Old English Literature

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OLD ENGLISH LITERATURE
• Palaeolithic nomads from mainland Europe;
• New inhabitants came from western and possibly north-western Europe (New Stone Age);
• in the 2nd millennium BC new inhabitants came from the Low Countries and the middle Rhine (Stonehenge);
• Between 800 and 200 BC Celtic peoples moved into Britain from mainland Europe (Iron Age)

• first experience of a literate civilisation in 55 B.C.
• remoter areas in Scotland retained independence
• Ireland, never conquered by Rome, Celtic tradition

• The language of the pre-Roman settlers - British (Welsh, Breton); Cornish; Irish and Scottish Gaelic (Celtic dialect)

• The Romans up to the fifth century
• Britain - a province of the Roman Empire 400 years

• the first half of the 5th century the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (N Germany, Jutland)
• The initial wave of migration - 449 A. D.
• the Venerable Bede (c. 673-735)
• the Britain of his time comprised four nations English, British (Welsh), Picts, and Scots.

• invaders resembling those of the Germans as described by Tacitus in his Germania.
• a warrior race
• the chieftain, the companions or comitatus.
• the Celtic languages were supplanted (e.g. ass, bannock, crag).

* Christianity spread from two different directions: * In the 5th century St Patrick converted Ireland, in the 7th century the north of England was converted by Irish monks; * in the south at the end of the 6th century Aethelberht of Kent allowed the monk Augustine and his helpers, who came directly from Rome, to convert his kingdom to Christianity. * The monks adapted the Roman alphabet from Latin to write English and replaced the old writing system based on the use of signs called runes, which were developed to be carved in wood or stone.

Brittene igland is ehta hund mila lang.
7 twa hund brad. 7 her sind on his iglande fif geheode.…...

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