Free Essay

Mind

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By saurabhk16
Words 3738
Pages 15
An Introduction to the Global Trade Item Number® (GTIN®)

TM

An Introduction to the

Global Trade Item Number® (GTIN®)
Executive Summary ..............................................................................................1 Key Benefits of the GTIN ......................................................................................2 Why is the GTIN Useful? ......................................................................................2 Definitions .............................................................................................................3 Assignment of GTINs to Packaging Levels...........................................................7 Common GTIN Mistakes Explained ......................................................................8 Examples of GTIN Use .......................................................................................10 Frequently Asked Questions ...............................................................................11 Resources...........................................................................................................13

Executive Summary
The Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is the foundation of the GS1 System (formerly the EAN.UCC System) for uniquely identifying trade items, which includes both products and services that are sold, delivered, and invoiced at any point in the supply chain. GTINs provide unique identification worldwide. The GTIN is encountered most frequently at point of sale and on cases and pallets of products in a distribution/warehouse environment. GTINs can be encoded into various types of GS1 bar codes and Electronic Product Codes™ (EPC) which are programmed into Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The GTIN is a required component of the Global Data Synchronization Network™ (GDSN™) and various types of e-commerce transactions. They are most commonly used on purchase orders, and delivery and payment documents. Companies can be confident that a GTIN, when used correctly, will uniquely identify their products as they move through the global supply chain to the ultimate end user. This global identification system of GS1 ensures that the GTIN placed in a bar code or EPC is the same information contained in the corresponding electronic documents processed between trading partners. GS1 US™ has developed the Data Driver® to help companies with the assignment and management of GTINs. Data Driver is a key benefit of GS1 US Partner Connections and is presently used by companies of all sizes and in various industries to manage more than a hundred thousand GTINs. Companies new to GTINs or those who are in the process of migrating to GTINs are urged to use Data Driver, which ensures the accuracy of GTIN assignments as well as, quality of bar code specifications. Find out more about Data Driver and GS1 US Partner Connections at www.gs1us.org/dd or contact GS1 US for more information at info@gs1us.org.

Page 1
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Key Benefits of the GTIN
• • • • • • Facilitates the global flow of trade items (products and services) and associated information used in electronic commerce Uniquely identifies trade items at all levels of packaging (item, case, and pallet) Allows accurate machine reading of trade items when placed in bar codes and EPCs which are programmed into RFID tags Delivers trade item data in a consistent format and structure Simplifies supply chain management Employs the globally accepted GS1 System whose language is standardized, understood and used by multiple industries

Why is the GTIN Useful?
Uniqueness: The GTIN identifies an item uniquely. The rules for assigning GTINs ensure that every variation of an item (product or service) is allocated a single reference number that is globally unique. Non-significance: The GTIN numbering structure does not contain any meaningful information in itself. A GTIN is a simple pointer to database information that can be directly used in any company and in any country. Multi-sector: GTINs are unique across all business sectors. This means that a healthcare product, a grocery product, or an apparel product are all identified in a compatible manner. International: GTINs are unique worldwide. A GTIN can be assigned anywhere in the world and can be used anywhere in the world. Security: Security of GTINs are provided through a combination of database look-up and the fixed length, numeric format that includes a standard Check Digit. Data Integrity: The Check Digit ensures the integrity of data passing through the system. Source Numbering: The GTIN is assigned by the brand owner of the product. Once assigned, all trading partners and internal users can use the GTIN. The same GTIN can be used to identify a series of identical items. Automatic Data Capture: One of the key benefits of the GTIN is that it can be encoded in many automatic data capture technologies (such as a bar code or EPC used in RFID tags). Machine reading allows the information flow to be linked to the physical flow of trade items through the supply chain.

Page 2
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Definitions
The GTIN is the unique GS1 System Identification Number used for trade items (products and services). The term trade item refers to any product or service upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information; this product or service may be priced, ordered, or invoiced at any point in the supply chain. This includes individual items as well as all of their different packaging configurations. GTINs are 8 digits, 12 digits, 13 digits, or 14 digits in length. It is recommended that a GTIN be represented in software applications as 14 digits by right justifying and zero filling left, as appropriate. There are four GTINs that can be represented in a bar code and each provides unique numbers when right justified and used in a 14-digit database field: • GTIN- 8 (used in EAN-8 bar codes) • • • Seven digits containing a GS1-8 Prefix and Item Reference One digit representing the Check Digit

GTIN-12 (used in UPC-A and UPC-E bar codes) • • Eleven digits containing a U.P.C. Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit



