination and seed formation in pine
Pollination is the transfer of pollen to a receptive surface. It occurs more than a year before ovule produces a mature female gametophyte.
Seed. The evolution of seeds is one of the most significant events in the history of the plant kingdom.

Chapter 31
Survey of the plant kingdom
Angiosperm
PHYLUM ANTHOPHYTA
The sporophyte of angiosperms is large and heterosporous. The microgametophyte and embryo sac are completely…...

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