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National Cadet Core

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Submitted By vinaybadhe
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_ëb {dÚoMo nmoqeXo - amOfu emhÿ _hmamO àm.S>m°. eoIa Zm. {eagmR> emar[aH$ {ejU Am{U H«$sS>m {d^mJà_wI, Xod{Jar _hm{dÚmb`, Am¡a§Jm~mX. shekhar_shirsath@yahoo.com ------------------------------------------------------------amOfu emhÿ _hmamO ho Ho$di _„{dÚoMo nmoqeXo ZìhVo Va Vo ñdV:hr nÅ>rMo n¡bdmZ hmoVo. åhUyZM Ë`m§Mm H$mbI§S> AmYw{ZH$ ^maVr` Hw$ñVr na§naogmR>r gwdU©`wJ R>abm Amho. emhÿ _hmamO ho {Zð>md§V ~bmonmgH$ hmoVo. 1894 gmbr Ë`m§Mm gÎmmamohU g_ma§^ Pmbm. H$a{da ZJarbm EH$ ^¸$_ H¥$VrMm, gw{ejrV Am{U ì`gZa{hV amOm {_imbm. amÁ`H$ma^mamV JT>boë`m amOmbm _mÌ ~bmonmgZoMm {dga nS>bm Zmhr. amÁ`mamohU : emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr amÁ`mamohU{Z{_Îm 1894 gmbr H$moëhmnyabm EH$ Hw$ñË`mMo O§Jr _¡XmZ ^a{dbo. Ë`m _¡XmZmbm _„{dXoÀ`m joÌmV EH$ Eo{Vhm{gH$ _hÎd Amho. {dO`r _„mà_mUoM nam^yV _„m§Zmhr _hmamOm§Zr ^aKmog ~{jgo {Xbr. H$moU qOH$bo AWdm H$moU habo, `mÀ`mnojm H$moU H$go bT>bo `mbm A{YH$ _hÎd Amho. EImXm n¡bdmZ habm åhUOo Vmo H$_r XOm©Mm _„ hmoVmo hr {dMmagaUr emhÿ _hmamOm§Zm _mÝ` ZìhVr. habobm _„ {dO`r _„mBVH$m H$gXma, X_Xma Am{U H$m¡eë`nyU© Agy eH$Vmo. åhUyZ {dO`r n¡bdmZm§à_mUoM nam^yV n¡bdmZm§Zmhr nm[aVmo{fHo$ àXmZ H$ê$Z Ë`mMr H$Xa H$am`Mm hm ZdrZ nm`§S>m emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr nmS>bm. Ë`m§Zr nmS>boë`m ZdrZ nm`§S>çm_wio Hw$ñVr {dH$mgmbm JVr {_imbr. Hw$ñVr~amo~aM ì`m`m_mMohr _hÎd dmT>{dÊ`mMm àm_m{UH$ à`ËZ emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr Ama§^ Ho$bm. Ë`mgmR>r Amnë`m OwÝ`m amOdmS>çmVM "_moVr~mJ' Vmbr_ gwê$ Ho$br. Vmb_rda Ë`m§Zr ñdhñVo EH$ \$bH$ bmdbm. Ë`mda {b{hbo hmoVo, ""n{hbo eara g§nÎmr, Xwgar nwÌ g§nÎmr d {Vgar YZ g§nÎmr Agob VmoM nwÊ`dmZ'' ~bmonmgZo_mJrb hoVy : _hmamOm§Mm ~bmonmgZo_mJrb hoVy amï´> g§ajUmMm, {dH$mgmMm Am{U gÑT> Amamo½` g§nÞ {nT>r {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mMm hmoVm. amOKamÊ`mVrb H$mhr _§S>itZm dmQ>o H$s, amÁ`m§Zr Hw$ñVr Am{U H$gaVr `m§Zm OmñV _hÎd Xody Z`o. _hmamOm§Zr AgoM EH$Xm Z amhmdyZ Ë`m _§S>itZm gwZmdbo, N>ÌnVrbm ñdH$s` Am{U naH$s` XmoÝhr eÌy \$ma Voìhm H$moUË`m amÁ`H$Ë`m©da Ho$ìhm H$gm àg§J `oB©b `mMm H$m` Zo_? åhUyZM Vo ñdV: Vmbr_ H$am`Mo BVa n¡bdmZm§Zm bT>V XoV. _hmamOm§Mo XÎmH$ {nVmOr {edmOr _hmamO `m§À`m AmOmanUmMm \$m`Xm KodyZ Ë`m§Zm doS>o R>adyZ gO©Q> J«rZ `m ZaneyZo Ë`m§Zm R>ma Ho$bo. åhUyZM _hmamO åhUV J«rZgmaIo Zaney Oar _mÂ`m A§Jmda Ambo Var Ë`m§Zm Mwam H$aÊ`mMo gm_Ï`© _mÂ`m A§Jr `mdo. _¡XmZr d _Xm©Zr IoimMr AmdS>hr _hmamOm§Zr Ë`m_wioM a`VoV {Z_m©U Ho$br hmoVr.

amOnyÌ OÝ_moËgdmMo _¡XmZ : _hmamOm§Zm nyÌ bm^ {X. 31 Owb¡, 1897 amoOr àmá Pmbm. {H$Ë`oH$ {nT>çmZ§Va amÁ`mbm Am¡ag `wdamO {_imbm. `wdamOm§À`m ~maí`mÀ`m {Xder nydu H$Yr Pmbo Zmhr Ago Hw$ñË`mMo _¡XmZ ^a{dÊ`mMo _hmamOm§Zr R>a{dbo. `m _¡XmZmV Xoe nmVirdarb Zm_m§{H$V ~wê$O~§X, éñV_-E-qhX VmoS>rMo CÎma ^maVmVrb n§Om~r _„ IoiÊ`mg AmUyZ Ë`m§Mo Xe©Z Amnë`m gd© àOmOZm§Zm ìhmdo åhUyZ M§XZ, bã~y Am{U H$„ÿ AmXr _„m§Zm _hmamOm§Zr Am_§{ÌV Ho$bo. _hmamï´>r`Z n¡bdmZm§Zm n§Om~r n¡bdmZm§Zr PQ>nQ> {MVnQ> Ho$bo. `m KQ>ZoMm _hmamÁ`mÀ`m _Zmda Imobda AmKmV Pmbm. n§Om~r _„m§Zm eh XoÊ`mMm à`ËZ : n§Om~r n¡bdmZm§~amo~a H$moëhmnyaÀ`m n¡bdmZm§Zr _wH$m~bm H$ê$Z H$moëhmnyaMo Zmd Hw$ñVrjoÌmV JmOdmdo `m CÔoemZo _hmamOm§Zr ehamVrb {d{dY Vmb_tZm ^oQ>r {Xë`m. ~è`mM Vmb_rMr nS>PS> Pmbr hmoVr. Ë`m Vmb_rMr _hmamOm§Zr