Observations on Critical Thinking

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By robertaake
Words 403
Pages 2
I have learned three lessons from this course. First, critical thinking assists in understanding various options that are available for realistic consideration. It helps in preventing me from being taken advantage of or throwing my support for an idea or initiative that is not completely true. It helps me to discern between true and partially true statements and to identify bias. It is also helpful in my work place and makes me a better employee. Second, critical thinking makes me more intellectually active because I no longer allow others to think for me. They can provide me opinion, but it is up to me to decide what facts I choose to consider and to ultimately believe. I have become more skeptical. There are some areas of life that I considered to believe valid but have now decided to do my own research and analysis. I am much more, for instance, critical of claims made on miracle drugs or cosmetics that have well known spokespersons. I no longer believe that there are certain occupations, such as clergy, that speak with the purest of motives. Third, I have learned not to take input from only one source. I used to just watch one television news source. But now I have taught myself to watch multiple sources and evaluate the various points made with an eye to bias. The media is far from unbiased and put a spin on many of the stories they cover. Facts are reinterpreted and then spewed at the public over and over to change opinions. This is especially true in politics. These lessons can easily be applied to everyday life. Critical thinking identifies them and questions them as well. Critical thinking is an essential tool in health, work, and community activity. It is the process of questioning, examining, and analyzing situations, issues, problems, people (in hiring…...

Similar Documents

Critical Thinking

...What Is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is thinking that questions assumptions. It is a way of deciding whether a claim is always true, sometimes true, partly true, or false. Critical thinking is an important component of most professions. It is a part of the formal education process and is increasingly significant as students’ progress through university to graduate education, although there is debate among educators about its precise meaning and scope. Critical thinking has been described as "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do." It has also been described as "thinking about thinking. Critical thinking clarifies goals, examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, accomplishes actions, and assesses conclusions. Critical thinking can occur whenever one judges, decides, or solves a problem; in general, whenever one must figure out what to believe or what to do, and do so in a reasonable and reflective way. Reading, writing, speaking, and listening can all be done critically or uncritically. It has been described in more detail as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. More recently, critical thinking has been described as "the process of purposeful, self-regulatory judgment,......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Critical Thinking

...Critical thinking... Please wait while I try to put into words what this means, while I contemplate the affect and possible consequences my words might have on my peers and my grade for this forum. I am just kidding! Critical thinking to me is thinking outside of the box, not what is in it the "norm", to have an open mind and try to view yourself from the outside looking in, instead of from the inside looking out. Although I may not agree with everything he says, or even his views, I do agree with what President Obama said in his speech to the Hispanic Chambers of Commerce. "And I'm calling on our nation's governors and state education chiefs to develop standards and assessments that don't simply measure whether students can fill in a bubble on a test, but whether they possess 21st century skills like problem-solving and critical thinking and entrepreneurship and creativity." (Obama) I couldn't agree with this more. In my opinion these standardized tests cannot truly demonstrate how intelligent a person is. Anyone with a little dedication can study for a test and pass it. However, not everyone can look at a problem and try to find a solution without being biased; this is true talent and a sign of intelligence. For example, my boss has many letters after her name. She is academically accomplished with the several degrees she’s accumulated throughout the years. Are those letters supposed to make her a better leader than someone who doesn't? With all her education, she...

