Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture in Twins

In: Social Issues

Submitted By anderst0316
Words 2057
Pages 9
Nature vs. Nurture in Twins
Stephanie A Anderson
Western Governors University
WGU Student ID# 000257288

Nature vs. Nurture in Twins
Many studies are being done on twins and the difference between genetics vs. environment. Many studies are done on monozygotic twins as well as dizygotic twins. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are known as identical twins because they are from one egg that is fertilized and splits into two genetically identical halves, which continue to grow as twins. If there are any additional splitting of the zygote it leads to triplets, quadruplets etc. In Dizygotic (DZ) twins, also known as fraternal twins, there are two eggs that are fertilized by two different sperm, essentially making two babies at once that are genetically different but similar like other siblings. (Wheelwright, 2004) There are many differences between identical twins and fraternal twins such as fraternal twins can be of opposite sex. It is very rare for identical twins to be different sexes since they are split from the same zygote. (Wheelwright, 2004) Identical twins share 100% of their genetics and fraternal twins about 50%. (Horwitz, Videon, Schmitz, Davis, 2003) Identical twins do have the same DNA and the same fingerprints. Although there are now genetic tests that can find minor differences in the DNA of identical twins, they are still considered genetically identical. (Wheelwright, 2004)
With all the studies that have been done over the years with sets of twins, they are beginning to learn a lot more about genetics and how genetics and environment affects behavior and health conditions. For more than a century studies have been conducted on monozygotic twins that have been reared apart that continually show strong similarities in their behaviors which has been linked to their genetics. Although this is not 100% definitive, it leads researchers to look for…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Describe the basic elements of the nature-nurture controversy. The amount of influence that genes have on personality verses the influence of learning experiences is not only related to genetics but also psychology. The debate of nature- nurture controversy has been studied for over 130 years and is still being researched. “After studying many prominent English families, Galton concluded that intelligence is inherited- that nature, not nurture, is responsible for intelligence” (Wood, Wood, & Boyd, 2005, p. 278). Nature refers to an individual’s innate qualities. Genes is considered nature, the physical and personality traits determined by ones genes will always stay the same. The coding of genes determines an individual’s traits such as eye color, hair color, and height. Nurture refers to personal experiences. This refers to ones childhood and how they were raised. This debate will always be controversial. An individual’s traits are predetermined by their genes but life experiences are what shape a person. There have been many research studies completed regarding this debate with no conclusive results. Discuss what is controversial in the nature- nurture debate. Nature versus nurture is one of the most frequently debated issues among psychologists. The term was created by a British researcher Sir Francis Galton who studied the role of genes in intelligence. The debate is about the importance of an individual’s inherited qualities versus personal experiences in......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...The Impact of Nature and Nurture on Human Life Name School September 24, 2013 Introduction Most educated people have probably heard of the terms nature and nurture before. The thing most people do not realize is how big an impact each of these makes on all of us. This paper will discuss the impact that nature and nurture have on human development. Nature and nurture are two words used to describe the development of humans. There has been an on going debate in psychology to whether heredity or the environment most impacts human psychological development. Many believe that they go hand in hand because one affects the other. Nature is a word used to describe the genes given to each child by their parents. Nurture is described as how children are affected by their surrounding environment. This paper will discuss the topics of how development may be different depending on where you live, the effect of nature and nurture on stress, behavioral genetics, give a summary of the points and then a conclusion. Environment Ones environment impacts nurture. The type of environment one is in can include anything from what type of house to what city, and even what country is lived in. A person who grew up in a big city will have a very different nurture than someone who grew up in the Amish lifestyle. Not that one or the other is better; they are just completely different environments. An article by Carol McNamara explains how a combination of nature and nurture are how......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Introduction The phrase “nature versus nurture” was first used in its modern interpretation by the British psychologist, Francis Galton (Princeton, 2012). He began his studies concerning heredity in 1865, being moderately influenced by Charles Darwin’s publication “Origin of Species”, Galton was in favor of the idea that success was caused by superior inherited qualities, he hypothesized that human mental and personality traits were fundamentally inherited as they are in other animals (Indiana, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to establish which qualities relating to personality and development are proven to be at least partly inherited, and whether some other aspects of human personality and development are caused by environmental factors. The first section of the paper will be a brief overview of the research methodology of this field, the second section will contain a discussion of research relating to heritable factors and how they influence development, the third a look at how environmental interaction might influence personality and finally some criticism towards this field of study. Main Body The research of genetics and heredity is often difficult due to the vast amount of variables in the development of human beings, to keep variables to a minimum the most popular method of research in this field the study of twins. Twin studies involve comparing data produced by monozygotic (Identical) twins , these are twins who come from the......

