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Drawing Conclusions about HIV Youth Intervention Programs
Laurie Blake, Karen Gividen, Judy Kintner,
Andrea Plati, Casey Thompson
NURS 6030- 4 The Practice of Population-Based Care
Walden University
August 14, 2011

Drawing Conclusions about HIV Youth Intervention Programs
Team E investigated the topic of young people in the United States who continue to be at risk for human immunosuppressive virus (HIV). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) describes young people as individuals ages 13-24 (CDC, 2008). The team focused on education and prevention interventions for fighting the spread of HIV in the youth population. The members of Team E researched intervention programs and conducted personal interviews to formulate recommendations for a director of a public health department regarding appropriate education programs and prevention interventions which could be implemented by the health department to fight the spread of HIV in youth.

Intervention Programs to Educate Youth
Several interventions will be included in the education plan for youth age 13-24. The plan will address the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the known correlation of early sexual activity and development of STDs with increased risk of contracting HIV (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). To reach the largest population of youth, we will partner with public and private middle schools, high schools, Boys and Girls Clubs, teen pregnancy clinics, and local churches and community groups involved with youth age 13 -24 years old (Maurer & Smith, 2009).
The focus of the plan will include abstinence, early screening for STDs and HIV for those who are presently sexually active, use of condoms, and living with HIV (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). Abstinence for many youth equates to avoiding pregnancy, however STDs and HIV are transmitted with the exchange of bodily fluids. Therefore, in our plan abstinence includes refraining from anal sex and oral sex. STD screening will help the adolescent understand how their sexual behavior affects their health and will provide a baseline for the community nurse to begin discussions about safe sexual practices (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010).
Of the many interventions that a community health nurse has available for education to decrease the spread of HIV, the best and least expensive intervention is the use of condoms (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). In accordance with the plan, condoms will be distributed free of charge through community outlets partnering with the health department (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). The community health nurse will educate the youth of the community about proper use of the condoms for anal as well as vaginal intercourse. By implementing the interventions discussed, our hope is to decrease the spread of STDs and thereby decrease incidences of HIV.
Another intervention used in other communities is advertisement geared towards youth. With the cooperation of the community public transportation system, advertisements are placed on buses, trains, etc., were youth age 13-24 are likely to encounter them (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). Information in these ads can present the correlation between STDs and HIV infection, use of condoms to stop the spread of HIV, and a toll free number to call for more information and free testing.

Planning, Managing, and Evaluation of Programs
When planning a program to meet the needs of a community a health department director must take several factors into account. First, the health care needs of the community and the impact of these needs on the community must be known. Questions that must be answered include whether the community will support the health program, and whether funding, for example federal and state grants earmarked for programs to help with the health need in the community, are available. Ensuring financial support for the program is vital: securing the funding can be accomplished through grants, sponsors, or donations (“Funding Programs,” 2003, Heart for Africa, n.d.).
Once the community health needs are established and communities support is secured, the next step is to begin actual program development (Mauer & Smith, 2009). Mauer & Smith present 14 essential ingredients for developing a program (Mauer & Smith, 2009). Each step is an integral part in the development of a program that meets the communities need. While the sequence is not critical, all of the steps should be reviewed when developing the program and an operational plan must be put in place (Mauer & Smith, 2009). Once a program has been developed and the operational plan is in place an evaluation program must be established to measure outcomes and determine if the program is achieving its purpose (Maurer & Smith, 2009).

Managing and evaluating an intervention program is an ongoing task for a health department director (Maurer & Smith, 2009). The results of the intervention program must be measured to ensure that the program is effective. Evaluation of a program for efficiency and effectiveness provides data to determine the sustainability of the program. Collecting evidence on the success of the prevention program, for example by conducting a survey of program participants comparing condom use before and after participation in the program, can provide program sponsors with information necessary to justify their continued support and also may garner additional funding sources (Maurer & Smith, 2009).

Identification of Best Practices for an Intervention Program
Best practice is best defined as carefully chosen relevant evidence that produces a positive outcome and results (Hamilton, 2011). Many considerations are involved in the evaluation of best practices for planning implementation, and evaluation of an HIV intervention program. HIV prevention primarily focuses on education. Education programs are instrumental in the fight to decrease the spread of HIV in youth. Public high schools in the United States provide education programs geared towards HIV prevention. In this regard, each state must teach abstinence as part of its HIV education curriculum in order to meet federal funding requirements (Guttmacher Institute, 2011). According to the CDC, areas where HIV is prevalent need an evidence-based plan for preventing the spread of the disease (CDC, 2008). The CDC recommends that everyone be educated on preventing the spread of HIV (National HIV Strategy, 2010).
One goal for public health clinics is to prevent the spread of the STDs and HIV to others in the community (Maurer & Smith, 2009). Another goal is to improve the quality of life for those already infected with HIV (National HIV Strategy, 2010). Strategies advanced by the CDC include the availability of a health care system that provides support, education, and health care for the HIV populations, addressing and supporting the HIV population’s unique health care needs (National HIV Strategy, 2010).

Summary
Team E’s literature review revealed that young people who contract an STD have a higher probability of contracting HIV (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). Education and prevention of HIV are the key areas to be pursued in the fight to the stop the spread of HIV in youth age 13-24 (CDC, 2008). Implementing intervention programs such as free condom distribution, STD and HIV screening, and continued HIV education can help to decrease the spread of HIV and make young people aware of the connection between STDs and contracting HIV (HAHSTA Annual Report, 2010). Team E concluded that condom distribution, education, and STD screening are best practices for preventing the spread of HIV in youth age 13-24.
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008, August). HIV/AIDS among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/PDF/youth.pdf
District of Columbia HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB (HAHSTA) Annual Report (2010). Retrieved from : 2010http://doh.dc.gov/doh/cwp/view,a,1371,q,573205,dohNav_GID,
1802,dohNav,%7C33200%7C34259%7C.asp

Guttmacher Institute (2011, July, 1). State Policies in Brief: Sex and HIV Education. Retrieved from: http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_SE.pdf.
Hamilton, D. (2011). What constitutes best practice in healthcare design? The Health Environments Research and Design Journal 4(2), 121-126. Retrieved from http://www.herdjournal.com/ME2/Default.asp
Heart for Africa. (n.d.) Heart for Africa. Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.heartforafrica.org//default.aspx
Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2009). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations (4th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.
National HIV Strategy (2010, July 13). National HIV strategy: Federal implementation plan.Retrieved from: http://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/policies/national-hiv-aids-strategy/nhas-federal-implementation-plan-fact-sheet.pdf…...

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