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Green Buildings: Better Quality of Life
Design of buildings for sustainability
– Case study presentation

Prof. Bernard V. Lim JP
Principal, AD+RG Architecture Design and Research Group Limited
Professor, School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Community College
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Client:
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Project Manager:
Campus Development Office,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Project Architect:
AD+RG Architecture Design and Research Group Ltd.
Architectural Collaborators:
AGC Design Ltd.
Wang Weijen Architecture

Acknowledgements Received
- Green Building Award 2008
Merit Award in the New
Construction Category. by Professional Green
Building Council
-

Highest BEAM (Building
Environmental Assessment
Method) rating of Platinum by HKBEAM Society.
(The first educational building in Hong Kong to achieve such rating) Acknowledgements Received
- Finalist in “World Architecture
Festival 2008” in Barcelona on October 2008
- one of the 12 Finalists in the
Learning Category and is the only Hong Kong architectural practice in this Category.

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Project Brief

(I) Introduction
The Project is a high-rise 19-storey institutional building for the Hong Kong Community College.
It aims at providing a dynamic and interactive space for youth education while incorporating the sustainable design considerations and construction techniques into the building. 4 main design and engineering concepts:
- Sustainable multi-storey building for the 21st century campus
- Design for identity, adaptability and flexibility
- Optimizing public communal space to inherit PolyU’s campus quality

- Effective circulation design consideration for high-rise campus

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(I) Introduction
The Hong Kong Community College (HKCC) serves as a new campus for the Hong Kong
Polytechnic University to cater for the Associate
Degree programmes at Hung Hom Bay.

PolyU
Hostel

SITE

PolyU
Main Campus

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Master Plan Consideration
Site opportunities and constraints
Locating at nearby sites, HKCC and the existing
PolyU Student Hostels should each have appropriate identity in terms of form, massing and spatial quality, but well integrated visually and linked physically

Design response
- Raised landscaped decks on top of the multipurpose hall to provide greenery public space
-- Careful disposition of high-rise block for best view enjoyed by the users and optimum interblock lighting/ventilation exposure

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Master Plan Consideration

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Programme
Vertical Campus

A Campus for 3000 students

Challenges:
- effective vertical circulation system - outdoor / communal spaces for learning

Low Rise Condition

High Rise Condition

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Programme

Alternative learning spaces configurations

-Informal learning clusters
- Interactions

Traditional - Classroom

Alternative – Learning clusters

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Programme
Programmatic distribution:
- Low block: mass teaching facilities in the low block

- Classrooms: up to 8/F
- Library / Computer Centre: 9/F to 11/F
(Heart of Campus)
4/F Landscaped Terrace

- Specialist Teaching Rooms: 12/F to 14/F
- Staff / Administration: 15/F to 17/F

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(II) Programme
Effective circulation design consideration for high-rise campus
- Escalators are used to serve the low levels where mass teaching spaces accommodated
- Lift landings at strategic communal spaces
- Lift traffic study was conducted to determine the optimum lift number and zoning arrangement for effective and efficient energy use strategy

Lift Traffic Analysis

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(III) Modular Planning Design
Modular Planning Design
- The premises target to cater ever-changing teaching needs in future as well as developing technologies - A flexible “modular system of spatial combination” capable of future transformation has been developed to facilitate the need of adaptability / flexibility - Module - 8.4m x 8.4m spatial unit
- Pre-cast R.C. construction can be adopted for better environmental and construction management consideration
Upper floor layout plans

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(III) Modular Planning Design

Sky gardens
- Access to external air in a high rise campus
- External communal spaces
- Spiral allocation

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(III) Modular Planning Design
Modular design for elevation
- Response is made to the modular space organization

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(III) Modular Planning Design
Modular design for elevation

- Modular design for elevation is articulated by square-shaped planning modules to match the spiral sky garden organization
- Enhance air flow across the building mass.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

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Project Brief

(III) Modular Planning Design
Computer 3D Model Façade Study

High rise learning space – Sky garden
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

1.0

Quality

1.1 Indoor Environmental Qualities
1.2 Bioclimatic & Landscape Qualities
1.3 Neighbourhood Amenities

Quality
From various building service implementations and structural system integration to the architectural layout planning and design, different simulations and prudent testings and commissioning aim at achieving a high quality building in terms of enhancing the indoor and outdoor air, visual enhancement, transportation and circulation, acoustic and noise attenuation etc.
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