Words: 1767 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Nature vs. Nurture There has always been a large controversy over whether inherited genes or the environment influences and affects our personality, development, behavior, intelligence and ability. This controversy is most often recognized as the nature verses nurture conflict. Some people believe that it is strictly genes that affect our ways of life, others believe that it is the environment that affects us, and some believe that both of these influence our behavior. Either way, social scientists have been struggling for centuries deciding whether our personalities are born or made. Tests are done often on identical twins that were separated to see how they are each influenced by their separate environments. In the past twenty years, it has been discovered that there is a genetic component to every human trait and behavior. However, genetic influence on traits and behavior is partial because genetics account on average for half of the variation of most traits. Urie Bronfrenbrenner, who studies genetics, said, "It is not nature vs. nurture, but the interaction of nature and nurture that drives development." Researchers are finding that the balance between genetic and environmental influences for certain traits change as people get older. Also, people may react to us in a certain way because of a genetically influenced personality and, we may choose certain experiences because they fit best with our instinctive preferences. This means that our experiences may be......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Nature vs. Nurture

...Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology PSYCH 101 Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology What makes you think, feel, and behave the way you do? Were you born predisposed to live the life you are currently living, or were you born a blank canvas upon which your experiences gave shape and expression to the person you are today? These are the types of questions the Nature vs. Nurture debate has posed and scientists have probed for over a century. In this paper we will look at some of the aspects of this debate the scientific community does not attend to, or dismisses, the origin and history of this debate, the essential characteristics around which this issue is debated, and where scientists are today in understanding this issue. What are your thoughts on the Nature vs. Nurture argument? Sir Galton wrote in his book English Men of Science (1874), “Nature is all that a man brings with him into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth,” (p. 12). I have been led to believe that our biology (nature), our environment (nurture), and our cognitive abilities all interplay and influence our resulting personality and other existing traits. We are, as Myers (2012) continuously asserts, biopsychosocial beings (p.124). These aspects of our existence work in accord to actuate the developmental potential written into our genetic code. Where I think there is a deficiency in the theories proffered, in attempt to answer the Nature vs. Nurture...

Words: 1666 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Nature vs. Nurture There is an issue that has been conferred upon by philosophers in the past and still so by scientists today. This issue is whether heredity or environment plays a greater role in the determining or shaping of an individual's behavior. It is known as the nature versus nurture debate. Numerous generations before us have deliberated on the reasons behind the development of human behavior. There have been many theories formulated to explain why humans behave the way they do. The surviving theories for behavior derive from physiological and sociological explanations. However, the two explanations have not always been compatible with each other. The famous nature vs. nurture debate over human behavior resulted from conflicting views between proponents of the physiological (nature) and sociological (nurture) explanations. Throughout history, research has swayed popularity back and forth between the theories. Yet, theorists have broken down the line separating nature and nurture. As of today, people utilize both explanations to explore human behavior. Way before our time, early philosophers endeavored to understand the human behavior. As early as 350 BC, such philosophers as Plato and Aristotle tried to understand behavior. The question of nature or nurture as the primary drive can be traced to these times. Plato believed behavior and knowledge was due to innate factors. Author Fiona Cowie states, "The claim that the character of our mental furniture is......

Words: 1605 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Nature vs. Nurture

...Homosexuality, Nature vs. Nurture Western Governors University Homosexuality, Nature vs. Nurture Nature versus nurture is one of the most enduring debates in the psychology world today. These debates have been studied and reviewed for many years, with only hypotheses formed, no clear conclusions have been met. In the middle of the debates is human behavior, whether they are learned or inherited remains unanswered. Intelligence, ability, or even personality remains under scrutiny whether these traits are learned or predetermined by specific genes. Physical characteristics can be contributed to hereditary, i.e. eye color or hair color. When referring to nature, it is assumed that what and who we are, as humans, comes in a natural state or inherited. In other words, we are going to be who we are without the influence on how we were raised and matured in our environment. On the other hand, nurture is viewed as what or who we are as a result of our influences and our environment or surroundings. Homosexuality is one of the hottest topics today. One of the reasons for the popularity is the current debate on same sex marriage, along with homosexual human rights campaigns going on in today’s public arena. More so either this “behavior” is by choice or predetermined by genes. The Studies One of the best research in this area is on identical twins. Howard Gruber,  the director of the Institute for Cognitive Studies at Rutgers University in Newark, reviewed and quoted......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...2014 Nature vs Nurture The nature vs nurture debate has been a raging topic for decades now. It has caused much controversy in justifying human characteristics, especially concerning the defense of criminal behavior. Many people believe that our actions and conduct comes from the genes we possess, and that we are born with a higher likelihood to act in certain ways. Others believe that our behavior is a result of our childhood, and how we are brought up. Extensive research has been done on the nature vs nurture debate. Although both nature and nurture ultimately affect one’s behavioral characteristics, it seems nurture has a much greater impact. So, is our behavior affected by our heredity and genes, or by the environment we grow up in? What is nature? “Nature is your genes. The physical and personality traits determined by your genes stay the same irrespective of where you were born and raised” ("Nature vs Nurture." Diffen.com. Diffen LLC, n.d. Web. 3 Dec 2014). Taking in the consideration of I.Q., studies prove that genetics has a great effect. Adopted siblings have no more similar of an I.Q. than strangers, while blood related siblings have an I.Q. correlation of .6. Twins especially, having an I.Q. correlation of .86 (Nancy,L. Same-Age Unrelated Siblings: A Unique Test of Within-Family Environmental Influences on IQ Similarity. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1997 June; 89(2): 381-390.) DeNoto, 1 Nature vs Nurture The nature vs nurture......