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Today’s society is so caught up in the day-to- activities that individuals tend to forget how one thinks. We make choices, create ideas, come up with conclusions, and make decisions based on other people’s opinions. Everyone thinks but much of our thinking can be bias, unclear, partial, and uninformed. These often need careful thought and that is where critical thinking comes in. Thinking is often casual and informal, whereas critical thinking purposely evaluates the quality of thinking. Critical thinking is the ability to think for oneself and being able to make decisions that affect one’s life. Critical thinking is being able to use information, experiences, observation, and reasoning to guide one’s decisions, actions, and beliefs. According to Luke Muehlhauser there are sixteen techniques to critical thinking: “clarify, be accurate, be precise, be relevant, know your purpose, identify assumptions, check your emotions, empathize, know your own ignorance, be independent, think through implications, know your own biases, suspend judgment, consider the opposition, recognize cultural assumptions, and be fair not selfish” (2007, para. 8). These techniques are very helpful but sometimes can fall between the cracks. “Even when using tools and techniques to help with this, we tend to think about specific techniques of 'decision making' or 'idea generation' rather than the wider process of thinking” (Anonymous, 1995-2010, para. 2). If someone......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking and Decision-making Ronald Williams Jr MGT/350 Mar-29-2010 Henry Kelley Critical Thinking and Decision-making To understand the relationship and role critical thinking plays in decision-making, people must first understand the meaning of the terms decision-making, and critical thinking. Illustrating the vast and always changing circumstances around an organization or decision maker, decision-making is not [an assembly line operation, it is messy, chaotic, and a twisted, unshapely, halting flow] (McCall & Kaplan, 1990). Meaning the decision-making process is constantly changing because of the influence of the rapidly changing internal and external factors on the decision maker. To conceptualize critical thinking, look at it as an active process of critical and creative inquiry, an active cognitive approach, and rational assessment of information. This process is, “Based on an understanding and awareness of logical analysis that permit a rational evaluation of arguments” (Sanders & Wiseman, 1994, para. 4). Knowing that decision-making is an ever changing process, with a multitude of influencing factors, and critical thinking is a process influenced by reasoning and logical evaluation of facts, circumstances, and events. Applying the critical thinking process to the decisions made every day will improve, clarify, and target the decisions made to the problem or issue, ultimately improving the ability to make better decisions,......

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking as defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking: “The intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.” (Scriven & Paul, 1987). A generalization of critical thinking is taking a step back and performing the most reasonable action after analyzing every possible solution. Critical Thinking can be broken down into three phases: Discipline- the ability to stop action; Conceptualize- gather information; and Decision- take the appropriate action. Phase one in critical thinking, Discipline, is the ability to stop from making a decisive action without critical forethought. Everyone does not have the discipline to stop and think of the repercussion of his or her immediate action. Phase two is Conceptualization, which is the gathering of information and analyzing all possible solutions. For example during phase two, a person will perform analysis of the immediate situation, observation of the surrounding, and will visualize all viable solutions prior to committing to an action. The final phase is the action phase, taking the appropriate action decided upon. To further elaborate the three phases of critical thinking, I will break down the example in an Internet video, Callahan (2103) states that, “We all have......

