In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By brianyakoe
Words 3097
Pages 13

The working of the human brain is an aspect that many have tried to fathom as well as study in a bid to understand how it works. Many have been taken aback by what they have been able to figure out about the brain and its functions. The brain has over time been regarded as one of the most important organs in the body, and that can be tied to the fact that most bodily functions can be controlled by the single organ. The destruction or the dysfunction of the brain could mean death or even other problems such as mental disorders. The field of memory, cognition and thought are unique areas when it comes to understanding the functioning of the brain. Cognitive psychologists are concerned with being able to study how the brain works as well as why people act as they do. Some areas are involved in the field of neuropsychology with each of them being a crucial pillar. Cognitive neurology deals with studying the mental process such as memory, creativity, thinking and perception (Mohn & Rund, 2016). That means being able to understand the inner workings of the brain and its relation to the mind. Clinical psychology deals with the management as well as the rehabilitation of individuals who have suffered from illnesses as well as injuries that cause neurocognitive problems. That may include post-traumatic stress disorder patients or bipolar disorder patients. The field also covers behavioral neurology which deals with memory, behavior and cognition as well as how that impacts the functions of the brain. Cognition can be said to the manner in which people can understand issues as well as how the brain interprets the signals that it receives from the surrounding. The memory will be concerned with how one can store information as well as how they can recall that information at a later time (Wootan & Leding, 2015). Thought can be…...

Similar Documents

The Importance of Biology in the Study of Psychology contribute to other areas of psychology, such as language, reasoning, decision-making and consciousness. Behavioral neuroscience has made major contributions to the study and understanding of medical disorders. Neuropsychology is another field in which both psychology and biology play a major role. Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as it relates to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is a clinical and experimental field of psychology that aims to study, assess, understand and treat behaviors directly related to brain functioning. Neuropsychology studies and applies research to the functions and the dysfunctions of the brain and how they affect the body as well as the personality. This has helped us to not only define mental disorders and cognitive impairments, but to develop different treatment plans and tests with the intention to help those with dysfunctions cope with daily living. Neuropsychologists usually work in clinical settings involved in assessing or treating patients with neuropsychological problems, or in the management of pharmaceutical clinical-trials researching drugs that may have impact on the Central Nervous System's function. Thanks to psychobiology and neuropsychology, there is a wealth of information available on mental illness such Parkinson's disease. Parkinson’s disease is a disease characterized by its motor symptoms as well as its neuropsychiatric and speech problems. The disease......

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5


...mental activity. * To combine the study of both the internal mental activities and observable human behaviors, psychology became the science of behavior and mental processes. TERMS * ------------------------------------------------- cognitive neuroscience  An academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modelling. * ------------------------------------------------- behaviorism  An approach to psychology focusing on behavior, denying any independent significance for the mind, and assuming that behavior is determined by theenvironment. * ------------------------------------------------- humanistic psychology  A psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in the context of the tertiary sector, which was beginning to produce more in the most developed countries in the world than the secondary sector was producing for the first time in human history, thus demanding creativity and new understanding of human......

Words: 2537 - Pages: 11


...needed]). Testing brain damaged subjects (Neuropsychology) Neuropsychology, the precursor to modern neuroscience, allowed us to learn a great deal about brain function by examining people with specific, known brain injuries.  Cognitive changes are often reported in people who have suffered some kind of brain injury. The damaged areas are a good indicator of the brain regions that are important to the cognitive function that has been changed by the injury. One of the most striking examples of this form of neuropsychology was carried out on a railroad construction worker, Phineas Gage (pictured).  Following an explosives accident, Gage survived a cylindrical iron rod being driven completely through his head.  This destroyed his left frontal lobe and changed his personality so much that his friends described him as “no longer Gage.”  Whilst little formal psychological testing was carried on Gage, anecdotes about changes in his behaviour are used to illustrate the role of the frontal lobes in healthy decision-making and emotion. Other notable cases include patients HM and Tan who have informed modern psychological understanding of the brain involvement in memory and speech production. Problems: Specific deficits in processing are rarely found without the occurrence of other deficits.  Psychological observations are usually only ever made after the event and therefore lack adequate experimental control. Lesion studies (Neuropsychology) The removal of part of the brain -......