Words: 1495 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Nature vs. Nurture - Twin Studies Eimy Ramirez PSY304 Prof. Reed April 11, 2015 Abstract The exponential growth of scientific and biological knowledge over time has facilitated the genesis of fields of specialization, namely biological determinism, sociobiology and eugenics, just to mention a few. The common thread between these fields is their proponents collectively postulate that all human traits, including weight, strength, intelligence, aspects of personality such as temperament (aggression for example), criminality and morality, are ultimately determined by the information encoded in DNA. They espouse that "we are who we are" because of our genes solely; that biodiversity in man is ultimately precipitated by phenotypic variations, caused by purely genetic differences, amongst individuals, therefore ostensibly offering little or no gravity to non-genetic factors. Non-genetic factors, generically labelled as the environment, encompass not only the physical, chemical and biological criterion, but also the numerous social and psychological ones that shape our lives as we grow and mature. Can we seriously take the influence of the environment, an intangible but nonetheless powerful force we experience every single day, out of the equation? Are we really who we are simply because our genes deem it so? What happens when you examine twins who have the same genes but were raised in different environments? Nature versus Nurture For years,......

Words: 2605 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...NATURE V.S. NURTURE The Nature vs. Nurture debate is one of the oldest and most commonly debated psychological conflicts around. Arguments from both sides on this subject are hard to dispute. Whether it is in our DNA or it was predisposition it’s hard to agree or disagree with either stand-point being that they both offer interesting and intriguing views that are insightful, informative and unfortunately unfounded. With that being said it’s still an argument that will continue to stand the test of time and continually be debated for centuries down the road until a definitive explanation can be fathomed. Nature vs. Nurture is a phrase for the long-standing controversy as to the relative influences of genetics versus the environment in the development of personality traits. Nature is represented by instincts and genetic influences and nurture by social influences and environment. The Nature part of this debate is influenced by the idea that we get our traits and characteristics from our DNA and nowhere else. It is easy to ascertain and prove that we get our physical traits such as eye color, hair color, height and otherphysical traits from DNA. The unknown is whether we get our more abstract traits from DNA like character, intelligence, sexuality and preferences to likes or dislikes. The Nurture side of this is debatea agrees that genetic influence is a key factor in the abstract physical traits but nothing more. It also goes on saying that the environment that......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...Psychology there are many debates. The most debatable issue is Nature vs., Nurture. This controversial issue seems to find its place in the midst of disagreements battling of theory and experience among Psychologist and Sociologist for centuries. The Nature theory focuses on the genetic development of an individual; what color eyes will you have? Are you musically inclined because your parents are musicians? Will you be good at sports because your father may have been a star athlete? While the Nurture theory main focus is the environmental influence on an individual. How you are raised, way type of family do you come from? Was it Nuclear or Binuclear? Can your environment determine your behavior? I could determine that both may have an impact on an individual, however I cannot agree with either side. How can anyone truly articulate an unbiased decision, and not mention the Creator of all? I believe there are some issues that will remain unexplained, for the purpose that God wants it to remain that way. Genetics at times can be unexplainable, for example the African American couple giving birth to a Caucasian child with blonde hair (Essence, 2010). Many would say that’s impossible, however as we can see it is very possible. Then it’s the story of Liz Murray, who graduated from Harvard although both her parents were addicted to drugs (Abraham, 2010). In 1963 there is an article entitled “A medical accident”; twin boys taken to the hospital for a routine circumcision,......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nature vs. Nurture