GTIN-13 (used in EAN-13 bar codes) • • Twelve digits containing a GS1 Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit



GTIN-14 (used in ITF-14, GS1-128 (formerly UCC/EAN-128), Reduced Space Symbols, and Data Matrix bar codes, plus EPCs) • • • One digit representing the Indicator digit to indicate packaging level Twelve digits the GS1 Company Prefix and the Item Reference assigned by your company One digit representing the Check Digit

GS1 Company Prefix – The globally unique number assigned to a company by GS1 US™ or another GS1 Member Organization. GS1 Company Prefixes are assigned to companies in varying lengths. Some GS1 US™ BarCodes and eCom™ members may have a membership certificate that shows only a U.P.C. Company Prefix (formerly a UCC Company Prefix). A U.P.C. Company Prefix is converted to a GS1 Company Prefix by adding a zero to the front of the U.P.C.
Page 3
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Company Prefix. The following table illustrates the conversion of a U.P.C. Company Prefix to a GS1 Company Prefix. U.P.C. Company Prefix 801234 8412340 81123400 Converted to GS1 Company Prefix 0801234 08412340 081123400

Note: The GTIN-12 requires the use of the U.P.C. Company Prefix, not the GS1 Company Prefix. Item Reference – The number assigned by the holder of the GS1 Company Prefix to uniquely identify a trade item within the company. The Item Reference varies in length as a function of the Company Prefix length. Check Digit – A calculated one-digit number used to ensure data integrity. To understand how this digit is calculated; refer to www.gs1us.org/checkdig.

Global Trade Item Number®
GTIN data structures • Globally unique 8, 12, 13, and 14-digit numbers to identify trade items (products or services) GTIN-14 GTIN-13 GTIN-12 (U.P.C.) GTIN-8

Page 4
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

GTINs in a GTIN Compliant database
1 2 GTIN-12 GTIN-13 GTIN-8 GTIN-14 0 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

X X X X X X X X X X X C

0 X X X X X X X X X X X X C 0 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X X C

X X X X X X X X X X X X X C

As previously stated, a GTIN may be encoded in EAN/UPC, ITF-14, GS1-128, Reduced Space Symbology, and Data Matrix bar codes, plus Electronic Product Codes. The appropriate GTIN and bar code or EPC combination is determined by many factors, such as the type of product, point of sale vs. distribution, and printing material used for the product packaging. The following table provides examples of unique product identification at various levels and using various bar codes. Descrip. Product A Product A Product B Product B Product B Product B Product B Product B Item 1 Unit 96 Units 1 Unit 6 Pack 12 Pack 2x12 Pack 4x12 Pack 8x12 Pack Level Consumer Case Consumer Consumer Consumer Case Case Case Bar Code UPC-A ITF-14 UPC-A UPC-A UPC-A GS1-128 GS1-128 ITF-14 Encoded GTIN 614141000012 00614141000029 614141000777 614141000883 614141000999 10614141000996 30614141000990 50614141000994 GTIN in database 00614141000012 00614141000029 00614141000777 00614141000883 00614141000999 10614141000996 30614141000990 50614141000994

Page 5
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

The following illustrates the use of a GTIN in UPC-A and EAN-13 bar codes:

6

14141 00044

9

9 401234 567894 >

UPC-A symbol GTIN-12 structure

EAN-13 symbol GTIN-13 structure

The following illustrates a GTIN in a GS1-128 bar code:

( 01) 90614141000415 ( 3202) 000712
Note: • When GS1-128 symbology is used to encode a GTIN, the Application Identifier of (01) is required and precedes the GTIN • Ability to string together (concatenate) multiple fields (Here, the GTIN plus net weight in pounds)

The following illustrates a GTIN in an ITF-14 bar code:

1

06

14141

00041

5

Note: • ITF-14 = The GS1 system’s only use of Interleaved 2 of 5. It is only used to encode the GTIN • Any of the GTIN data structures may be used, as long as they are expressed as a 14-digits

Page 6
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Assignment of GTINs to Packaging Levels
The following illustrates the assignment of GTINs at various item and package levels; note that uniqueness can be achieved through the use of different Indicator digits or different Item References at the higher levels of packaging.

Item Reference for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

0 0614141 47296 3 0 0614141 31859 9 0 0614141 72690 5 0 0614141 10923 4

Indicator digit (always zero)

Unrelated Item References

Indicator digit for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

7 0614141 12345 1 5 0614141 12345 7 2 0614141 12345 6 0 0614141 12345 2

Indicator digit
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved.