Words: 4690 - Pages: 19

Week 1

...contribute to the behaviors expressed. Both neuroscience and biological study both the nervous system by using things like MEG’s and FMRI’s/ another process that could be directly linked to biological psychology could be neuropsychology. It is a division of science that attempts to understand the way structure and function of the brain relates to behavior and psychological processes. 5. Describe the major underlying assumptions of a biopsychological approach. The major underlying assumptions of Biopsychology approach are that biological events can cause mental consequences and that mental events cause biological consequences (Wickens, 2005) They believe that the mental and biological processes are linked to each other and cannot be separated. The connection between the two are that biopsychology is essential in supplying data for all fields of psychology. Since all areas of psychology treat and study behavior the brain and understanding how it functions to cause behavior is specifically related to all branches of psychology (Wickens, 2005). Biopsychology introduces the relationship of biopsychology to other fields as being overlapping. This means bio psychologists work in many kinds of study such as cognitive neuroscience, psychopharmacology, neuropsychology or evolutionary psychology. References 1) Http:// 2) Pinel, J. P. J. (2009). Biopsychology (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 3)......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3


...considerable limitations. The problem with trying to apply experiments to one side or the other of perceptual psychology is that experimentation often lacks a consistent tone. This leaves much of the field open to questions about the validity of the experiment itself. The sheer individuality of humans and how they perceive their environment is difficult to measure in a clearly scientific manner. Thus, any experiment will need to take both the inconsistency and the experience of the humans into account prior to achieving a successful result. Biological Psychology is based on quantifiable research of the brain and other physiological phenomena, including genetics, that affect behavior, emotions and cognition. It's otherwise referred to as neuropsychology, behavioral neuroscience, biopsychology, psychobiology and physiological psychology. Biological Psychology uses fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and EEG (electroencephalography), among other tools, to diagnose physiological causes for psychopathology and other cognitive, behavioral and/or emotional states. It also draws from animal experimentation. Comments (0)     Kinds of Psychology Degrees There are choices of Clinical, Counseling and Research Psychology disciplines, but within these disciplines there are many kinds of Psychology. The kind you choose should depend on your interests, aspirations, capabilities and values. Your personal circumstances will ultimately determine whether you can afford the cost of......

Words: 1308 - Pages: 6

Biological Psychology Worksheet

...unifying sciences of physics and rules of basic biology.  Wilson often admitted he could be wrong and challenged those around him to prove him wrong.  4. Describe the relationship between biological psychology and other fields in psychology and neuroscience. Biological psychology is defined as the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states.  Both neuroscience and biological study both the nervous system by using things like MEG’s and fMRI’s.  One may have a hard time saying neuroscience and biological psychology are one in the same. I have heard them interchanged since I wanted to become a psychologist.  Another process that could be directly linked to biological psychology could be neuropsychology.  Neuropsychology is a division of the science that attempts to understand the way structure and function of the brain relate to behavior and psychological processes.  5. Describe the major underlying assumptions of a biopsychological approach. Anyone can suffer from a mental illness if they are subjected to enough traumas. Mental illness can be created along a range of severity beginning with borderline issues to psychosis.  There can be a mixture of harmful environments to psychic conflict to cause a mental illness. There is a boundary between insanity and normality. ...

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

What Next for Psychology

... as cited in Valentine, 1982, pp.152-153.). The study of the functions of various structures within the brain and how they relate to function and behaviour, as per the previous example, is Neuropsychology (Hallett, [n.d]). Although this field of psychology is quite new, its historical roots go back to the days of the ancient Egyptians (Beaumont, 2008). It was not until the late nineteenth century that neuropsychology became a discipline standing on its own. A physician by the name of Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796-1881), began investigations into the functions of individual areas of the brain (Beaumont, 2008). Bouillaud was particularly interested in the production of speech, and discovered that different areas of the brain are responsible for its production and understanding (Beaumont, 2008). Following on from the work of Bouillaud was the research carried out by Paul Broca (1824-1880) (Beaumont, 2008; Dockree, 2011). It was the work of this scientist and his studies of how speech is produced and understood that finally determined that individual areas of the brain are responsible for different functions. His discovery of an area of the brain, called Broca’s area, helped to establish neuropsychology as a legitimate field of study (Beaumont, 2008). These advances in neuropsychology throughout the history of the general field of psychology have culminated, through experimental research, in the theory that the brain has ‘plasticity’ (Beaumont, 2008; Hopes, 2010). That is,......