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Critical Thinking

...Critical thinking Every thought or expression requires some thinking to make. When taking a decision sometimes some action or decision requires a further step, critically thinking. For some reason there are only a number of persons that have the ability to think in a higher level. Critical thinkers have the capacity to think on a higher level. A process for thinking critically is required that will bring about decisions and thoughts that will provide for a better life for ourselves and those around us. Most of us take thinking for granted. However, we develop as critical thinkers when we open ourselves to recognizing the strengths and weakness’ of our own thinking. Every decision taken leads us to another issue to have. In the world of business, critical thinking is very important. Persons are required to have a higher thinking skill because this will be a benefit to the organization or company. All companies have different types issues to solve. In the workplace, brainstorming during the critical thinking method allows for many creative ideas to be made. Brainstorming should have no boundaries, so the mind can move from one thought to the next, allowing for the ideas. These creative ideas can be calculated, selected apart, and restructured at a later time to help meet the needs of the organization. From the YWCA there are many meetings and trainings conducted each month. The reason there are many things to be discussed is because YWCA branch is dedicated to work with......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking In this paper we will discuss and provide an introduction to critical thinking. We will also discuss the importance of critical thinking, explain why it's important, discuss what skills are needed in critical thinking, and present the elements of critical thinking. Also, the most important element to critical thinking is having personal experience of critical thinking. Critical thinking involves drawing sound conclusions based on facts and observations. Critical thinkers carefully analyze and evaluate information to probe for faulty and poor reasoning (Epstein 2006). When individuals use effective critical thinking skills and processes, they draw valid inferences based on accurate evidence and well-supported claims (Epstein 2006). Mastering critical thinking skills will allow you to take greater advantage of the opportunities provided by your constitutional rights; you will be able to more fully and effectively use the precious rights of free expression and suffrage granted by the U.S. Constitution (Epstein 2006). You will be able to "become wise" by listening to and reading about "all that can be said" against your views and by subjecting your ideas to others' perspectives. We make decisions every day, from deciding what to have for breakfast to deciding where to go to college. We need to be critical thinkers in the everyday and more unique problems we face. We need to ask questions, find and evaluate relevant information, and use information to make......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Critical thinking is defined as “the mental processes, strategies, and representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts” (Sternberg, 1986, p. 3) Predominantly Critical thinking has been recognised as the most important skill for successfully implementing a project from award approval to project closure. Critical thinking is the skill that evaluates evidence to come up with an appropriate decision. This evidence usually identified by good observation, high research skills, experience, proper reasoning, or conversation with others. The research suggests that regardless of the nature of the project, a project manager develops critical thinking competencies at the initial stage and planning stage of the project. A good critical thinker always uses a logical analysis to convey a message clearly and make good decisions. Critical thinking is an essential skill for a project manager to examine and assess a situation in an objective manner. It is also an enormous application for excellent problem solving skills. In addition critical thinking can bring all aspects of project management at Care. For instance a skill which helps to organise a project managers thought, analyse pros and cons in a particular situation and present the most productive outcomes and results in a persuasive manner. below are the common and main characteristics of critical skill that a project manager needs. Systematic Inquistic ......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Application Paper Critical thinking is method that helps people guide their behaviors and improve the quality of thinking. Many terminologies can define such complex yet logical process, creating unique characteristics, and meanings. According to Michael and Richard (summer 1987), Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, and evaluating information gathered from experience, observation, reasoning, reflection, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Such process becomes accustom to everyday life and applies itself in every decision one makes. The process of critical thinking helps people benefits and take advances to improve not only mentally but also logically, when people apply these circumstances in an everyday lives. Looking into the basic characteristics of critical thinking, one cannot overlook its importance and what it brings to everyday activity. Functioning, evaluating, creating or even thinking has become a second nature to us. According to Paul and Elder (2001), critical thinking is that mode of thinking, which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Observing the importance of our logical steps naturally occurs in our minds core process. Keeping our mind constantly advancing separates humans from all other living...

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Critical thinking, as defined by Wikipedia, is purposeful and reflective judgment about what to believe or what to do in response to observations, experience, verbal or written expressions, or arguments. Therefore, critical thinking is necessary in the decision making process not only in your everyday life but more so in your professional life. Since applying critical thinking in any decision making process involves gathering facts, questioning ideas, analyzing, and evaluating these data, one can safely say that applying critical thinking in the decision making process will help anyone to come up with a more favorable solution to a problem. Problem Solving – Applying Critical Thinking When I was first promoted to a supervisory position at Discover Card, I assumed that since I worked my way up, I knew how to handle conflict and make fair decisions. I also assumed that since the company has an established Code of Conduct and Dress Code policies, it would make my decision making process easy, or so I thought, until I was faced with a behavioral situation that none of the managers at Discover Card had experienced before and to make matters worse, the situation was not specifically covered in the Dress Code policy. A few months after I became a Team Leader, one of my male employees came to me and said his pod partner, a female, was in violation of the company’s dress code policy. I looked at him and looked at the female employee, who...

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...The relationship between critical thinking and ethics Critical thinking plays a giant role in ethics and is essential to the success of human activity. The quality of what we do in our daily lives depend on the effectiveness of our thought’s, morals or immorality. The similarities between these two terms are; that they both relate in judging and observing things. In critical thinking you are judging the different types of observations, while ethics are a set of principles that are respectable to individual’s morals and personal judgments. Definition of critical thinking According to "Criticalthinking.org" (2013), “Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism”. (Definition) The steps in the critical-thinking process The "Scholastic Early Childhood Today" (1998) website, lists the “Six levels of thinking” by Benjamin Bloom. 1. “Gathering knowledge consists of acquiring basic pieces of information”. 2. “Comprehending and confirming involves looking at the meaning of the......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Critical Thinking