1.0

Quality

1.1 Indoor Environmental Qualities
Natural lighting at indoor space

• Internal courtyards with glass enclosure
• Air flow Control for Workshop
- Exhaust system is provided to maintain the workshop at negative pressure to prevent smell from spreading to other areas. • Low Level Exhaust for Toilets
- Low level exhaust is provided for each toilet cubicle. Ventilation fan is located above false ceiling of the toilets and discharged to open air.
• Fresh Air Intake
- Fresh air intake is located away from the possible traffic contamination and other pollutant sources.
Internal Courtyards

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

1.0

Quality

1.2 Bioclimatic & Landscape Qualities
• Sky gardens and green roof
- Enhance natural ventilation

• Integration of Greenery into the
Elevations
- Along periphery of building and parapet walls / outside classrooms - strip planting to enhance natural ventilation and to screen off unpleasant view
• Internal courtyards with glass enclosure • Foot Massage Pathways
- Foot massage pathways are installed at
4/F landscape deck
Sky gardens as communal spaces on upper floors

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

1.0

Quality

1.3 Neighbourhood Amenities
• Integration of Greenery into the Elevations
- Feature trees/palms are located at semi-open communal spaces as a focus to create a unique landmark for orientation

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
2.2 Material Use & Water Conservation
2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control

Originality
The first fully pre-cast and modular unit system (including columns, beams, ribs, facades, staircases, etc) adopted in this high-rise institutional building with the objectives to promote off-site fabrication and reduce material wastage.
The maximized amount of sky gardens intends to bring in more fresh air and enhance the indoor air quality, meanwhile, provides visual comfort to visitors and users.
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future

glass w/ 50% fritted pattern

clear glass

grey tinted glass

glass w/ 30% fritted pattern

• Varied Ceramic Fritted Patterns on glass panels applied at different places of the building
-There are three different types of glass used in the building. They have different degrees of transparency. This is controlled by means for different percentage of ceramic fritted pattern on the glass. For the Glass on the outermost of the building, it has about
50% transparency: this helps reducing heat gain, and thus saving energy for cooling. For the inner glass, it is either clear glass or glass with 30% fritted pattern: this helps maintaining outside views. Glasses with fritted patterns of various densities

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
• Energy saving standard of luminance is adopted for particular locations in the building
- Luminance of 300 lux is adopted for classrooms
- Luminance of 100 lux is adopted for corridors
• Maximizing the openable window provisions to the internal corridors in order to reduce electricity consumption
- Windows are introduced at the ends of the internal corridors on typical floors of the Tower Block
• Night Mode chiller
- 4 big water-cooled chillers and one 1 small water-cooled chiller are adopted. The small chiller is used as nighttime or light load chiller to optimize the efficiency of the equipment.

Lightings of various luminance at different locations

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
CO2 sensors

• CO2 Sensors
- CO2 sensors are adopted to control the outdoor air quantity supplied to the interior spaces. The total outdoor air quantity from the primary air handling unit is also regulated by adjusting the fan speed using frequency inverter. This can minimize the fresh air loading on air-conditioning system.
• Intelligent Building Management and Control for public lighting and
MVAC system at public area
- Group on/off control of the fan coil units and individual control for each
Lecture Theatre, using time schedule. The time schedule can be adjusted at the BMS.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
• Total Energy Recovery between
Exhaust Air and Fresh Air in
PAU (Primary Air Unit) Design
- Rotary heat wheel is provided to each primary air unit at 9/F to 14/F for total energy recovery between exhaust air and fresh air.

AC supply at low level
Multi-purpose hall cross section

• Low Level A/C supply at Multipurpose Hall
- Cooling load was greatly reduced by strategically locating nozzles of
A/C supply

Total-Heat-Recovery Concept for Fresh Air supply

Multi-purpose hall

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
• Motion Sensors for Escalators
- When the escalator is idled for a pre-determined period, the escalator will be slowed down. If the motion sensor at the entry landing detects a passenger going toward the escalators, the escalator will be switched automatically to the designed speed again. Escalator with motion sensors

• LED Exit Signs
- The power consumption of LED exit sign with integral battery / charger is about 3W. It is adopted with long expected life, minimum maintenance and low power consumption.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.1 Energy Flows & Energy Future
• Occupancy motion sensors for lighting and FCU control in classroom and individual staff offices
- Motion detectors (infrared type) are provided at each Lecture
Theatres to turn off all lighting and reset the temperature set point to 28oC (adjustable) during unoccupied mode to save energy.
Motion sensor