Same Item Reference (Common base number)
Page 7
December 2006

Combination of Indicator digit and Item Reference for higher levels of packaging

2880 widgets
144 widgets
12 widgets 1 widget

4 1234567 88888 8 2 1234567 88888 4 0 1234567 88888 0 0 1234567 10924 4

Common GTIN Mistakes Explained
GTINs incorrectly assigned to products cause invoice errors and time to market delays. The following examples show the most common mistakes and explain how these mistakes can be avoided.

Mistake #1: Retail Unit and Case have the same GTIN
Retail Unit Product A 18 oz. Case 12 x Product A 18 oz. Incorrect
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 45324 5 GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 0 06 14141 45324 5

A unique GTIN is required for the retail unit and the case. In this example the GTIN of both is: 0 0614141 45324 5. The GTIN must differentiate between the two. The symbology does not differentiate. A valid GTIN for the case would be 1 06 14141 45324 2.

Page 8
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Mistake #2a: Indicator digit used without a hierarchy
Retail Unit Product H 8 oz. Case 12 x Product H 8 oz. Incorrect
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 00324 2 GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 45000 5

The Indicator digit, in this example the first “1” in the GTIN-14, when 1 thru 8 indicates a packaging hierarchy. Thus, the GTIN-14 should be either: 1) 1 06 14141 00324 9 creating the packaging hierarchy of the retail unit or 2) 0 06 14141 45000 8 making the Indicator digit “0” to eliminate the packaging hierarchy.

Mistake #2b: Indicator digit used without a hierarchy
Incorrect
A product without a lower level of packaging, e.g. a 5 gallon pail of chocolate chip cookie dough

GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 77777 5

Because there is no packaging hierarchy, the GTIN-14 must have an Indicator digit of “0” and a valid GTIN would be 0 06 14141 77777 8.

Page 9
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Mistake #3: A wrong GTIN for a mixed case
An orderable mixed case box contains: 12 x Product C: Retail Unit (6 14141 77777 8) 12 x Product D: Retail Unit (6 14141 88888 7)

GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 77777 5

Incorrect

Because there is more than one product in the case the Indicator digit may not be 1 thru 8 to indicate a packaging hierarchy. Thus, the GTIN-14 must have an Indicator digit of “0” and a new Item Reference – a valid GTIN would be 0 06 14141 00444 7.

Mistake #4: The same trade item has two different GTINs
Case 12 x Product A 18 oz. Retail unit marked with
GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 45324 5 GTIN-12 in UPC-A symbol: 6 14141 76890 5

Incorrect

GTIN-14 in ITF-14 symbol: 1 06 14141 45324 2

A single unique GTIN is required for a trade item – not two: 1 0614141 45324 2 and 0 0614141 76890 5. There should only be one symbol per standard. If unavoidable based on trading partner requirements, the next best action is to assign the GTIN in the ITF-14 the same GTIN-12 in the UPC-A symbol 0 0614141 76890 5

Examples of GTIN Use
In October, 2001 AT Kearney was engaged by the Grocery Marketing Association (GMA) and the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) to evaluate and provide recommendations for e-commerce collaboration. Recommendations of this study included the adoption of an industry-wide, standardized numbering
Page 10
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

system, providing benefits and savings across the supply chain such as out of stocks, cost of reconciling invoice errors, receiving times, and speed to market. More significant, but more difficult to capture, were the benefits from supply chain visibility and collaboration, that can drive significant inventory reductions across the whole supply chain.” In the book industry, the move to computerize book information led to the realization that a descriptive/alpha system was too cumbersome. In the grocery industry, the idea had been around, but the evolution of commercially viable scanning equipment signified an opportune moment. It is significant to note that both industries adopted an all-numeric schema. Only in the grocery industry have significant attempts been made to quantify the benefits of using GTINs. Net benefits (after implementation costs) were initially estimated at approximately 1% of sales, but more recently revised to 2.8% of sales, or US$8 billion. These benefits were primarily due to increased process efficiencies and productivity gains. The same studies also estimate that an additional US$15 billion of benefits could potentially be realized through improved collaboration1. In the case of the book industry, the benefits and savings of using a standard product identification numbering system were considered so obvious that a cost/benefit analysis was not even done to quantify anticipated results. In conclusion, the agreement to adopt a standardized product identification numbering system provides the foundation to reap extensive benefits throughout the supply chain, not only for all the individual members but also in growing the whole industry.

Frequently Asked Questions
1. Is GTIN a new standard? GTIN is a term, not a new standard. The term was introduced to ensure consistent terminology around the world. Since the U.P.C. symbol encodes a 12-digit GTIN, GS1 US has been promoting the GTIN since 1972. GTINs ensure that trade items are identified uniquely around the world, which enables more efficient global trading.