S>mJSw>Jr Ho$br. H$mhr Vmb_rMm Va nyU© {OUm}Õma Ho$bm. _hmamOm§Zr H$mhr Zì`m Vmb_tZm OmJm XodyZ B_maVr ~m§YÊ`mg AW©gmhmæ` {Xbo. ì`m`m_mÀ`m Am{U Hw$ñVrÀ`m gd© gmYZgw{dYm nwa{dë`m. Ë`mH$mir H$moëhmnyamV Aem EHy$U e§^amÀ`mda Vmb_r hmoË`m. àË`oH$ noR>oV n§Yam Vo drg ZdrZ Vmb_r {Z_m©U Pmë`m. CÎmaoVrb _„m§Zm YmH$ XmI{dUmao Pw§Oma _„ V`ma H$aÊ`mMo emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr R>a{dbo. `mZ§Va _hmamOm§Zr Ë`mMo Hw$ñVr{df` nma§nm[aH$ YmoaU ~Xbbo Am{U ZdrZ YmoaUmMm Am{dîH$ma Ho$bm. éñVw_-EqhXÀ`m VmoS>rMo _„ V`ma H$aÊ`mgmR>r ñdV: nwT>mH$ma KodyZ EH$ Xhm H$b_r H$m`©H«$_ Omhra Ho$bm. 1) ñdV: nÇ>o V`ma H$aUo. 2) dñVmXm§H$adr IwamH$mMr VaVwX H$aUo. 3) _„m§À`m IwamH$mMr VaVwX H$aUo. 4) _„mÀ`m ì`m`m_mda XoIaoI H$aUo. 5) _„m§À`m S>m°ŠQ>ar VnmgUrMr gmo` H$aUo. 6) amOo-aOdmS>o, OhmJraXma, gaXma, XaH$Xma, lr_§V ì`mnmar Am{U OZV `m§Mm _„{dÚobm Aml` {_i{dUo. 7) gamd dmT>mdm åhUyZ CÎmaoH$S>rb »`mVZm_ _„m§Zm nmMmaU H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mr bT>V BH$S>rb _„m§er KS>dyZ AmUUo. 8) _„m§Zm _mPr nm[aVmo{fHo$ XoUo, Ë`m§Mm _mZ-gÝ_mZ H$aUo. 9) dñVmXm§À`m CXa{Zdm©hmMr gmo` H$aUo. 10) _„m§À`m CXa{Zdm©hmMr gmo` H$aUo. hrM Xhm H$b_r `moOZm _hmamï´>mVrb Hw$ñVr na§naobm OmJ{VH$ nmVirda KoD$Z Jobr. n¡bdmZm§Zm amOm Aml` : H$moëhmnyaÀ`m {d{dY Vmb_rV Am{lV åhUyZ n¡bdmZ amhV hmoVo, Ë`mÀ`m Imî`mOodÊ`mMm, IwamH$mMm Am{U {ZdmgmMm gd© IM© _hmamO Amnë`m ImO{JVyZ H$aV. `mV _mbre H$aUo, IwamH$ H$aUo, OodU H$aUo d dñVmX `m§Zmhr gd© gw{dYm hmoVr. `m {edm` AÝ`Ì amhUmè`m BVa XmoZeo n¡bdmZm§Zm _m{gH$