On/off control of fan coil units in each classroom is interlocked with lighting

T5 tubes

• T5 Tubes and Electronic Ballasts
- Energy saving fluorescent luminaries are provided at classrooms, lecture theatres and staff offices.
- Optimum energy efficiency and a lumen maintenance level of about 92% with 10,000 burning hours.
- More environmental friendly for having relatively smaller amount of mercury used, less glass is used in the slimmer tube, less package material.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.2 Material Use & Water Conservation
• *Use of Recycled Aggregates and Fine Aggregates for production of paving block – “Eco-paving Block”

• Reuse of Bleed Off Water
- A bleed off tank located at 4/F is provided to collect bleed off water from cooling towers. The bleed off water is transferred to flushing water tank for flushing purpose.

Eco-paving block used at LG/F

• Reuse of Condensation Water
- A treatment plant for recycling condensation water from fan coil units and air handling units is provided. The treated condensation water will be re-used for flushing purpose.

Design diagram of eco-paving block

* Academic collaborator:
Professor C.S. Poon,
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.2 Material Use & Water Conservation
• Use of Transfer Air
- Transfer air duct with silencer is provided for airconditioned areas for transferring air from classrooms to the corridors, from which the “used” air is then transferred to the toilets where exhaust system is installed.

- Exhaust air from Lecture Theatres is transferred to Chiller
Plant Room/Carpark at LG/F and communal space. This can fully utilize the treated air before exhaust.

HVAC layout plan at 13/F

energy conservation
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control
• Pre-cast Reinforced Concrete construction
- Pre-cast R.C. construction is FULLY applied to pre-cast facade, structural columns, slabs, beams and staircases
(The first fully pre-cast construction for institutional building in HK)
- Prevent extensive wet trade on the works site and reduce C&D waste/debris generated on site
- Minimized use of timber formwork / falsework
- Noise is reduced by less use of vibrator for in-situ concreting works

Pre-cast
R.C. column installation Pre-cast R.C. slabs

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control
• Pre-cast Reinforced Concrete construction
- Fast track works programming : Without the need to formwork erection and striking for the secondary beams and slabs, and with early programming for production of pre-cast members from the set-up plants, the construction time is shortened. It implies shorter site works time and so as the pollution and nuisance caused to the surrounding environment
Aerial site progress photos
Pre-cast manufacturing & installation

2/F Structural framing plan

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control
• Fair-face R.C. applied on façade
- It reduces the necessity of plastering use, and in turn less material waste results during construction.
• Non-timbering hoarding, metal falsework applied
• On-site sorting of construction and demolition
(C&D) waste
Fair-face R.C. at outdoor / indoor areas

• Trip ticket system is adopted and the construction waste is disposed at the Government designated disposal area

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

2.0

Resources

2.3 Waste Management & Pollution Control
• Non-HCFC/ Halon Portable Fire Extinguishers
- Non-HCFC/ halon portable fire extinguishers are provided inside electrical and mechanical plant areas, laboratories and other specified areas.
• CFC-Free Refrigerant
- The chillers are operated on R134a or CFC-free refrigerant to minimize ozone depletion and global warming effect.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.1 Life Cycle Perspective
3.2 Building Amenities
3.3 Sustainability Policy & Feedback Loops

Practicality
All treatments and planning of the building involve in-depth research on the practical use viewpoints, medium and materials selection, plant species for greening and its supporting devices, actual maintenance and operation issues.
The output is achieved through successful collaborations with PolyU’s environmental and engineering professors and practitioners.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.1 Life Cycle Perspective
• Solar Water Heating System
- The system aims at providing sufficient hot water for 16 numbers of shower to serve a maximum of 30 numbers of person per hour.
- 60 numbers of solar collectors are installed on upper roof floor and as pre-heat system for such showers.
- The solar water heating system is a closed circuit solar water heating system. The proposed solar collector system can rise the circulating water temperature above 80 degrees Celsius while the heat is transferred to the potable water through the calorifier tanks. | 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.2 Building Amenities
• Use of dual-flush water tank for water closet
- Users could choose different flushing volume of 7.5 litre and
3 litre for water conservation
• Infra Red Sensor for Water Taps