Words: 2957 - Pages: 12

Information Security

... الفصل الأول علم النفس العصبي: النشأة والأهمية النشأة والأهمية) ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ - التعريف، النشأة والتطور:- علم النفس العصبي Neuropsychology في أبسط تعريفاته هو " ذلك العلم الذي يقوم بدراسة العلاقة بين السلوك والمخ." أو هو " دراسة العلاقة بين وظائف المخ من ناحية والسلوك من ناحية أخرى". وتستمد هذه الدراسة معلوماتها من أكثر من علم كعلم التشريح Anatomy وعلوم الحياة (البيولوجيBiology)، وعلم الأدوية (فارماكولوجيPharmacology)، وعلم وظائف الأعضاء (الفسيولوجي Physiology). ويعد علم النفس العصبي الإكلينيكي Clinical Neuropsychology أحد المجالات التي يتم فيها تطبيق هذه المعرفة في المواقف الإكلينيكية الخاصة ببعض المشكلات. ظهرت العديد من الدوريات المتخصصة في هذا المجال التي نوجز بعضها فيما يلي:- 1-  مجلة علم النفس العصبي الإكلينيكي Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2-  مجلة علم النفس الإكلينيكي Clinical Psychology. 3-  علم النفس العصبي الإكلينيكي Clinical Neuropsychology. 4-  المجلة الدولية للعلوم العصبية International Journal of Neurosciences. 5-  مجلة نيوروسيكولوجيا Neuropsychologia. 6-  مجلة علم النفس العصبي الإكلينيكي والتجريبي J. of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology. 7-  مجلة علم النفس العصبي Neuropsychology. 8-  مجلة المخ (الدماغ) واللغة Brain & Language. حتى أوائل عام 1980 لم يكن علم النفس العصبي أحد التخصصات المحددة، ثم وضعت الجمعية الأمريكية لعلم النفس American Psychological Association تحديداً في القسم الأربعين لها حددت فيه تعريف علم النفس العصبي، وفي أواخر الثمانينات وضعت الجمعية المحددات المطلوبة لمن يحصل على دبلوم علم النفس العصبي......

Words: 2508 - Pages: 11

Psychological Testing

...and psychological symptoms of mental disorders. Achievement testing is the knowledge of individual’s education assessments from math, science, history, reading, writing, or skills in other areas. Interest and attitudes measures specific topics, practices and groups on individuals in high school and colleges expounding on their interests and attitudes. Neuropsychological test obtains information about the brain, the functioning, memory, intelligence, thinking, and coordination (Hogan, 2007). The only category that uses test from the other categories. Neuropsychology uses the tests from clinical, neurological and educational fields (Damor & Hansell, 2008). Four Primary Users and Uses The four primary users’ and uses are divided into four specific categories clinical, educational, personnel, and research (Hogan, 2007). In the clinical categories consist of clinical testing, school psychologist, counseling and neuropsychology helping individuals with their problems, no matter the severity. In the educational category users are school administrators, teachers, parents, school board members, legislators, and the public. The educational test consist of individual levels of learning, annual achievement testing, American College Testing (ACT) and licensing or certifications for several of professions (Hogan, 2007). The personnel or employment category pertains to military and business personnel, testing allows organizations to select who is best qualified for the......

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Using Examples of Case Studies, Critically Evaluate the Contribution Cognitive Neuropsychology Has Made to the Understanding of Normal Cognitive Function.

...Neuropsychology is the branch of psychology which investigates the function and structure of the brain as it relates to processes of cognition such as; memory, perception, thinking, recognition and the human ability to solve problems, ( Jansari, 2010 p.60). Since the second half of the nineteenth century neurologist began studying brain damage in patients, more specifically their research has examined the effect of brain damage and its implication for normal cognitive functions. It has therefore being argued that in order to understand a working system, one must understand how it can fail, (Jansari, 2010 p. 59). This can refine and possibly constrain existing theories, as well as inspire the formulation of future concepts with regards to the structure of normal cognition. Evidence is based on case studies of individual brain damaged patients who show deficits in particular areas of the brain, from such studies researchers infer that different areas of the brain are highly specialized. Furthermore the development of more accurate techniques, aided by more effective research paradigms has increased our understanding of cognitive functions, in areas such as disassociation, plasticity, memory, localization and face processing, which would be explored later in the essay. Cognitive neuropsychology has however shown that there are limitations in understanding cognition where questions regarding methodology may arise, for instance studying single patient symptoms may pose problem for...

Words: 2361 - Pages: 10

Exploring Psychology Careers

...Exploring Psychology Careers Destiny Brotherton PSY 305 May 4, 2015 Dr. Jon Stern Exploring Psychology Careers Although there is an inordinate amount of diverse types and areas of specialization in psychology, such as Clinical Neuropsychology and School Psychology, the overall idea is the study and research of the human mind and behavior. Psychology is known to aid those who suffer from a variety of mental illnesses while also helping people to comprehend better the mind and how exactly the brain operates; some believe such study is both ineffective and unethical. Majoring in psychology opens the door for various career opportunities since “there are over 200 classified forms of mental illnesses” that are “on a continuum of severity (The Five Major Categories Of Mental Illness, 2011).” Mental illnesses can take anyone as a victim, they do not discriminate. “One in 4 adults and one in five children will have a mental health disorder at some point in their lives (The Five Major Categories Of Mental Illness, 2011).” There will always be those who are unfortunate to have a mental illness, meaning the research will always be a necessity. Thus, the careers in psychology are to remain endless. There are many benefits to having a career in psychology, such as a high job outlook, being able to make a difference in people’s lives, and learning more about yourself and others. The demand for psychological services is high, and the statistics for people who have mental illnesses...