17 Billion Reasons to Say Thanks: The 25th Anniversary of the U.P.C. and Its Impact on the Grocery Industry, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, December 14, 1999. Page 11
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

1

2. Does GTIN replace the U.P.C.? No, GTIN is a term only. Remember the U.P.C. symbol encodes a 12-digit GTIN. The U.P.C. does not go away; companies that place a GTIN-12 (U.P.C.) on products now should continue to do so. 3. Is a unique GTIN required for every level of packaging? Yes. There should be a unique GTIN identifying the consumer unit, an inner pack, multi-pack, case, or pallet where applicable. 4. What is GTIN Compliance? A company that is able to process, store, and communicate information about their products with trading partners using all GTINs, whether 8, 12, 13, or 14 digits, is considered to be GTIN Compliant. Companies become GTIN Compliant by expanding the appropriate systems and applications to 14digits. This will support the GTIN on products at all levels of packaging (consumer, inner packs, multi-packs, cases, and pallets, etc. It is necessary to become GTIN Compliant to take advantage of the benefits of: • Data synchronization using the Global Data Synchronization Network (GDSN) • Reduced Space Symbology® (RSS®) • EPCglobal Network™ 5. Does my company need a new GS1 Company Prefix to create GTINs? No. Continue to use the one you have. 6. If a change is made to the product does the GTIN need to change? A separate unique GTIN is required whenever any of the pre-defined characteristics of a trade item are different in any way that is relevant to the trading process. The guiding principle is if the consumer is expected to distinguish a new trade item from an old trade item and purchase accordingly, a new GTIN should be assigned to the new trade item (product package and shelf edge label declarations should appear the same to the consumer). For complete information, refer to the GTIN Allocation Rules (available through the GS1 US Product Catalog) or refer to the Bar Codes and Identification Numbers section of the Solutions Center. 7. When is a “9” used as the Indicator digit in a GTIN? It is used to indicate a variable measure product.

Page 12
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

8. What are the correct ASC X12 EDI qualifiers for GTIN? The correct qualifiers are: • UK for GTIN-14 • EN for GTIN-13 • UP for GTIN-12 • EO for GTIN- 8 9. What can be identified using the GS1 Identification Numbers? • • • • • Trade items: Products and services upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information at any point in the supply chain (Global Trade Item Number®/GTIN®). Logistic units: Physical units established for transport and storage of products of any kind that need to be tracked and traced individually in a supply chain (Serial Shipping Container Code/SSCC). Assets: Fixed or returnable assets (Global Individual Asset Identifier/GIAI, Global Returnable Asset Identifier/GRAI). Locations: Physical, functional or legal entities requiring a permanent identification, such as a company, department, or warehouse (Global Location Number/GLN). Service Relations: Public or private service provider to track any entity’s service requirements and needs over a continuing relationship (Global Service Relation Number/GSRN).

Note: All GS1 identifiers use the same GS1 Company Prefix assigned to the company or organization

Resources
Data Driver Data Driver is a tool developed by GS1 US to assist companies with the assignment and management of GTINs. Data Driver is a key benefit of GS1 US Partner Connections and is presently used by companies of all sizes and in various industries to manage thousands of GTINs. Companies new to GTINs or those who are in the process of migrating to GTINs are urged to use Data Driver, which ensures the quality and accuracy of bar codes. Find out more about Data Driver and the GS1 US Partner Connections Program at www.gs1us.org/dd or contact GS1 US for more information at info@gs1us.org. GTIN Allocation Rules The GTIN Allocation Rules are available in the Solutions Center. They can also be obtained through the GS1 US Product Catalog. The correct assignment of GTINs is critical to your business processes. It is strongly recommended that you refer to a copy of this guide to ensure correct assignment of GTINs to your products.
Page 13
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

Solutions Center The Solutions Center is your one-stop source for GS1 System solutions to help you improve supply chain management and conduct business more productively. You will find the essential education and implementation resources you need to: • • • • Integrate and utilize the standards of the GS1 System in your business Guide you through the bar coding process Improve the efficiency of your electronic commerce activities Uniquely identify your company's products, assets, locations, and logistics units throughout the global supply chain