Application of 7.5 Litres flushing cisterns with low and high flow selection

• Free Cooling for Lecture Theatres and Multi-purposes Hall
- When the outdoor enthalpy and temperature is lower than the design room air condition of Lecture Theatres and
Multi-purposes Hall, free cooling is adopted. The fresh air volume is controlled to achieve the higher energy benefit
• LED Exit Signs
- LED exit sign is adopted with long expected life, minimum maintenance and low power consumption

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.3 Sustainability Policy & Feedback Loops
Close Relationship among different parties
Partnering workshops among end-users, project manager, consultants and contractors are organized to foster a partnering approach in the project development. Facilities Programming Workshops
Three facilities programming workshops are conducted to develop the project brief and design layouts through the discussion with the Community College’s representatives, Campus Development Office,
Facilities Management Office and the Project Team.

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.3 Sustainability Policy & Feedback Loops
User’s response and feedback system
- Different events and workshops are arranged at different stages of the project with all stakeholders for better interaction, sense of involvement and feedback engagement.
- A standard form of report is designed for users’ feedback. All defects would be analyzed and reviewed by the project team. Joint inspections are carried out to ensure all problems would be handled carefully.
Ease of operation and maintenance, cost effectiveness
-For maintenance considerations, alternatives of materials and fittings were adopted for the project and with long term maintenance costs considered and studied. - Value Engineering was extensively employed at all stages to provide a true comparison of alternatives and options, taking into account the life cycle costs, tangible and sometimes intangible values of different choices.
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

3.0

Sustainability

3.3 Sustainability Policy & Feedback Loops
Flexibility for changing needs
- Future expansion has been reserved at the building design stage. Teaching clusters formed by modules of 8.4m x 8.4m, separated by folding partitions, allow flexibility for spatial arrangement and possibility of reorganization. The clusters are arranged in a dynamic and vibrant vertical composition to create spaces of different scales and characters for social interaction and teaching purposes.
- The design can minimize disturbance in case of future alteration and additions, in view of inevitable changes of teaching and curriculum requirements over the life span of the Community College.
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

4.0

Innovation

4.1 Computer Modeling
4.2 Integration of building service with structure
4.3 ”Immunized Building”
Innovation
The project systematically and practically achieves a great success of combining innovative ideas and environmental objectives with architectural design. It not only gives a new atmosphere to its surrounding but also to a larger extent defines new paradigm of how a high-rise institution building could integrate with the natural environment and the surrounding in an urban climate at an urban scale.
Valuable inputs were made from PolyU’s research collaborators, facilities management and campus development colleagues and the design team.
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

4.0

Innovation

4.1 Computer Modeling
Computer-aided renderings, physical and computer models of different scale, elevation studies, computer fluid dynamic model, and other cutting edge simulations are utilized and reviewed at clientconsultant meetings to discuss and illustrate the continuous development of the project.
Computer simulation on the construction of Pre-cast Reinforced
Concrete is adopted to enhance the structural design as well as assembly process and planning of the pre-cast elements.
Different parties of the project teams have also been facilitated substantially to visualize the structural system and construction process of the main structure frame.

Computer simulation of pre-cast R.C. construction process

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

4.0

Innovation

4.2 Integration of building service with structure
Building service is well integrated with the structural system to cater for future alterations. The main service trunks run along the corridor, with branch pipes branch off into function room. Hence it becomes flexible for future service and architectural layout modification if the space are re-partitioned.

Structural system allows flexible M&E design

| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

4.0

4.3 * ”Immunized Building”

Innovation

Sustainable Immunized Building (SIB)
- The project adopts the “Immunized Building” concept as a new dimension of building quality
-New principles are introduced for strategic building modeling and its system on the delivery of a safe, healthy and comfortable environment having the effective use of energy
- The principles formulate various holistic, pathological and system indices for total approach of health management in a building for people, space and system
* Academic collaborator:
Professor Chan Wai Tin, Daniel,
Department of Building Services Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
| 0.0 INTRODUCTION | 1.0 QUALITY | 2.0 RESOURCES | 3.0 SUSTAINABILITY | 4.0 INNOVATION |

Thank you…...

