Opma

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OPMA

Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Sample Range (R) = largest X – smallest X
Central Limit Theorem
1std. 68.3| 2std. 95.4| 3std. 99.7
Type 1:conclude change, when no change
Type 2: conclude no change, when change
Attributes Vs. Variables
Attributes – data which count (ex. # of complaints)
Variables – data which measure (ex. cm, kg, ml, etc.)
X Chart
Control Limits
[pic]
Range
[pic]

Establishing Control Limits or Re-calculating the control limits

Process Capability Index

Just Capable
Industry Standard (min)

Excellent

Process Capability

Where Z (min) is the smaller of:

Or:

When Cpk=Cp, the process is centered.

P Charts (Attributes)

Maximum p: UCL*n
Minimum p: LCL*n

C Charts

U Charts

Maximum u: UCL*n
Minimum u: LCL*n
Chapter 1 Quality Perspectives
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions
1. Conformance 2. Reliability
3. Features 4. Performance
5. Durability 6. Serviceability
7. Aesthetics 8. Perceived Quality

PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions
Tangibles(Physical appearance of facility
Service Reliability(Dependable and accurate
Responsiveness(Helpful and prompt
Assurance(Knowledge and courtesy
Empathy(Caring attention
Viewpoint depends on function
Core Processes • Value Stream Mapping| FlowChart • Six Sigma| value added • DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
Downstream
• Shipping and Logistics “Right product, right place, right time, right quantity” • Reliability of delivery • Customer support including after sales service
In concurrent engineering, work is done as a multi-functional team.

Three Spheres of Quality
Quality Management(responsibility of all), Assurance(design), Control (scientific method)
Contingency Theory of Quality
No one method can be applied in all instances.…...

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