Specifically, Bar Codes for Different Uses will guide you through the implementation process, giving you specific solutions and guidelines to properly mark products and logistics units for use within the GS1 System. This easy-tofollow system will guide you through the essentials of the bar coding process to help you: Assess where you will use the bar code Determine the specific information to include in the bar code Prepare bar code specifications for those responsible for printing your bar codes A preview of the Solutions Center can be seen at www.gs1us.org/solutionscenter. GS1 US Glossary www.gs1us.org/glossary GS1 US Product Catalog www.gs1us.org/productcatalog Further Help email: info@gs1us.org Phone: 1.937.435.3870 Website: www.gs1us.org/barcodes • • •

Page 14
© Copyright 2006 GS1 US. All Rights Reserved. December 2006

CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS Princeton Pike Corporate Center 1009 Lenox Drive, Suite 202 Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 USA CUSTOMER SERVICE 7887 Washington Village Drive, Suite 300 Dayton, OH 45459-8605 USA T +1 937.435.3870 F +1 937.435.7317 email: info@gs1us .org www.gs1us.org

© GS1 US 2006…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Mind

...The mind is a tool; maybe even a weapon and it can be very deadly or dangerous to mankind. The mind has created some of the most destructive creations know to man including the nuke, or atom bomb. These are two things that have destroyed cities, houses, and even killed thousands of human lives. Then you have a superior mind such as Beethoven created amazing pieces of musical art work. Beethoven wrote most of the famous pieces we know today as a deaf man, that just tells you what a mind is capable of doing. It is amazing what the mind can do considering that they say we are only able to use so much of the brain. I’m not saying that the brain and mind is the same thing because they are not. A brain is a physical thing or something that you can hold, a mind is just something that can’t be seen with eyes. In Buddhist scriptures it is said that the human body is equal to a guest home and the mind as a guest dwelling. The mind leaves our body, when it is time for us to die, and goes to the next life. This is similar to the guest leaving the house and moving elsewhere. Well anyways back to the point Mr. Deville only 10% of our brains are used and is said that if we were able to tap the other 90% that we could read “pie” to the twenty thousandth decimal place, or even have telekinetic powers. There is even a website called lumosity.com that students from Harvard university had came up with, which includes brain training activities online that work and that help your mind skills...

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Absorbent Mind

...The Absorbent Mind The Absorbent Mind I decided to do my report on The Absorbent Mind written by Maria Montessori. This book is about the mental powers of a child from birth to age six. Dr. Montessori believes that if a child is properly educated by unlocking their mental ability than the world can overcome things such as war. The book explains how a child from birth to age six with obstruction and without teaching surpasses all living things. Dr. Montessori says that a child cannot be taught at such a young age as birth to age two so their learning ‘’transcends the narrow limits of teaching’’ (Montessori, 1949). After all a child does not yet fully understand launge at that young of an age. Because of the time in history when this book was written, the end of World War II, the first chapter has a stong call to advance society through the education and understanding of our children. The author states ‘’Men are not sufficiently educated to control the events, rather they become the victims of them’’ (Montessori, 1949). The book goes over the current tools being used in the advancement of society. Philosophies, religions, and the old lines of education of transmitting knowledge. Dr. Montessori says that if we stick to only these tools ‘’there would be no hope for the world’’ and that ‘’the human personality alone can lead us to salvation.’’ (Montessori, 1949). The author then goes into detail of why a child in it’s frist two years of life shows ‘’the laws of psychic......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Beautiful Mind

...A Beautiful Mind (2002) takes place between the late 1930s and present day. John Nash is a mathematical genius studying at Princeton University with hopes of discovering his own original mathematical theory. John is socially awkward, has trouble getting along with his peers and his only real friend seems to be his roommate, Charles. At the university, John spends an unprecedented amount of time on an original mathematical theory and finally comes up with a theory that earns him recognition. Later, Nash then begins giving math lectures at MIT where he eventually meets his wife and starts his second job. Nash’s second job is top-secret, -and involves a mission to figure out where different bombings around the world will take place. Nash becomes paranoid after he drops off one of his top-secret code-breakers and things go awry. Things take a turn when Nash is supposed to be giving a lecture and people who he thinks are Russian spies start to chase him. The audience learns that these “spies” are from a psychiatric ward, and that they have come to take Nash into their care. These top secret missions and numerous assignments that Nash has been working on are, in fact, the symptoms of his illness -a psychological disorder called schizophrenia. In actuality, the assignments are not based on reality and are instead products of Nash’s mind. The audience notices first sign of Nash’s schizophrenia at this point in the movie, - when Nash is talking to Charles at the ward but in reality,...