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5


...Concussion Institute, 2015).  It is imperative that a person fully recover from one concussion before risking a subsequent one. Failing to do so adequately can lead to additional neurologic damage. Solution In recent years, concussion has received significant media attention as high-profile athletes have come forward to share their experiences and long-term struggles with this specific type of traumatic brain injury. Concussions are not your run of the mill injury because it can effect an athlete long after their playing days. For this reason, it is imperative that teams make sure that head injuries are properly diagnosed and treated. To do this, a neurologist should be employed by all teams. According to the National Academy of Neuropsychology, clinical neuropsychologists use specialized knowledge in brain behavior relations in the ‘‘assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and/or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, medical, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders. The clinical neuropsychologist uses psychological, neurological, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological principles, techniques and tests to evaluate patients’ neurocognitive, behavioral, and emotional strengths and weaknesses and their relationship to normal and abnormal central nervous system functioning.’’ (R J Echemendia, 2009). This specialized training is precisely why a team needs a neurologist on its medical staff. ......

Words: 1674 - Pages: 7

Validación Concurrente de La Batería Luria-Dna Frente a Las Escalas de Inteligencia Wechsler (Wais-Iii)

...solapamiento o redundancia de información, en una aplicación conjunta de ambas en una evaluación neuropsicológica. Palabras clave: batería Luria-DNA, capacidad intelectual, escala WAIS-III, evaluación neuropsicológica. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Validation concurrent of the battery Luria-DNA opposite to the scales of intelligence Wechsler (WAIS-III) ABSTRACT In the context of the assessment neuropsychology, the tests of intelligence are applied typically as part of a battery of more extensive tests to assessment multiple domains of psychological functioning. With this study we have tried to contribute to the process of validation of the battery Luria-DNA opposite to the scales of intelligence Wechsler for adult, third edition (WAIS-III) in university students. Conclusions. Finally, we emphasize the idea of the complementarity of both instruments and to reject a possible overlapping or redundancy of information, if these instruments are apllied joint in neuropsychology assessment. wor ords: Key words: battery Luria-DNA, intellectual capacity, scale WAIS-III, neuropsychology assessment. E n el contexto de la investigación psiquiátrica, la evaluación neuropsicológica se ha incrementado con objeto de valorar la disfunción cognitiva característica de diversos trastornos y alteraciones mentales1. En el contexto clínico la evaluación neuropsicológica ha tenido una especial importancia y reelevancia al permitir comprender el conocimiento de la situación actual y......

Words: 6350 - Pages: 26

Neuropsychology Discussion

...The research that I undertook in the field of neuropsychology was one that was able to offer unmatched knowledge as to the workings of the brain. I was able to learn how the brain functions as well as what a powerful tool it is when it comes to controlling the body. The research was able to open up my eyes to the fact that the brain needs to be taken care of as it can make or break an individual. The research was also able to offer a few hilarious moments such as where the older people are taken back to university so as to find out whether they can still retain information. That would come across as laughable as one would not expect an elderly person back in a classroom to grasp concepts that bother even the younger generation. The research was also able to make me learn that no one is mentally ill per se, and psychological problems are not a disease. The other part that was interesting was that music could improve the state of the mind, and that would go against the contrary belief that music slows down the memory. The lessons learnt in the study have gone a long way to improving my perception of the brain. References Hanna-Pladdy, B. & MacKay, A. (2011). The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging. Neuropsychology, 25(3), 378-386. Lenehan, M., Summers, M., Saunders, N., Summers, J., Ward, D., Ritchie, K., & Vickers, J. (2015). Sending Your Grandparents to University Increases Cognitive Reserve: The......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2


...schedule. MSP EDUCATIONAL PLAN 1103C June 2011 Term PS502 5.00 Ethics and Standards of Professional Psychology PS502: Ethics and Standards of Professional Psychology PS503 5.00 Applied Statistics for Psychology Research PS503: Applied Statistics for Psychology Research PS504 5.00 Advanced Research Methods PS504: Advanced Research Methods PS505 5.00 Testing, Measurement and Assessment PS505: Testing, Measurement and Assessment PS506 5.00 Lifespan Development PS506: Lifespan Development PS510 5.00 Qualitative Analysis PS510: Qualitative Analysis PS515 5.00 Learning and Behavior PS515: Learning and Behavior PS520 5.00 Neuropsychology PS520: Neuropsychology PS525 5.00 Foundations of Psychopathology PS525: Foundations of Psychopathology PS530 5.00 Cognitive Psychology PS530: Cognitive Psychology Course Description 0.00 PS600 5.00 Comprehensive Exam PS600: Comprehensive Exam REFERENCES Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Handbook 2008-09 (n.d). Retrieved Sept 5th from Florida Department of Health (n.d) Retrieved Sept 5th from

Words: 594 - Pages: 3