{Z`{_V Am{W©H$ _XV _hmamOm§H$Sy>Z {_iV Ago. H$mhr hm¡er n¡bdmZm§Zm Am{W©H$ _XV {Xbr OmV Vr doJirM. `mà_mUo BVa n¡bdmZm§Mm Á`mÀ`m Ë`mÀ`m àH¥$Vrà_mUo IM© {Xbm OmV. Img~mJ Hw$ñVr _¡XmZmMr {Z{_©Vr : 1902 gmbr _hmamO `wamon Xm¡è`mda AgVmZm B§½b§S>, \«$mÝg Am{U BQ>br XoemMm Xm¡am H$aV amo__Ü`o Joë`mZ§Va Ë`m§Zr VoWrb Am°{bpånH$ Hw$ñVr ñQ>o{S>`_bm ^oQ> {Xbr. àm{MZ amo_Z H$mimnmgyZ `m ^ì` {Xì` AmImS>çm§V J«rH$ `moÕm§Mr `wÕo, _„`wÕo Am{U OZmdamÀ`m Q>H$ar AmXr hmoV AgV. Ë`m AmImS>çmÀ`m _Ü`m^mJr gnmQ> d {dñV¥V _¡XmZ AgyZ g^modma A§S>mH¥$Vr {VaH$m MT> Ago d Ë`m {R>H$mUr Z¡g{J©H$[aË`m nm`è`m§À`m ñdê$nmV àojH$m§Zm ~gÊ`mMr ì`dñWm Ago. EH$mdoir 90,000 bmoH$ AmImS>çmV Mmbbobo H«$sS>m àH$ma ~gyZ nmhmV. AJXr gdm©V daÀ`m àojH$m§ghr Imbr AmImS>çmV H$m` Mmbbo Amho. ho ñnï> {XgV Ago. ^ì` {Xì` àmMrZ H«$sS>mg§Hy$b nmhÿZ _hmamOm§Zm Img~mJ Hw$ñVrMo _¡XmZ ~m§YÊ`mMr àoaUm {_imbr. B§½b§S>dê$Z naV Amë`mZ§Va _hmamOm§Zr Hw$ñË`mÀ`m _¡XmZmgmR>r Img~mJoMr {ZdS> Ho$br. AmImS>çmMm g§nyU© AmamIS>m _hmamOm§Zr ñdV: V`ma Ho$bm. B.g. 1907 gmbr àË`j AmImS>çmMo H$m_ gwê$ Pmbo. _¡XmZm§Mr gd© OmJm danmgyZ Imbn`ªV CVma~§X Aer V`ma H$aÊ`mV Ambr. gw_mao 50,000 àojH$ ~gy eH$Vrb Aem àH$maMo _¡XmZ V`ma Pmbo. _¡XmZmMo ~m§YH$m_ 1907 Vo 1915 EHy$U AmR> df} Mmbbo. `m _¡XmZmgmR>r Ë`mH$mir gw_mao gìdm bmI én`o IM© Pmbm. eoH$S>mo _Oya VgoM H$mhr H¡$Xr XoIrb H$m_ H$aV hmoVo. ~m§YH$m_ Mmby AgVmZmhr H$mhr _¡XmZo `oWo ^aÊ`mV Ambr. na§Vw _hmamOm§Zr CX²KmQ>Zna Hw$ñVr åhUyZ B_m_~j d Jwbm~ _mohrÔrZ `m XmoZ _hmnamH«$_r _„m§Mr bT>V `m _¡XmZmÀ`m CX²KmQ>Zm{àË`W© R>a{dbr hmoVr. `m Hw$ñVrV OJOoË`m Jm^mMm ^mD$ B_m_~j {MVnV {dO`r R>abm. Ë`mdoir _¡XmZmV _moR>m O„mof Pmbm. \$Q>mHo$ Am{U Q>mù`m H$S>H$S>ë`m Ë`mM~amo~a _hmamOm§Zr _¡XmZmMo CX²KmQ>Z Pmë`mMo d _¡XmZmMo Zmd ""Img~mJ Hw$ñË`m§Mo _¡XmZ'' Ago R>odë`mMo Omhra Ho$bo hmoVo. CÎmaoÀ`m _„mZm nmUr nmObo : H$moëhmnwamV àË`j Hw$ñË`m§Mo dmao gwê$ Pmbo Vo 1897 gmbr amOmam_ _hmamOm§À`m ~maemÀ`m {Z{_ÎmmZo Pmboë`m