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Inquiring Minds

...Case #4 Inquiring Minds Want To Know 1. Build the management-research questions hierarchy. A. Management Dilemma: Penton Media’s dilemma is the declining returned reader service cards numbers. This decline is causing the number of inquiries to decline, which has caused Penton advertisers to have a smaller number of sales leads. Penton also faces the dilemma of determining will the company’s advertising revenues decrease if alternate methods to stimulate inquiries are used. B. Management question: What should Penton Media do to ensure that targeted readers and advertisers are all getting the appropriate information they need and want? C. Research Question: Should Penton maintain the reader service card program, discontinue it or incorporate modifications? D. Investigative questions: What do advertisers offer as a means for its audience to obtain information about their products and services? How are trade magazine readers influenced when choosing their desired response method? What types of information is sought most frequently? What is the desired timeframe in which information is needed? How many advertisers offer access to their information via the web? Are technological changes causing readers to change their methods of response? E. Rather than three alternatives, Penton may have only looked at maintaining or discontinuing the reader service card. 2. What ethical issues are relevant to this study? In the study questionnaire......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Integrity of the Mind

...sacred but the integrity of your own mind.” –Ralph Waldo Emerson When one’s life is stripped down bare, all dignity removed, the only thing that is left for them is their mind. There is nothing like the human mind, so intricate that except for that mind itself, no one can understand it. Though all humans try to express what’s going on in their mind through ways of dance, letters, language, communication, and writing, the mind is the only place that expresses it all, and no one except the beholder can access and understand it. Not only that, but one’s own mind is the only real privacy in their world. Because it is the only place one truly is comfortable in and understands, one must rely upon themselves—their thoughts, dreams, morals, and ideas—to guide them. In a world where everybody wants not just to be unique, but also to stand out because of that, everyone attempts to avoid conformity. However, this can only be seen as a conformist action. So what is one to do when the typical teenager is now the atypical teenager? You depend on yourself to guide you through the maze of so called black and white conformists and noon-conformists. And since no one can understand what goes through your head, all that you do is unique because no one else thinks that way. I’ve grown up with three siblings, all amazing and all unique. Just by nature, I am the quieter child, and in the past I’ve had trouble with discovering who the real me is. Our minds are what make us all unique, and if......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Healthy Mind

...sleeping doesn’t give you a healthy brain or a healthy body. Sleeping refreshes your mind and also your brain as it helps you to concentrate well in class. Especially during exams we should sleep early because it helps you easily to remember the things you memorized before. Being on a healthy diet is good for the health, as it allows you to lose weight. Sometimes diet can be bad if you decrease the amount of food daily because it is important to have three meals daily. Healthy food contains eggs, milk, cheese and etc… Junk food contains fats which makes you gain weight if you increase the usual amount. Also being fit is part of a having a healthy body, we should always do some exercises at least run twice around the track that’s exercising your feet and it increases your running ability too. Eight minutes of exercising should be enough. So we should take care of our body and eat healthy, sleep early, and exercise daily. In that way we could make a change in ourselves and be healthy and not just that but our mind will be healthier and we will be able to think faster and our brain will work well. That’s why sleeping early, making sure we eat the right food, exercise every day, and sleep well. That’s why sleeping early, making sure we eat the right food, exercise every day, and sleep well. If you don’t follow these every day you might face some consequences in your health or even your body. Healthy mind is the foundation of physical well being. Many bodily ailments have......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Bureaucratic Mind

...Running Head: THE BUREAUCRATIC MIND! 1 ! ! ! ! ! The Bureaucratic Mind! Aparna V! M2014HRM008, MA (HRM & LR)! TISS, Mumbai! ! ! ! ! THE BUREAUCRATIC MIND! 2 The Bureaucratic Mind! ! Bureaucracy can be defined as a system of administration founded on policies, procedures and, often, a rigid hierarchical structure. In the context of human psyche, this essay argues that the human mind has a tendency to be inherently and naturally bureaucratic in numerous ways. A few parallels are drawn as a demonstration of this argument.! ! Highly Structured Mind An infant’s mind is free from any rigid structures of identity. Over a period of time, many such constructs evolve with which the infant identifies itself. A few of these basic constructs include the notion of ‘self ’ and ‘other’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, the concept of gender, and the notion of a family. As a child grows, several other constructs including that of nationality, caste, and religion are built into the human mind. A growing person might begin to associate herself with such notions, thus fortifying the structures in their mind. The world at large is perceived through the sieve of such structures. Once absorbed, it requires a conscious and sustained effort to unlearn the structures.! Further, there is a tendency to adhere to formal time-tested methods to achieve certain ends rather than being informal and adventurous. It can be observed that the human mind tends to align itself better with the rest of......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Brain and Mind

