Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Related to Facts About Short Term Memory (Coding, Capacity and Duration of Memory)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By finniees
Words 978
Pages 4
There are two main types of memory, short term and long term memory; short term memory has a limited capacity and duration. Capacity is, the amount of information someone can store in their memory. The capacity of short term memory is between 5-9 things. Coding is the format of which things are stored in our memory. Duration is the amount of time we can remember something for. Short term memory has duration of between 18-30 seconds. There have been various amounts of research done by different people on capacity, duration and coding.
Firstly research on capsid was done by joseph Jacobs. Jacobs developed the theory that how much someone could remember could be tested by using digit span. During this test a research would read 4 digits and a participant would have to read the 4 digits back, if the participants read them back correctly the researcher would then 5 digits and the participant would do the same before. This process was repeated increasing the number of letters by one each time until the participant got one of them wrong. This process was done with numbers and letters, doing this determines the duration of someone’s digit span. With this research Jacobs found that the mean across all participants was number of times was 9.3, the mean across letters was 7.3. This research was very useful but it did have its downfall. Jacobs research was lacking in validity, there could have been a lot of confounding variables that wouldn’t have been controlled things like, the participants being distracted, not giving full concentration and other things on their mind etc. this would mean that Jacobs results would have been less accurate.
Another piece of teacher done on capacity was done by a man called George Miller. Miller based his research from examples of everyday life. Miller suggested that things came in groups of sevens. Seven days in a week, seven notes on a musical scale etc. this lead to miller believing that we were accustomed to the number seven, this meant that miller believed we remembered things in sevens with an acceptation of two less or two more, meaning that we could remember things from a range of 5-9 things at a time. Miller also suggested people used a method called chunking to remember things, he said that letters and numbers can be remembered in 5’s just as well as words can be remembered in fives. Grouping things together is chunking the information which is why it’s called chunking. One problem that has been found with miller’s research is that, he made an over estimation on how much someone can chunk information, later research done by Cowan in 2001 suggested things can be chunked in groups of 4.
Coding is the way information is stored. Allan Baddeley researched into coding; he took four groups of people and gave each a list of words to remember. Group one was given acoustically similar words; words that sounded similar (e.g. cat cap can). Group two were given acoustically dissimilar words; words that sound different (e.g. cow pit few). Group three were given words that are semantiallcally similar; words that have a similar meaning (e.g. large, big, and huge). Finally group four were given words that were semantically dissimilar; words that have different meanings (e.g. food, huge, hot). The participants were asked to repeat the words back in the same order; this is called short term memory recall. Baddeley found that the participants got the most wrong of the acoustically similar words. When the participants were asked to repeat the words back after twenty minutes they got more wrong of that semantically similar words. This suggested that information in the long term memory was coded semantically. Baddeley’s research was great for learning a lot about coding but it used artificial stimuli meaning the material was meaningless. The information he was asking people to remember had no meaning, this meant that it would have been harder to remember. He had to be cautious of generalisation, if someone was remembering something personal to them they use sematic coding, concluding that findings in this study only have a limited use.
Finally research was done on duration. Duration is how long you can remember something, in the case of short term memory this is between 18-30 seconds. Margret and Lloyd Peterson. They did a test on 24 students; they did eight trials on each student. In each of the eight testes the student were given letters in a trigram e.g. YCG. The students had to count backward until someone told them to stop. Doing this would prevent any rehearsal of the trigram letters, if they rehearsed the trigram letters they would be transferred into their long term memory and it would defeat the point of the study. During each of the trials they were told to stop counting back after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 seconds. This is called a retention interval; the amount of time that occurs between a learning stage and memory recall stage. After each of the time periods the students would say the trigram letter so see if they had remembered. In the reaserch Peterson and Peterson deduced that the smaller the retention interval they more likely they were to remember it. This proved that short term memory had a short duration unless there had been some sort of revising happening of what was being tried to remember e.g. verbal rehearsal. The research that Peterson and Peterson did was valuable, but the stimulus had artificial material. Remembering letters isn’t a good example of different things we try to remember in real life situations. Even though we remember things like phone numbers the study didn’t have much other use to everyday life. This means the study didn’t have external validity.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Memory

