Pakistan Studies

In: Historical Events

Submitted By enik555
Words 1038
Pages 5
THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF INDIA:
History reports three early civilizations:
1. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION- (Time period: 2500-1500 BC)
It is one of the earliest civilizations. We know about it through excavations. The British told us about this civilization. It was located along the Indus River, as the name suggests, along with its east and west tributaries. It was dotted around 70 centers. Mohenjo-Daro was found near the Indus Delta, and Harappa near Ravi.
The Economic characteristics consisted of agriculture (surplus agriculture) in a semi irrigation environment. The surplus came through challenge and technology (flood canals). Crops were grown throughout the year.
Other distinguishing characteristics: They lived in urban centers. They had a high standard of living. They were well planned, even in those times. It had a zonal structure. The city was divided into zones. They were layered into functional zones.
1. Religion: they were into worshipping nature.
2. Commercial: Big Square. There were rooms probably shops.
3. Residential: Urban centers were layered in a grid pattern with houses on the grids. (New York today is made on that pattern).
They had a high standard of living. Houses were permanent (you can still find the leftover structure). The architecture was permanent. The houses were well ventilated. Air and light used to enter the house. The houses were multi storied with strong foundation. The bricks were made of mud of land but were baked. The drainage system was proper, both inside and outside the houses.
With the surplus they were into international trading. Some of the ancient treasures are found in Iraq (Mesopotamia). For trading they were using boats called Dhows- Dhows is the name used for local Gulf boats).

The Indus Valley civilization ended due to:- Floods, invasion, earthquake, or disease
2. ARYANIZATION (Time period:…...

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