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...Human development has been and would continue to be a very complex process; from birth to death. Human development spans a broad range of human endeavor that has attempted to understand why human beings to the things they do, grow the way they do, and the potential of human beings. There has been an ongoing debate whether human development is impacted by nature or nurture. If the growth of the individual were to be guided by nature, the individual would take the position that all or most of its behaviors and characteristics are the result of genetics inherited from their parents (Colella, 2013). Meaning that they were fully equipped with all the skills they need in their lives when they are born. On the other hand, if an individual’s growth were guided by nurture only, the individual would think and behave in a certain manner because that is how the individual was taught to do so or from experience (Colella, 2013). In this case the individual is also impacted by the environment surrounding them. Although nature has some impact on human development on an individual, nurture has a greater impact on an individual’s development. It has a bigger affect on human development due to early childhood experiences, acquired intelligences and socialization throughout their life. Early childhood is the most and rapid period of development in a human life. The experiences gained from birth to the four years of age are critical to the complete and healthy cognitive, emotional and......

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Nature

...September 2013 Purity of Rust and Branches The Upper Peninsula as a whole is a snippet of tranquility that was carved from our founders, and the founders before them; which are more commonly known as the boulders, river beds, moose, and mosquitos. The most spectacular section of this piece of heaven lies approximately 390 feet southeast of the center of Negaunee (Google Maps). This is where you will find the remains of what was once a booming small town neighborhood, which now “booms” with the transformation that is accredited to nature itself. In the early 1940’s nearly half of the city of Negaunee was closed off due to the extensive underground mining. The town was forced to relocate because of the risk of caving. Luckily for us, the former caving grounds have been deemed safe for the public and re-opened in recent years (City of Negaunee). This is quite obviously appealing to the history buffs, but more importantly to those that believe that nature has a mysterious and whimsical voice. Thankfully, we have many people here that get a buzz from the way the world speaks. While walking in to my naturalistic solace and playground, I tried to look at it with a new eye. Instead of just finding peace in the journey of falling leaves and comfort in the swaying branches, I attempted to observe in detail. The very first thing I noticed as I walked past a long staircase to nowhere, was that a small squirrel was perched on the lowest branch of the tree nearest me. I slowly......

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...Human Nature Nature in itself is like its own author it creates symbols naturally and can also set moods. Robert Frost’s After Apple Picking is about how it is human nature to take a break. Frost’s Mending Wall is about how it is normal for us humans to be guarded. These poems are similar in that they both use symbols and nature to reveal the speaker’s feelings of regret and security however; they are different in that their overall messages are not the same. Frost’s feelings of regret and security are conveyed through symbols and nature in both of these poems. In After Apple Picking Frost talks about his regrets as apples such as the “barrel that [he] didn’t fill” (After Apple Picking 3) which means that he didn’t finish doing something. He also said that that there were “apples [he] didn’t pick up” (5) which were opportunities not taken advantage of. When frost says he is “done with apple-picking (6) it shows that he is done with working or what he is doing because his regrets keep coming back to him. A way that nature shows his feelings are how this poem takes place at the end of apple picking which is end of fall beginning of winter. In winter animals hibernate and take long rests which frost is contemplating or if he is “just [feeling] some human sleep” (42) coming on. This means that he wants his feelings of regret to go away but wondering if it is humanly normal to do so. In Mending Wall the wall itself symbolizes security. When Frost says that he and his......

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...Consciousness and its Place in Nature David J. Chalmers 1 Introduction1 Consciousness fits uneasily into our conception of the natural world. On the most common conception of nature, the natural world is the physical world. But on the most common conception of consciousness, it is not easy to see how it could be part of the physical world. So it seems that to find a place for consciousness within the natural order, we must either revise our conception of consciousness, or revise our conception of nature. In twentieth-century philosophy, this dilemma is posed most acutely in C. D. Broad’s The Mind and its Place in Nature (Broad 1925). The phenomena of mind, for Broad, are the phenomena of consciousness. The central problem is that of locating mind with respect to the physical world. Broad’s exhaustive discussion of the problem culminates in a taxonomy of seventeen different views of the mental-physical relation.2 On Broad’s taxonomy, a view might see the mental as nonexistent (“delusive”), as reducible, as emergent, or as a basic property of a substance (a “differentiating” attribute). The physical might be seen in one of the same four ways. So a fourby-four matrix of views results. (The seventeenth entry arises from Broad’s division of the substance/substance view according to whether one substance or two is involved.) At the end, three views are left standing: those on which mentality is an emergent characteristic of either a physical substance or a neutral substance,...