...MEMORY Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place. Futhermore, memory has served as a battleground for opposing theories and paradigms of learning (e.g., Adams, 1967; Ashcraft, 1989; Bartlett, 1932; Klatzky, 1980; Loftus & Loftus, 1976; Tulving & Donaldson, 1972). Some of the major issues include recall versus recognition, the nature of forgetting (i.e., interference versus decay), the structure of memory, and intentional versus incidental learning. According to the early behaviorist theories (e.g., Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull), remembering was a function of S-R pairings which acquired strength due to contiguity or reinforcement. Stimulus sampling theory explained many memory phenomenon on the basis of statistical outcomes. On the other hand, cognitive theories (e.g., Tolman) insisted that meaning (i.e., semantic factors) played an important role in remembering. In particular, Miller suggested that information was organized into "chunks" according to some commonality. The idea that memory is always an active reconstruction of existing knowledge was championed by Bruner and is found in the theories of Ausubel and Schank. Some theories of memory have concerned themselves with the nature of the processing. Paivio suggests a dual coding scheme for verbal and visual information. Craik & Lockhart proposed that information can be processed to different levels of understanding. Rumelhart & Norman describe three...

Words: 9956 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model

...Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model The working memory model (WM) explains why we can do two different tasks at the same time, but not two similar tasks. It replaced the idea of a unitary short term memory (STM) in the working memory model information is passed from STM to the central executive and this decides if the information is visual or auditory. Information is then passed to the corresponding store. The central executive is a key component of the WM. It directs information from STM to one of the "slave systems" It also has a very limited capacity and duration so can't attend to too many things at once. The first "slave system" is the phonological loop. This deals with auditory information and maintains the order of the information. It consists of two stores, the phonological store which is like an inner ear and deals with sounds and the articulatory process is used for words which are heard or seen. These words are silently repeated (looped) like an inner voice. The next "slave system" is the visuo-spatial sketchpad. This deals with visual information and spatial information is the relationship between this information. This store is used when you have to plan a spatial task such as getting from one room to another or counting the number of windows your house has. Hitch and Baddley showed support for the WM by conducting an experiment where they gave participants two tasks to do at the same time. They found participants were slower completing these......

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model

...Outline and evaluate the working memory model In the working memory model, there are four main components; The central executive is the most important component as it is involved in problem solving and decision making. It controls attention and plays a vast part in planning and processing information from subsidiary systems and LTM. It is flexible and can process information. It has a limited capacity and can only contain a limited amount of information at one time, Secondly the phonological loop stores a limited amount of speech-based sounds for quick periods. It contains two components. The phonological store (inner ear) allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief timing. The articulatory control process (inner voice) allows subvocal repetition of the items stored in the phonological store. Repetition can be prevented by a technique known as ‘articulatory suppression’. The visuo-spatial scratch pad (inner eye) stores visual and spatial information. It is responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images. It has a limited capacity but the limits of the system are independent. The episodic buffer interrogates and manipulates material in the working memory. It has a limited capacity, depending a lot on executive processing. It is capable of binding together information from different sources into chunks/episodes. It interrogates material from LTM to meet the requirements of working memory. The working memory model has many advantages which are that......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Short Term Memory