...Determining My Levels of Critical Thinking Determine my level of critical thinking- I would have to say right now I am an average critical thinker level 5or6 right now. Beginning Critical Thinker- People who actively take up the challenge to begin to take command of their thinking. Beginning thinkers recognize that they have basic problems in their thinking and will make initial attempts to better understand how they can take charge of and improve their thinking. Beginning thinkers can begin to modify some thinking methods but have limited sight into deeper levels and they lack a systematic plan for improving their thinking. Average Critical Thinker- Is able to evaluate information for accuracy on occasion but they only do it when doing it requires no effort and they don’t have time to analyze data And they try to be careful before they formulate an opinion making sure they thoroughly consider all sides of a particular issue and they don’t always believe what they read but are better at finding out if the person is telling the truth or lying. Advanced Critical Thinker- This is a thinker that has established good habits of thought and can actively analyze their thinking in all sorts of domains of their lives but also has significant insight into problems at a deeper level than the other thinkers. Advanced thinkers are able to think well across important dimensions of their lives and they have good general command over their egocentric nature and must continue to strive to...

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Carla Davis-Mann GEN/201 November 16, 2015 Dr. Towanda Martin Critical Thinking Critical thinking is defined as the process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, and evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication as a guide to belief and action. (telicthoughts). Critical thinking, to me, is the process of thinking that is used for different types of judgments. Critical chinking is also used for decision making and problem solving. Critical thinking allows us to apply or thoughts and digest them carefully for the decisions that have to be made ethically. It is always best to make the correct choices when you have no distractions, and critical thinking does not allow for distractions. That, of course, does not mean that our thought process will always be correct. Critical thinking frees us from nonsense. (Ellis, 2015) p.215. There are six steps in the critical thinking process. They are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Every level is useful and needed. The lower levels, remembering, understanding, and applying, are only looking for a quick answer. The higher levels, analyzing, evaluating, and creating, has several options that can be used for answers or you can create your own. Using all these levels of critical thinking, is the beginning of becoming a master student. When solving problems, critical......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking in Business Critical thinking is a vital component to effective decision making in a business or professional setting. The ability to critically think and decipher between an emotional decision and a rational or objective decision is key to running a successful business and maintaining trusting relationships. Critical thinking is often a skill set versus an innate behavior. Since this type of thinking is a skill set, continued development is necessary to reach a high level of critical thinking especially in a professional setting. (Bateman & Snell, 2007) Critical thinking can be defined as "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action" (Scriven & Paul, p3). In reality, critical thinking is a process that removes fact from fiction and analyzes potential outcomes of different potential decisions. For a business, fact based decisions maintain a company’s reputation and integrity. At US Cellular, critical thinking is a necessary competency for a leadership role. Many decisions including deciding what sponsorships to invest our money into are complex issues that requires careful analysis and foresight to consider potential outcomes of what sponsorships are chosen. In 2010, a decision had to be made on our sports sponsorships. From a...

Words: 896 - Pages: 4

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking Application An average person’s mind is constantly thinking and functioning whether consciously or unconsciously. Basically, the things we think about are highly limited and biased relative to what our brain has been exposed to. Take for instance, the regular thinking we do in our daily interactions with our external environment, the memories we make, the hobbies and practices only out of routine. When we brush our teeth, we don’t really think too hard about that, our minds are just conditioned to do it. Our mind functions faster than we could ever imagine, but the tasks or output of the minds processes may be acted out by our body or senses in a slower way, and sometimes we may not even be aware of it. Critical thinking, on the other hand, is the extreme opposite of spontaneous thinking. It is referred to as disciplined thinking as it requires thorough analysis, comprehension and evaluation of a certain situation or idea to make sure that the output is flawless (Scriven & Paul, 2011). Critical thinking is also one of the important ingredients for a company’s success. Most of the time, critical thinking is only developed one a person is exposed to the workplace, especially those who are assigned in higher positions where their decision can greatly affect the entire organization. The executive members of a company including the directors and managers all engage in a planning stage wherein they discuss all the necessary strategies they should take in......

Words: 935 - Pages: 4