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...Nature The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in sociology All three of the sources give the reader an explanation of the different viewpoints of the topic of human behavior. A century ago, most people thought human behavior resulted from biological instinct, but sociologist now believe that it is determined a little more by one’s surroundings All three sources question the fight over how much of whom we are is shaped by genes and how much by the environment. We do not yet know how much of what we are is determined by our DNA and how much by our life experience, but we do know that both play a part The concept of nature vs. nurture can also be related to my own life. I have always made really good grades and had tremendous academic success. It just seemed natural that I worked hard in school, that it was in my genes maybe, but when I asked my parents how they did in school they told me that they struggled every year. They said that they made mediocre grades and never really cared about school. This really surprised me because I thought that because they pushed me so hard with academics that they must have done well in school themselves. But that was not the case. I was always surrounded by an environment that forced me to believe that I should never accept anything less than an A. This proved that it was not nature that gave me my academic abilities but the nurture I received from my parents. References Macionis, J. J. (2009). Socialization:......

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...Its nice to be in a calm place, a place that’s tranquil and comfortable. Nature is one of my favorites places because of the various potential that it offers. I think that nature should be appretiated a lot more for all to enjoy and be a part of. Nature can be both a wonderful and terrible thing, and we all have the power to make a positive or negative impact on it. Nature isn’t constantly the same due to changes in weather. As the year goes by, so do the seasons. A season is a subdivision of the year, and there are four subdivisions in a year. The seasons are based on the rotation of the earth around the sun. As the earth revolves around the sun, it gets closer and then farther, resulting in hot and cold weather throughout the year. Each season lasts 3 months and the temperature gradually changes in-between. Spring is when slightly warm weather comes through, during this time, the plants begin to bloom. During summer the earth is closest to the sun making it the hottest time of the year. This also brings more hours daylight. Fall is when the earth starts to pull away from the sun. During this time the weather starts to get cold and the leaves fall from their trees. Winter time is the coldest time of the year, the earth is far from the sun at this point. Nighttime hours are longer than daytime, and also comes the chance of snow. As seasons come and go, so do the activities that people enjoy doing. During the spring, people are excited for upcoming events since the weather......

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...traditions that shape who we are. According to Saul McLeod, author of "Nature Nurture in psychology from Simply Psychology, "At the other end of the spectrum are the environmentalists – also known as empiricists (not to be confused with the other empirical / scientific approach). Their basic assumption is that at birth the human mind is a tabula rasa (a blank slate) and that this is gradually “filled” as a result of experience." Other people for nurture believe our childhood and experiences are the only thing that determines how well each individual deals with social situations. In the article "Taking the 'vs.' out of nature vs. nurture" the author, Alana Snibbe, states how culture is a big part of nurture and who we are. Culture is humans way of answering life's unanswerable questions and it's this that shapes a lot about how we think and our individual psychology. People who believe in the same things are probably going to think alike and act alike. Obviously, there are some very extreme cases where nature is taken out of the debate all together and nurture is the sole factor to why someone behaves the way they do. Some examples are an abusive parent, being abandoned or neglected and always being in someone's shadow. These situations have a much bigger effect on humans than any genes. On the contrary, a large portion of scientists and psychologists are on the nature side of this debate. They believe that nature is either the sole factor or the main factor in determining a......

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...Nature Nature is defined as the basic, or inherent features of something; especially when these features are contributing characteristics. Nature is that natural aspect of one’s life that is tamed to abide by the laws of society. This aspect of life consists of the genetic makeup of an individual. Designer babies are babies whose genetic makeup is enhanced, or built to eradicate certain effects. If it was possible to genetically engineer designer babies; there would be certain qualities that I would try to install in my offspring. First, I would ensure that this baby will be a boy, as I would like for him to uphold the legacy that I have made, as well as to make one for himself. I would ensure that the gene responsible for athletic capabilities is firmly planted in his Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). Like myself, I would want him to be one in tune with his emotions, and concentrated on executing tasks when given. As it relates to other people, they would aspire to create what they would think is the ‘Perfect Baby’. If one was to do a survey, majority of the participants would want to have a baby with blue eyes, and a baby that will grow to be the ‘perfect’ height for a guy, as well as a strongly built muscular body. People would aspire to have a baby with no flaws. They would aim to have a baby that will grow to have a warm personality and the kindest heart. I can hardly conceptualize that someone would want to have a child with disabilities. If a parent was born with......

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