Free Essay

Merit Pay in School Systems

In: Social Issues

Submitted By mlspenc
Words 3008
Pages 13
Teacher Merit Pay Systems No matter how smart the student is, the efforts and quality of the school they are in, and the efforts and quality of the teacher that is instructing them has a very large influence on how well they will produce in school. If these factors have such a large influence on children’s ability to perform on standardized and non-standardized tests, both teachers and schools should be properly devoted to the children. This is where the idea of merit pay systems comes in. Merit pay systems reward the teachers with salary raises and reward schools with increased funds when their students do well or significantly improve. This process is made to encourage teachers to bring out the best in their students, and when they are properly influenced, it would seem that good results would be produced. The problem with merit pay systems in today’s schools, is that no one has found a “one size fits all” model for a merit pay system. Some systems have had success in some regions, while similar systems have failed in other regions. Merit systems have not worked in the past as well as they should have, this research paper will identify the failed programs, the problems behind those failed programs, the correct way to execute a merit pay system, and what the intended results can be if merit pay systems work to perfection.
One of the first merit pay systems came about when British educators realized they needed to change the education system to yield better results. In his article “Book Reviews” by Peter Downes, he quoted the educators as wanting “to see far more emphasis placed not just on doing the work but on the quality of the work that is done”. Downes cites research to show that schools and teachers do make a difference to a pupil's performance and seeks to convince us that in order to improve standards nationally, we need to start paying teachers well. Focus is needed especially on those who ensure that children learn particularly effectively, and changing the culture so that standards are raised substantially. His main point is that the higher the standards of teachers, the higher quality of learning will be implemented, and more success will be had by students. He also argues that the best way to increase standards for teachers is through merit pay systems. Merit systems can work, but only because there have been multiple failed attempts in the past that have helped mold the correct model for success.
Some recent implementations of the merit pay programs have failed even though they had been thoroughly researched beforehand. The primary reasons for failing with these programs usually deal with the teacher’s unwillingness to participate. A lot of teachers have reacted negatively to merit pay systems because they deem them as an unwanted change. Obviously, future programs need to do a better job of helping the teachers understand the benefits for them and the students. In the article "Some Efforts on Merit Pay Scaled Back; But other states and districts moving forward with plans,” Nora Fleming discusses about how some schools cut their merit pay programs because of ineffectiveness. The schools that are dropping funds for the program are citing reasons such as lack of results and non-sufficient funds. Even though the “Pay-for-Performance” system was built correctly based on previous research, it ultimately failed to produce the needed results in the amount of time it had to be tested. So far, research has shown limited impact and has led them to scale back, abandon, or change their merit-pay programs, causing others to wonder what the future will hold for compensation systems that link teacher pay to student achievement. Other schools however, are beginning to fund programs for merit pay because of an increase in federal funds pushing the programs. Although some districts are scaling back their efforts on the merit pay system, continued research is still being made to search for the right methods to make the project successful. There are still ways to execute the programs that have not been attempted and can yield great results.
Teachers actually pose one of the biggest problems when it comes to implementing merit pay systems. A lot of teachers already have their own opinions about “Pay-for-Performance” systems that can easily affect their teaching ability and their willingness to comply with such a program. The biggest weakness with teachers is how they are treated and evaluated in a merit pay system. Kay Livingston’s and Jim McCall’s “Evaluation: Judgmental or Developmental?” shows the international comparison of the results that different education systems achieve. The European Commission has published indicators and benchmarks relating to the quality of school education. This type of external evaluation is often perceived by teachers as judgmental and controlling. When teachers feel threatened, their work will undoubtedly suffer. Teachers often like to be creative and teach with their own particular style and any external control can affect them negatively. The teachers of course are not at fault here, but the system can still cause them to slip in their teaching abilities. The teachers are at fault when they either refuse to teach in a merit pay system based on preconceived notions, or intentionally sabotage the results to move back toward the normal salary system. The teachers might do this because they are scared for their jobs or salaries, but the system of merit pay is designed for teachers to be rewarded only with raises to their base salaries, never penalties to their base salaries. This makes it truly a non-risk program that can yield great rewards for both teachers and students. This aspect of the “Pay-for-Performance” system is one that is often misconstrued and can easily lead to the systems failure.