...attention and short-term memory processing are directly affected by a person's surroundings and environment. Two groups of individuals were tested on their attention and working memory performance, one group after a relaxed walk in a quiet park and the other group after navigating busy city streets. Those who had been walking the city streets scored far lower on the tests. ( 2 ). Memory is a very complex function that still to this day has not been fully understood. Short-term memory, also known as “working memory”, is the known as the ability to remember and process information at the same time. ( 2 ). Humans process the environment and its various stimuli on a conscious and unconscious level. Not every piece of information can be processed and therefore some information is ignored. The physiological aspects of memory are very complex but research has made progress in determining the various processes that occur in the brain.  According to research, we can remember approximately 5 to 9 (7 +/- 2) bits of information in our short term memory at any given time (Miller, 1956) ( 3 ) This is very believable as most phone numbers in the United States are seven numbers, minus the area code. Yet, even as a sentence is read the beginning must be held in memory until the end in order to understand and make judgment and then take action. Neuroscientists often classify human memory into three types: declarative memory, such as storing facts or remembering specific events; procedural......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Short Term Memory

...The Short-term Memory is known as the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. We also can say that it is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. This memory system goes through the process of selective attention, which is the ability to focus on one stimulus from among all sensory input. Is known that some memory theorists use the term working memory as a synonym of short-term memory. This is not entirely correct, because in one hand short-term memory has been though as a place into where information is put. In the other hand we have that Working Memory is though as an active system that processes the information present in short-term memory. Digit Span Test is a memory test in which a series of number are shown to subjects, who are then asked to recall the numbers in order. I am going to show you a video where we can see how the digit span test works. Chunking is known as the process of recoding or reorganizing the information, Which is one way to held more information in short-term memory, by combining this information into meaningful units or chunks. Lets say we have a sequence of 10 numbers, one way to chunk is seeing this sequence as a phone number, so instead of having 10 separate bits, there would be only three chunks. Maintenance Rehearsal is one way of remembering information by repeating it over and over in order to maintain it in the short-term memory. The duration of the......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Short Term Memory

...Measures of dispersion This allows us to examine the variability within data sets. Helps us to understand whether scores in a given set of data are similar to or very different from each other. The range The difference between the highest and lowest value of data. The two sets of variables have the same mean but a different range, so the range is helpful as further method of describing the data. If we just used the mean, the data would appear to be the same. The main advantage of using the range is that it is quick to calculate. The main disadvantage of the range is seriously affected by extreme outline values in the range. Standard deviation Standard deviation is the measure of spread of scores from the mean. The larger the standard deviation, the larger the spread of scores from the mean. Advantages of the standard deviation. It is more sensitive measure of dispersion than the range and interquartile range since all scores are used in it calculation. Describe the spread of scores with great precision. Disadvantages of standard deviation. It is complicated to calculate. EXAMPLE ANSWER. The girl’s performance was generally better than the boys mean. The standard deviation- the spread of the mean from the boy’s part was higher than the girls spread of the mean. So the girls were more consistent than the boys. 2. Because you have more results, to analyse and to see if the results are reliable. 3. Because you get further information into the mean,......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Short Term and Long Term Memories

...5/30/2014 SSCI206 Unit 4 Individual Project Sensory, short-term and long-term memories are all a part of the first step in the human memory model. After the basic steps of memory function come the types of memory and how they’re used in retaining information. Encoding happens first in order to determine how information is remembered on each acquired basis. Once the information is encoded it is then stored and each memory can be in more than one place. When the memory or information is ready to be used it is then retrieved and brought to a conscious level. Next, “the retrieval process relies greatly on the encoding process and the cues or techniques used to get the material through the encoding process” (Introduction to psychology, 2011). Spacing out the repetition of information can help with the retrieval and storing of information. When a student considers cramming for a test, often times the material is not retained properly and forgotten by the time he is ready to use the information. Interference theory states that old or current information remains until new information comes into play. There are two types of interference theories retroactive and proactive interference. Retroactive interference is when new information interferes with the ability to retain older information and proactive interference is when the old information prohibits new information to retention (Introduction to psychology, 2011).......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model.