...behavior: nature or nurture. Nature is simply the unmodifiable factors or genetics that an individual is born with; those who believe that nature is the primary shaping force of who we become are called nativists. While Nurture is the modifiable factors such as the environment or experiences that are unique to each individual; those who consider nurture as the primary driving force in human development are called empiricists. As many articles that are out there concerning the nature vs. nurture debate, there are that many differing opinions and claims that say that the question has finally been solved and that either nature or nurture is more responsible for determining an individual’s traits. Some of the newer articles also claim that they are equally responsible or that neither is solely responsible and that there are multiple other factors that play into the equation. Clearly the debate continues and it has not only two, but many sides. The nature vs. nurture debate can often get heated and is quite controversial. According to an article from Diffen (2015), “Some observers offer the criticism that modern science tends to give too much weight to the nature side of the argument, in part because of the potential harm that has come from rationalized racism. Historically, much of this debate has had undertones of racist and eugenicist policies — the notion of race as a scientific truth has often been assumed as a prerequisite in various incarnations of the nature versus......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nature vs. Nurture vs. Tofu

...Nature vs. Nurture vs. Tofu 2 Without conducting any research, I realize that I have never really thought about the subject of nature vs. nurture. By knowing a little of what the controversy is about, I am able to ask myself the right questions to complete my thoughts and come to a proper opinion. Usually I am an extremist by going with one side and not lingering with thoughts in the middle. However, this is a subject that does not deserve one end. By looking and observing those around me, many may notice that people share similar traits. Some traits are the result of nature and others are the result of nurture. There is no 50:50 ratio that is involved in the deciding factor of how much of each side contributes to the individuals we are today. Because biological factors and conformity are two different subjects, there is no scientific way to measure an accurate ratio of nature to nurture. Instead, I believe that each and every person is the product of 100 percent nature as well as 100 percent nurture. As my boyfriend and I are out to lunch, I throw my thoughts at him about nature vs. nurture and he makes me realize that tofu is a great example of both nature and nurture. He asks me how I am able to eat something so bland and tasteless. I tell him that tofu does have sort of a creamy nutty taste to it and is delicious plain uncooked. However, when tofu is cooked, it conforms to and picks up the flavor of the food or sauce that is being cooked......

Words: 1274 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...There has always been the ongoing debate as to whether nature or nurture plays a role in criminality. Some individuals may be predisposed and have a higher risk of developing criminal behavior due to some biological factors. Psychologists have been able to identify patterns using twin or adoption studies finding links with genetic testing which shows aggressiveness or the lack of self-control of one’s behavior. A meta-analysis preformed on 12 twins and 3 adoptions showed anti-social behavior that linked to genetics of criminality. This reveled that forty-eight percent could possibly be linked to genetically controlled criminal tendencies. (Mason, 1994) With the possible links to aggressiveness and genetics there have also been studies done into levels of hormones and their effects. Generally speaking, men tend to be more aggressive than women, this fact has led some to believe a spike in testosterone could in part be responsible for aggressive or criminal behavior. Olweus and his colleagues (1980) conducted a study of 58 16-year-old boys by testing various responses to physical and verbal aggression, frustration tolerance, self-confidence, and anxiety, and also obtaining blood samples, testing for testosterone levels. The study revealed that while personality measures had no significant relationship to testosterone, there were verbal and physical aggression in response to threats. Also that the lack of tolerance for frustration was related to testosterone level. Based on......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nature vs Nurture

...ESSAY: STAGE 1 NATURE VS NURTURE Intro Nature VS Nurture has been a long going debate for many of centuries. Many of people have argued for what side they think is correct. Psychologists such as; Many other studies have been done When in psychology we talk about Nature this means our genetics, what we are born with. Nurture refers to how we have experienced life and how as a child how parents have brought us up. Environmental factors also contribute to Nurture. Many studies have been done in this debate, in the studies there have been twins separated at birth. The twins were moved to opposite sides of the world with completely different family types. When the twins were reunited some aspects of them were the same but things like their beliefs and look on life were different Nature normally refers to our genetics. What we are born with; we may be born with a chemical imbalance causing us to be more depressed then happy or we may have a bad temper. Some genetic mental disease may run through the family such as depression or bipolar. Researcher’s studies people and their relatives because they share most genes so the studies they conduct see whether or not their characteristics are similar. Identical twins have the same genes, so this may be Nature but they usually are treated the same and grow up in the same environment. Nurture is usually the environment we are brought up in; we may be brought up on the streets which can cause us to become aggressive because you had to...

Words: 516 - Pages: 3