...The Mind-Brain Problem JOHN BELOFF Department of psycho log^, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Scotland Abstract-The mind-brain problem, which is still with us, raises the question as to whether the mind is no more than the idle side-effect of our brain processes or whether the mind can, in some degree, influence behavior. Here we rehearse the arguments on both sides plus some desperate recent attempts to eliminate mind altogether. What is the Problem? However contentious, the philosophical problem, as distinct from the physiological problem, can be stated quite simply as follows: What, essentially, is the relationship between events in the brain and those private, subjective, introspectible experiences that together constitute our inner mental life? We need not assume here that consciousness is synonymous with mind-consciousness may well be no more than just one aspect of mind-but, with respect to the problem at issue, it is the existence of consciousness that is critical. Stated thus, the problem admits of only three basic answers: (1) Events in the brain, operating in accordance with the laws of physics, determine completely both our behavior and our subjective experiences. (2) Mental events may be elicited by events in the brain or they may, in turn, elicit brain events and so influence the course of our behavior (I use here the word 'elicit' rather than 'cause' advisedly since the kind of causation here envisaged is so......

Words: 5887 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

No Minds for Computers

...No Minds for Computers In this paper I will argue why computers can’t have a mind. In order to prove my argument, I will focus on two reasons. First I’ll argue how computers are created and controlled by humans. Then I will explain why computers don’t have the ability to think on their own. These two arguments will demonstrate why computers aren't able to have a mind. First let me elaborate what I mean by computers being created and controlled by humans. Computers are created to perform one or multiple tasks that make human life easier. Humans initiate very complicated programs in modern computers that allows the machines to fulfill millions of different tasks. The key here is that humans program these computers to complete tasks, giving the hardware only one duty which is given only by the human. So am I saying that programming is what makes a computer? Well lets take a deeper look at programming. Programming is simply providing a computer with coded instructions for the automatic performance of a particular task. Lets take an example of how a program works in a computer. In a paper written by John R. Searle, Minds, Brains, And Programming, John talks about how he pretends to be a program in a computer. In this program he is locked in a room and is given the task of answering questions in Chinese symbols. John has never spoken, written or understood any Chinese before. Outside the room will be Chinese natives asking and receiving Johns answers. John is given a manual...

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Philosophy of Mind

...Philosophy of mind * Dualism: Mind and body distinctly exist -Plato, Descartes * Substance dualism: the mind is an independently existing substance * Property dualism: the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance * Monism: mind and body are not ontologically distinct kinds of entities, i.e. independent substances. -Parmenides, Spinoza * Physicalist: only entities postulated by physical theory exist, and that mental processes will eventually be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. * Behaviorism: dualism and physicalism both make categorical mistakes * Type identity theory: Type the tokenevery token instantiation of a single mental type corresponds to a physical token of a single physical type. * Anomalous monism: Token without typeType identity: the token-token correspondences can fall outside of the type-type correspondences. Davidson: mental events are identical with physical events, the mental is anomalous, and i.e. relationships between these mental events are not describable by strict physical laws. Supervenience vs realization * ------------------------------------------------- Functionalism: mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain, tic.) are constituted solely by their functional role, i.e. they are causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs and behavioral outputs. *...

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mind Your Mind

...MIND YOUR MIND Dr. Madhav Raje MBBS,MD, DFM, DPM, DPC, BA,MA. PSYCHIATRIST Ayodhya Nagar, Nagpur Mind this !  An Engineering student wants to be an ‘actor’,  A doctor of 15 years experience want to join Amway. Preparations  Evaluate Likings / Disliking,  SWOT Analysis.  Have a HERO / IDEAL. 4th  Now you know MIND is the Platform of success. Mind this one! 3 MAIN DOMAINS of mind Language Scientific Creative Poem – Language Domain  Your Poem is an indication of your Domain of Language. Scientific Domain - an experiment  Scientific thinking = No Faith = Analytical mind!  Language – Artist = Faith Be Creative nogre lab dada ! be ham DEVELOP your STYLE of thinking LIKE Change? Change your It will change your “ Life” ! BREAK please nogre lab Dada ! Be ham DAY Evolve with “FAITH” § RISE WITH “ FAITH” GROW WITH “ ANALYTICAL MIND” ADD ON/ TOP UP WITH “CREATIVITY” STAY WITH “FAITH”. § § § EMPOWER your mind with faith!  Have faith in ‘faith’ to grow “faithful” ! YOUR QUALITIES ? 1 .Impatient OR Very patient ! 2. Short- tempered 3. Not – very confident ( inferiority complex, or Superiority complex) 4. fault – finding or Egoist & many more Indication of “ NEGATIVE MIND”. YOUR QUALITIES ? Accepts Criticism ! Gets benefited from it. Loves himself/herself. Takes good care of self. Rarest Angry / emotional outburst on anyone. Helps......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Minds

