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Narrative Therapy and Post Modern Approaches

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NARRATIVE THERAPY: 1. Focus of narrative Therapy:
 Narrative conversations are interactive and always in collaboration with the people consulting the therapist.

Narrative therapy seeks to be a respectful, non-blaming approach to counselling and community work, which centres people as the experts in their own lives. It views problems as separate from people and assumes people have many skills, competencies, beliefs, values, commitments and abilities that will assist them to change their relationship with problems in their lives. Curiosity and a willingness to ask questions to which we genuinely don't know the answers are important principles of this work. There are many possible directions that any conversation can take (there is no single correct direction). The person consulting the therapist plays a significant part in determining the directions that are taken. It seems appropriate to begin any exploration of narrative therapy with a consideration of what is meant by the `narratives' or `stories' of our lives.

Narrative therapy is sometimes known as involving’re-authoring' or’re-storying' conversations. Stories are central to an understanding. Stories consist of: • events • linked in sequence • across time • according to a plot 3. LISTENING WITH AN OPEN MIND Social Constructionist Theories place an emphasis on listening to clients without judgment or blame, affirming and valuing them. Totalizing language is avoided. NP focuses on the capacity of humans for creative and imaginative thought.
Morgan (2000) summarizes the theoretical foundations of narrative therapy as follows: cooperation of the person with the counsellors is of primary importance. values to change their relationships with their problems. counsellors. “A conversation can move along many different ways and there is nothing called the right way”

way to go along. THERAPEUTIC PROCESS: (P=problem) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Collaborate with the client- name the problem. Personify the P. Attribute oppressive intentions and tactics to it. Establish amount of disruption/dominating/discouraging caused by the problem to the client. Invite C to see his/her story from a different perspective by offering alternative meanings for events. Discover moments when C wasn’t discouraged- EXCEPTIONS Find Historical evidence that C was in control. Ask C to give a future perspective from the strong, competent person that is emerging. Create an audience in social environment to perceive and support the new story. WINSLADE & MONK: Narrative conversations do not follow the linear progression, but more cyclical progression. Cyclical contains the following elements: a. Move problems to EXTERNALIZED descriptions of problems. b. MAP the effects of a problem on individual. c. LISTEN to the signs of strength and competence in I problem saturated stories. d. Build a new story of competence and document these achievements.

THERAPY GOALS Narrative therapy views people as unique histories.

 Search for counter-narratives (those narratives that function in opposition to dysfunctional narratives).  Help people author new stories apart from those that derive from culturally dominant sources.  Deconstruct cultural stories that may hold a person back. THERAPIST’S ROLE AND FUNCTION ( NT= NARRATIVE THERAPISTS)
        NT are active facilitators. Relational necessities are: Care, interest, respectful curiosity, openness, empathy, contact and even fascination= relational necessity. Narrative therapists make much of an attitude of ‘not knowing’. NT asks questions and based on answers of clients, construct further questions. At the beginning, client and problem fused. Questions aimed at separating the problem from the people- shift in language introduces deconstruction of the original narrative- problem objectified as external to the client. NT emphasises the understanding of clients, de-emphasise efforts to predict, interpret and pathologize. We focus on constructing ‘unique outcomes’. We look for exceptions to the general rule and inquire as to how the unique outcome came about. TWO STAGES OF STRUCTURING EXTRERNALIZING CONVERSATIONS: Lays the foundation for co-authoring a new story line for a client

i. Map the influence of the problem in the person’s life. ii. Map the influence of the person’s life back on the problem.

 

Therapist uses therapeutic letter writing. TL contains the following info:

i. Introductory paragraph reconnects the client to the previous therapy session. ii. Statements summarize: a. Influence problem has had. B) Is having. iii. Questions thought about after previous session, may be asked. iv. Letter documents unique outcomes or exceptions to the problematic story that emerged during the session. Client’s words are quoted verbatim.. Group work suitable and creates new audience needed to form a community of concern. POSTMODERN PERSPECTIVE APPROACHES FROM A MULTICULTURAL

Sorting Out Variations on the Terms "Constructionism" and Constructivism" Philosophical Perspective/Theory Key Points · There is no meaning in the world until we construct it. · We do not find meaning, we make it. · The meaning we make is affected by our social interpretation of the thing. · The meaning we derive for objects arises in and out of the interactive human community. · A branch or variant of social constructionism · People create meaning through their interactions with each other and the objects in the environment. · Social interaction in development of cognition · Social learning precedes development · MKO (More Knowledgeable Other) · ZPD –distance between the actual development level as determined by the independent problem solving and level of potential development as determined through problem solving under MKO · In ZPD provide scaffolding – masters task remove (fading) · Social interaction leads to increased knowledge · Knowledge is actively constructed · More of a “theory” on how a child’s thinking evolves over Practical Implications Even if you bump into a tree, you cannot get meaning directly from the tree because you have ingrained social interpretations of the tree. You will assign meaning to the tree based on your social background and it will be a different meaning from what any other person will have for the tree.

Social Constructionism (epistemology) (also called simply Constructionism)

Constructivism (epistemology)

If you bump into a tree, you can get meaning directly from the tree but that meaning is basically combined with social interpretations of the tree. The meaning you assign to the tree will still be a different meaning from what any other person will have for the tree. Struggling students in a Math class are assigned a peer tutor. (MKO) The peer tutor helps their partner work through problems by providing hints and instruction. (Scaffolding) Struggling students will stop relying on MKO as they work through ZPD levels. The amount of help from the peer tutor can be gradually reduced until they are no longer needed or relied on. (fading) The struggling students have reached the MKO level and no longer are struggling.

Vygotsky’s Constructivism (epistemology with specific application elements)

Piaget’s Constructivism

At a certain stage of development all children will become aware of “self”. A mother places a mark on a child’s face without the child’s knowledge. She then

(epistemology with specific application elements)

time · Focuses on the commonality of learning stages · Need for equilibrium · Detached observation

places the child in front of a mirror. If the child has self awareness, he will reach to his face and touch the mark. However, if he has not developed self awareness, he will reach out to the mirror and try to touch the mark. He is unaware that it is his image in the mirror. A group of students are given a difficult WebQuest Math problem to work through. By using the different perspectives they have gained from their different backgrounds, they can help each other solve the problem more effectively that if they had worked alone.

· Reality is constructed through human activity Social Constructivism · Members of a society (learning theory with together invent the properties strong of the world. epistemological · People create meaning elements) through their interactions with each other and the objects in the environment. · Learning is a social process. It occurs when people are engaged in social activities. · Associated with the work of Richard Prawat · Not an epistemology but “a theory of learning and a strategy for education” (Kafai & Resnick, 1996, p. 1). · Knowledge is actively constructed · Learning to learn · Focuses on the variance of individual and the environment · Dynamics of change · Engagement – Learning occurs through interaction and reflection · Learners can create meaning by building artifacts

Papert’s Constructionism (also called simply Constructionism)

In the University of Georgia’s Instructional Design & Development master’s program, the Design & Development Tools class invites students to choose any multimedia development project they personally find meaningful (within reasonable social and professional norms). The project is not required to be instructional in nature. They are then required to reflect on the design process via readings in design literature and writing an online design journal; and structures are put into place to promote interaction about the design process among peers. Finally, finished artifacts are displayed at the end of each semester in a public showcase event.

Seymour Papert on Constructivism and (Papert’s) Constructionism:

"The word with the v expresses the theory that knowledge is built by the learner, not supplied by the teacher. The word with the n expresses the further idea that happens especially felicitously when the learner is engaged in the construction of something external or at least sharable" (Papert, 1991, p.3).…...

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