...Outline and evaluate the Working Memory Model. The Working Memory Model (WMM) is a model of the STM. The WMM was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch when they carried out a Dual-task method experiment only to find that the MSM was too simple as it stated that the STM is only one store. The model shows that information is first received by the Central Executive. The Central Executive has overall control of the STM and it is multi-modal meaning it can process information from different senses. This information can then go to one of two stores. If it is speech-based information it will be transferred to the Phonological Loop. It has two subcomponents, phonological store and articulatory control process. The phonological store is the inner ear and contains snippets of sounds either from the outside world or recalled from long term memory. The articulatory control process is the inner voice which essentially is our own voice inside our heads as it constantly repeats or rehearses information so therefore preventing forgetting by decay. The visuo-spatial sketch pad is visual short term memory, or the inner eye. It can manipulate images in two and three dimensions. The WMM shows memory as an active process as the Central Executive can store and retrieve information from either slave store. As this is a model of the STM, all three stores have a limited duration and capacity. A good thing about the WMM is that it’s pioneering. This model is the first of its kind to explain STM as having......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory

...Outline and evaluate the multi store model of memory (12 marks) Information from the environment is transferred through one of our five senses into the sensory memory (encoded depending on the type of information we receive). The sensory memory is a store suggested to be large in capacity but the duration the information is held for is the problem, lasting only fractions of a second. When attention is paid to information it enters the short term memory. According to Miller, the short term memory has a capacity of 7+-2 items. The duration of the short term memory last between 18 and 30 seconds, the STM is encoded mainly acoustically but sometimes visually. If maintenance rehearsal takes place it will remain in the STM or will be lost through decay or displacement. Elaborative rehearsal will then transfer information into the long term memory, which has an unlimited capacity and duration (without interference such as memory decay). The LTM encodes mainly semantically (through meaning). Information can be retrieved from the LTM to be used in the STM when needed. One strength of the model is that is it supported from clinical/empirical research based on real people rather than laboratory experiments. This makes it high in ecological validity and can be applied to everyday life within the real world. For example, the study of HM, a brain damaged patient underwent an operation to cure a severe case of epilepsy but this resulted in the ability to transfer from the STM to the LTM,...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory

...Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory The multi-store model of memory is a representation of the flow of information through the memory system. The information first flows through the sensory memory, then the short-term memory, and then the long-term memory. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If the information is not given attention then it is forgotten through trace decay. If the information is given attention then it goes to the short-term memory. If you repeat the information then it stays in your short-term memory due to the process of maintenance rehearsal. This means that if the information is repeated then it stays refreshed in our minds. But items can also be forgotten in the short-term memory due to displacement. This is the process by which items in the STM are pushed out to make room for incoming new ones. However, if the information has remained in the STM due to maintenance rehearsal and links are made, then the information is transferred to the long-term memory through the process elaborative rehearsal. Making links is when you subconsciously compare information to something you have seen before therefore making it easier to remember. When you think of a memory then you retrieve it from your LTM and bring it to your STM. This is called retrieval. Each part of the multi-store model of memory has a different amount of capacity, duration and encoding. The capacity is the amount of information that can be......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Working Memory Model

...Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) Multi-Store model of memory was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated. However, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argue that the multi-store model is too simplistic. Instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information. Working memory consists of a central executive which controls and co-ordinates the operation of two subsystems: the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. Baddley and Hitch investigated if participants can use different parts of working memory at the same time. They conducted an experiment in which participants were asked two perform two tasks at the same time - a digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false questions. The result was that as the number of digits increased in the digit span task, participants took longer to answer the reasoning questions, but not much longer. They didn't make any more errors in the verbal reasoning task as the number of digits increased. This was also known as the dual method. They concluded that the verbal reasoning task made us of the central executive and the digit......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model (12 Marks)

...Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12 marks) Baddeley and Hitch proposed that memory has 4 components. The central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive decides how to share out and direct attention to incoming information. The phonological loop can be thought of as a maintenance rehearsal mechanism for retaining verbal information. It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say). Furthermore, the visuospatial sketchpad (inner eye) is responsible for storing visual and spatial information. In other words, it codes information in images and can create and manipulate visual and spatial images. Finally, the episodic buffer. This component takes information from different sources and integrates them together. For example, Baddeley suggested if we imagine an elephant playing ice hockey, we have to draw out images stored in long term memory and combine them into a moving image. The working memory model is good and is an improvement over the multi-store model. It demonstrates how the short term memory works because it explains how we can store information briefly and simultaneously manipulate it, for example, mental arithmetic. This shows that the model has face validity, which means that the test appears to measure what it......