Hw$ñË`m§À`m X§Jbr_wio `m X§JbrVM CÎmaoH$S>rb n¡bdmZm§Zr _hmamï´>r` n¡bdmZm§Zm Yyi Mmabr hmoVr. åhUyZ emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr R>adyZ Q>mH$bo H$s, EH$ Zm EH$ {Xdg CÎmaoÀ`m n¡bdmZm§Zm n§MJ§JoMo nmUr nmO{dboM nm{hOo. Ë`mÑï>rZo Ë`m§Zr àW_ Amnbo n¡bdmZ V`ma Ho$bo Am{U _J CÎmaoH$S>rb n¡bdmZm§Zm H$moëhmnwamV Am_§{ÌV Ho$bo. Ë`mMr CÎm_ ì`dñWm R>odbr. CÎm_ ì`dñWo_wio CÎmaoH$S>rb _„m§À`m am§Jm BH$S>o bmJy bmJë`m. CÎmaoVyZ Amboë`m n¡bdmZm_Ü`o ^rbm n§Om~r hm ZmdmObobm n¡bdmZ hmoVm. Ë`mbm H¥$îUm _Xm©ZoZo Ad¿`m n§Yam {_{ZQ>m§V {MVnQ> Ho$bo. h_XyH$m Am{U {edmßnmMr Hw$ñVr Pmbr. `m Hw$ñVrV {edmßnmZo h_XyH$mbm _mVr Mmabr. CÎmaoH$S>rb {daÊ`mV _„ AH«$_ `mbm Xodmßnm B§JirZo nQ>mda Ad¿`m nmMM {_{ZQ>m§V Mmar _w§S>o MrV Ho$bo. VgoM Zda§JqgJ `mbm _hmamOm§Zr H$moëhmnwamV ~mobmdyZ JUnV qeXo~amo~a bT>{dbm. hr Hw$ñVr Vã~b AYm© Vmg Mmbbr. JUnVZo Ë`mbm daVr CMbyZ Imbr AmXibm. ñdmar ^ê$Z

eodQ>r Ë`mbm CVmUm H$ê$Z Vmo Ë`mÀ`m N>mVrda ~gbm. AemàH$mao CVaoÀ`m _„m§Zm nmUr nmOÊ`mMr BÀN>m nyU© Pmbr. n¡bdmZm§Mm CXa{Zdm©h d nwañH$ma : n¡bdmZm§Zm EoZ VméÊ`mV bmoH$m§Mr _moR>r dmhdm AgVo. ^anya ~{jgo {_iVmV. n¡bdmZH$sMm H$mbI§S> Amogaë`mda Am{U XwX£dmZo Oa d{S>bmonm{O©V {_iH$V Zgob Va _J Aem bmoH$m§Mo \$ma hmb hmoVmV hr AS>MU _hmamOm§Zr AmoiIyZ Ë`m§Zr Ë`mÀ`m n¡bdmZmÀ`m CXa{Zdm©hmMr ì`dñWm Ho$br. `m~~m~VrVrb {H$VrVar CXmhaUo XoVm `oVrb. H¥$îUm _Xm©Zo `mbm _hmamOm§Zr bîH$a \$S>m_Ü`o "noÝeZdmbm ZmB©H$' H$ê$Z Ho$bu Jmdr EH$ gwnrH$ _im {Xbm. XmXy hob} `mbm hoë`m©_Ü`o Ka Am{U dS>UJr `oWo O_rZ {Xbr. JUy ^mogbo, nm§Sy> {eamiH$a Am{U lrnVr MìhmU `m§Zm noÝeZÀ`m ZmoH$è`m {Xë`m. Á`m n§Om~r n¡bdmZm§Zm Ë`m§Zr Aml` {Xbm. Ë`m§Zmhr Ë`m§Zr Amnë`m g§ñWmZmV Kao Am{U O{_Zr {Xë`m. n¡bdmZH$sZ§Va Ë`mMr b¾o bmdyZ {Xbr Aer AZoH$ CXmhaUo AmhoV. _hmamO Amnë`m n¡bdmZm§Mr {H$Vr H$miOr KoV ho darb CXmhaUmdê$Z {XgyZ `oVoM. `m{edm` n¡bdmZm§gmR>r Ë`m§Zr EH$m \§$S>mMr VaVyX H$ê$Z R>odbr. Ë`m \§$S>mg "hOmar \§$S>' Ago åhUV. Ë`mgmR>r {VH$sQ>o bmdyZ Hw$ñË`m R>odÊ`mMr àWm _hmamOm§Zr gwê$ Ho$br. `mMr gwédmV Img~mJ _¡XmZmÀ`m CX²KmQ>Zàg§Jr Pmboë`m Hw$ñË`mZr H$aÊ`mV Ambr. _¡XmZmMm IM© dOm OmdyZ Or a¸$_ {e„H$ amhrb Vr `m \§$S>mV O_m H$am`Mr Aer `moOZm hmoVr. `m \§$S>mVyZ n¡bdmZm§À`m CÎma Am`wî`mV Ë`m§À`m åhmVmanUmV Am¡fYmonMma d BVa Am{W©H$ _XV `m§Mr VaVyX H$aÊ`mMo R>abo. _hmamOm§Zr gwê$ Ho$bobr "hOmar \§$S> `moOZm' hr n¡bdmZmÀ`m Ñï>rH$moZmVyZ H$ë`mUH$mar hmoVr. g§emoYZmMr C{Ôï>o : 1) amOfu emhÿ _hmamOm§À`m Hw$ñVr {dH$mgmVrb ^y{_Ho$Mm Aä`mg H$aUo. 2) amOfu emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr Hw$ñVr {dH$mgmgmR>r am~dboë`m {d{dY H$ë`mUH$mar `moOZmMm AmT>mdm KodyZ Aä`mg H$aUo. _m{hVr g§H$bZ : gXarb Aä`mgmÀ`m _m{hVr g§H$bZmgmR>r J«§Wmb`m_YyZ CnbãY Pmboë`m {d{dY g§X^©J«§W, _m{gHo$, {Z`VH$m{bHo$ Am{U d¥ÎmnÌm§Mm AmYma KoÊ`mV Ambm. {ZîH$f© : amOfu emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr Amnë`m H$adra g§ñWmZmV bmdbobo Hw$ñVrMo amon _hmamï´>mVM Zìho Va ^maVmVrb _„mH$arVm ~hê$Z Ambo. àm_w»`mZo Ë`m§Zr Ho$boë`m {d{dY H$ë`mUH$mar `moOZm_wio Hw$ñVr joÌmbm MmbZm {_iyZ H«$m§Vr Pmbr. gXarb Aä`mgmMo {ZîH$f© nwT>rbà_mUo 1) amOmbm AZoH$ eÌy AgVmV Ë`m_wio Ë`mZo ñdV: ~bX§S> Agbo nm{hOo VgoM àOobmhr ~bX§S> ~Zdbo nm{hOo. `m {dMmamVyZ Ë`m§Zr Vmb_r H$mTy>Z _„{dÚobm àmoËgmhZ {Xbo. 2) EImXm n¡bdmZ habm åhUOo Vmo H$_r XOm©Mm _„ Zmhr Va habobm _„ {dO`r _„mBVH$mM JwUd§V Agy eH$Vmo. åhUyZ {dO`r n¡bdmZmà_mUoM nam^yV n¡bdmZm§Zmhr nm[aVmo{fHo$ àXmZ H$aÊ`mMm ZdrZ nm`§S>m emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr nmS>bm.