...Viewing Guide to Misunderstood Minds EDT 343 Winter, 2008 Answer the questions associated with each case study or as assigned by the instructor. Be sure to think about how your answers relate to what we you have read & have discussed. Nathan Vanhoy 1. What opportunities provided by his family helped him to “mask” his disability? 2. What were Nathan’s parents’ reactions to the teachers’ pronouncements about Nathan’s performance? What was Nathan’s reaction? 3. How did the diagnosis of Nathan affect his family? 4. What did the educators do to assist Nathan and his family? 5. What did Dr. Levine offer that was helpful to the Nathan & his family? 6. What strategies helped Nathan over time? Lauren 1. How was Lauren affected socially by her problems? 2. How was Lauren’s family affected by her problems? 3. How did Lauren & her family try to cope with her problems? 4. What did Dr. Levine provide for Lauren & her family? 5. What dilemmas are presented by the use of medication for Lauren? 6. What educational strategies are of assistance to Lauren? Sarah Lee 1. What impacts in the classroom did Sarah’s problems present for her & for her teacher? 2. How does her mother & family history provide support for Sarah Lee? 3. What does the speech & language specialist discover about......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Is Mind?

...Mbogo .W.A. (Moi) The course number: The date of submission: The instructor’s name: WHAT IS MIND? The mind is a complex element in a living organism that assists to understand the world around them, be able to interpret experiences and internalize ideas pertaining reality in general. Dualism and physicalism are two philosophical entities that attempt to explain reality with regards to the mind and body relationship. Physicalism dimension is normally taken to be synonymous with materialism. The two entities perceive the relationship between the mind and body from different perspectives which brings about their differences. Dualism for instance, which is derived from the concept “duo” , meaning two, holds the view of the mind/body relationship from a duality perspective. It sees the two entities as being different from each other. Dualists believe that the mind and the body cannot be reduced to be the same thing because doing so will ultimately lead to the deviation of the true meaning of reality. Their focus is aimed at critical analysis of the perspectives that normally bring the differences between the mind and the body. The body is a physical reality. The brain which is part of the body is not equivalent to the mind. Physical manipulation of the brain can be achieved to attain its well-being. For example, surgery can be done to the brain if it is malfunctioning to enhance its efficiency. On the contrary, complex processes which are not physical in......

Words: 1230 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Human Minds

...Dequavise Staggers Individual Project Week 1 American Intercontinental University Abstract Ever wonder how the human mind operates. It all started with early perspectives. Early perspective is the starting foundation of our modern day psychology. These perspectives will be the building blocks to a wide world of figuring out the mind and how we as humans think. The study of psychology is so deep, that we will not fully understand it all. In this paper I will inform you about each perspective and provide examples. Individual Project Week 1 Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience — from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centers to mental health care services, "the understanding of behavior" is the enterprise of psychologists (APA, 2011). There are many early perspectives that surround psychology. These are behaviorism, cognitive, culture and diversity, evolutionary, functionalism, gestalt, humanistic, physiological, psychodynamic, and structuralism. Behaviorism is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. An example of this perspective is learning how to tie your shoes, because it is a learned behavior that must be practice to achieve. Cognitive is form of psychology that examines internal mental processes, such as......

Words: 710 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Beautiful Mind

...conflict with his wife, where in he had encountered an illusion ( conflict between the reality & his world of illusions ) which effects the people around him especially his wife) John Nash realizes that all of the characters of his illusion never get old. And thus he concludes that none of the characters in the series of illusions can be real. After this his mind is open to the facts of reality but he is still very confused & puzzled ( b’coz his mind is now telling him that the characters of his illusion are unreal but he himself is a little skeptical to accept the truth all this b’coz of the frame of mind he is in due to his illness ) This is where John Nash encounters one of the most critical turning points out of the many in his life His wife Alicia John Nash supports him further and motivates him she explains to him the difference between reality & illusions She explains to him that all that he sees may not necessarily be reality She tells him that reality is what one can feel, reality is like a heartbeat ………. That can be felt This very act of Alicia motivates him & convinces his confused mind to accept the truth and turn a new leaf over. And he begins on a new journey of life….. a journey of life full of self motivation and a fight against his illusion A turn on the highway of his life, his family and his career After this realization & motivation he now starts to ignore the three characters of his illusion ……… he is in a kind of war where......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2