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Short-Term Memory

...Short-term Memory Name: Institution: Short Term Memory Part 1: Early studies suggested that a cognitive task is correlated with working memory because (and only when) the processing portion of both tasks is similar. Review the evidence for and against this assumption The working memory describes a comprehensive system that is tasked with holding and processing incoming and already warehoused information (Daneman, & Carpenter, 1980). The importance of the working memory in cognition, conception, edification, and memory update cannot be ignored (Daneman, & Carpenter, 1980). Additionally, the working memory is responsible for the manipulation of both visual and verbal information and acts as a coordinate for the subsystems. This explains the correlation between the cognitive part and the working memory (Daneman, & Carpenter, 1980). Essentially, the cognitive parts are involved in ensuring the control of the working memory permitting the integration and retrieval of necessary data and information. The working memory is related to cognitive growth, however, this tend to decrease as a person grows older (Daneman, & Carpenter, 1980). The relationship between the working memory and processing is that both aims at executing and storing information. As an illustration, when an individual is reading a particular passage, the storage of various components of comprehension (pragmatic, semantic and syntactic) takes place (Daneman, & Carpenter, 1980). Such information......

Words: 2442 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model Essay

...The working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) replaced the idea of a unitary STM, it suggests a system involving active processing and short term storage of information. The working memory model consists of four components which each have a different job. The Central executive (CE) is the key component and can be described as attention. It has a limited capacity and controls two ‘slave’ systems that also have limited capacity. The function of the CE is to direct attention to particular tasks, determining how the brain's ‘resources’ are used for the task. The ‘resources’ are the three ‘slave’ systems. Data arrives from the senses or from the long term memory. Because the CE has a very limited capacity it can’t attend to too many things at once and has no capacity for storing data. The next component is the Phonological loop (PL) which is one of the ‘slave’ systems. This deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information. Baddeley (1986) further subdivided this loop into: - The phonological store which holds the words you hear, like and inner ear. - An articulatory process which is used for words that are heard or seen. These words are silently repeated like an inner voice. This is a form of maintenance rehearsal. The next component is the episodic buffer which is another ‘slave’ system. Baddeley (2000) added the episodic buffer because he realised the model needed a general store. The Phonological loop and Visuo-Spatial......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Short Term Memory

...Experiment 4 Short Term Memory I. Objective To determine the capacity and limits of short term memory. II. Definition Short term memory (STM) is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds.In contrast, information stored in long term memory may last weeks,months or years. However, there is a way that you can maintain information in your short-term store indefinitely.Primarily, by engaging in rehearsal-the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information. Without rehearsal information in short-term memory is lost in 10-20 seconds.(Nairne,2003) III.Abstract The objective of the experiment is to measure the capacity and limits of short-term memory.The experimenter conducted the experiment on 5 participants.Each subject was exposed to each of the stimulus consisting of rows of meaningless syllables.The experimenter let the subjects read the first row of letters in the following list just once then close their eyes and remember the correct sequence.Same procedure was done for the next rows.The experimenter records the outcome of the experiment. IV. Introduction Without rehearsal, information in short term memory is lost in 10-20 seconds (Nairne,2003) The rapid loss was demonstrated in a study by Peterson and Peterson (1959).They measured how long undergraduates could remember three consonants if they couldn't rehearse them.To prevent rehearsal,the Petersons required the......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2