3)

Hw$ñVr{Jam§Mr g§»`m dmT>dÊ`mgmR>r Am{U JwUd§V {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mgmR>r emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr AZoH$ Vmb_rMm {OUmoÕma Ho$bm. ~è`mM Vmb_rMr S>mJSy>Jr Ho$br. VgoM H$mhr ZdrZ Vmb{_Zm OmJm XodyZ B_maVr ~m§YÊ`mg AW©gmhmæ` {Xbo. ì`m`m_mÀ`m Am{U Hw$ñVrÀ`m gd© gmYZ-gw{dYm nwa{dë`m. VgoM Img~mJ Hw$ñVr _¡XmZmMr {Z{_©Vr Ho$br. 4) Hw$ñVr{df`H$ nma§nm[aH$ YmoaU ~XbyZ ZdrZ Xhm H$b_r YmoaU V`ma H$ê$Z am~dbo. hrM Xhm H$b_r `moOZm Hw$ñVr{Jam§Zm Z¡nyÊ` {_idyZ XoÊ`mg `eñdr R>abr. 5) H$moëhmnya g§ñWmZmVrb Zìho Va ^maVmÀ`m {d{dY àm§VmVrb n¡bdmZm§Zm _hmamOm§Zr amOml` {Xbm. {deof åhUOo Jar~ Am{U _mJmgboë`m bmoH$m§_YyZ _„ {ZdSy>Z Ë`m§À`m OodUmMm, IwamH$mMm, {ZdmgmMm, à{ejUmMm Am{U Am¡fYmonMmamMm gd© IM© _hmamOm§Zr ñdV: Ho$bm. `m{edm` BVaÌ amhUmè`m Odinmg 200 Hw$ñVr{Jam§Zm _m{gH$ Am{W©H$ ghmæ` _hmamOmH$Sy>Z {Xë`m OmV hmoVo. 6) _hmamOm§Zr n¡bdmZm§Zm ~{jgo Am{U nwañH$ma {Xbo. noÝeZÀ`m ZmoH$è`m {Xë`m, Kao, eoV-O{_Zr ~{jg XodyZ n¡bdmZH$sZ§Va Ë`m§Mr b¾o bmdyZ {Xbr. _amR>r _„m~amo~a n§Om~r BVa _„m§Zmhr _OmamOm§Zr Agm AmYma Am{U gÝ_mZ {Xbm. 7) "hOmar \§$S>mMr' VaVwX H$ê$Z `m \§$S>mVyZ n¡bdmZm§À`m CÎma Am`wî`mV Am{W©H$ _XV, åhmVmanU Am{U Am¡fYmonMma AmXtda IM© H$aÊ`mMr VaVwX Ho$br. Hw$ñVr{Jambm CVma d`mV AmYma XoÊ`mMo _hÎdnyU© H$m`© hOmar \$S>mÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ Pmbo. emhÿ _hmamOm§Zr n¡bdmZm§Zm doimodoir em~mgH$s XodyZ {d{dY nwañH$ma {Xbo. naàm§VmVrb n¡bdmZm§Zmhr {XbXmanUo CXma Aml` {Xbm. Ë`m§À`m JwUmMr H$Xa Ho$br. {IbmSy>d¥Îmr OmonmgyZ gd© OmVrY_m©À`m n¡bdmZm§Zm EH$Ì AmUyZ Ë`m§Zr EH$mË_Vm gmYbr. åhUyZM N>ÌnVr amOfu emhÿ _hmamOm§Zm "_„mMo nmoqeXo' åhUVmV Am{U H$moëhmnwabm Hw$ñVrMo _mhoaKa _mZVmV.

g§X^©J«§W gyMr
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) gmiw§Io nr. ~r. (g§nmXH$), "amOfu emhÿ Jm¡ad J«§W', {ejU d godm`moOZ {d^mJ, _hmamï´> amÁ`, _w§~B©, 1988. ndma O`qgJamd, "amOfu emhÿ ñ_maH$ J«§W', _hmamï´> B{Vhmg à~mo{YZr, 2007. gw`©d§er H¥$. Jmo., "^maVr` _„{dÚm CX` Am{U {dH$mg', _hmamï´> amÁ` Hw$ñVr{Ja n[afX àH$meZ, nwUo. "^maVr` ì`m`m_ Xe©Z', H«$sS>m d `wdH$ godm g§MbZmb`, _hmamï´> emgZ g{Mdmb`, _w§~B©, 1947. nwa§Xao Jmo. Zm., "emar[aH$ {ejUmMm B{Vhmg', _°OoñQ´>rH$ àH$meZ, _w§~B©, 1992. ^mJdV Ho$. nr., "eara g§nXm', daX àH$meZ, nwUo, 2000. ***…...

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