In “Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay” written by Carl Nadler, he examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. . The article shows a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. It predicts that teachers with higher base salaries would be more likely to support a merit pay program that allows them to keep their current base salary and risk only future salary increases. It seems to be simple; teachers who are paid more in base salary are more open to try programs like merit pay systems, because they feel more secure. Consistent with the model’s predictions, the article finds that district’s with higher base salaries and a higher proportion of teachers with master’s degrees are more likely to approve merit pay. In contrast, teachers with lower base pay are less likely to support merit pay systems, and can end up being the root cause of a system failing. The teachers in a merit pay system are the lifeblood of the operation, and without their full cooperation, the project is doomed to fail from the beginning. In an interview with Leanette Spencer, the media Specialist of Ferguson Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia, she too alluded to questions behind the execution of the merit pay system. She said that she could see the possible benefits, but also that she would never run the risk of implementing such a system until it had consistent success in other school districts. There are still plenty of questions about the effectiveness of Pay-for-Performance programs, coupled with a variety of criticisms about the benefits of merit pay are addressed in the article "The Delicate Task Of Developing An Attractive Merit Pay Plan For Teachers." written by Gary W. Ritter and Nathan C. Jensen. These questions and criticisms about merit pay programs have resulted in teachers viewing this type of incentive structure with much skepticism. More problems with the merit pay system arise when the system attempts to judge the teachers abilities as a teacher to help his/her students. There are many questions that pertain as to how it should be done, should it be based of the overall grades of the students? Or should it be based on the average improvement of each student? What about students that are already successful, how should they be judged? How are teachers supposed to help students if the school cannot afford decent materials, such as updated textbooks (Ritter and Jenson)? There are many problems with merit pay systems implemented in the past, and the ones that have failed cannot answer all those questions.
Another big problem is the standardized tests students must take to reflect their academic abilities. Just like how no one has come up with the perfect format for a merit pay system, no one has come up with the perfect standardized test. A student being judged on how they perform on these tests is not good if the tests are not a fair view of the student’s intelligence and abilities. Standardized tests simply cannot interpret a student’s growth and intelligence properly. Sarcastically portrayed in Eric Schwardron’s cartoon is a teacher showing up for a job interview and asking “Will this job be mainly true-and-false, multiple-choice, or essay questions?” This is a funny but true representation of standardized tests not being real world applicable for students, so why bother using them? This cartoon also portrays that teacher evaluations will become generalized and non-specific just like student evaluations when it comes to the merit pay system. It puts a joking tone on the fact that it will be tough to come up with a universal way to judge teacher and student performance in this system. As long as merit pay evaluations continue to be general and non-specific, the system will continue to fail.
With all the problems however, comes multiple solutions and continued research upon how to answer questions and execute a “Pay-for-Performance” system correctly. In contrast to external evaluations, internal school-based evaluations aim to be seen as a developmental process contributing to improve teacher and student learning, where ownership of the evaluation processes remains within the school. In “Evaluation: Judgmental or Developmental?” by Kay Livingston and Jim McCall, they examine the possible tensions and conflicts that may arise between these two types of evaluations. The work explores ways in which school’s internal self-evaluation processes may use the data in different ways to meet some of the external demands placed on them. Teachers are also much more open to critique from their own school districts that are familiar with their particular school, rather than following general orders from a state or national perspective. Also, teachers with masters degrees or higher base salaries are more secure in their jobs, and such are more likely to approve and support merit pay. So, a possible solution would be to either seek to employ more highly educated teachers or to raise the base salaries of teachers within this system. Teachers who are supportive of the program will yield the best results, so everything that can be done to increase their approval of the system is necessary. The ultimate goal is to improve student’s grades and test taking skills, and this is a way to help teachers get more on board to help that become plausible.
In James Caillier’s article "Paying Teachers According To Student Achievement: Questions Regarding Pay-For-Performance Models In Public Education," he outlines a formidable execution plan that is an obvious solution to the mistakes made by merit pay systems in the past. While other people continue to talk about the ultimate goals of merit pay, Cailler seeks to execute his plan to attain those goals. Caillier demonstrates in his article that Pay-for-Performance models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has obviously garnered much controversy regarding the Pay-for-Performance model is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance. In his article, a framework is introduced that examines the likely success of using Pay-for-Performance assessments. His framework is incorporated in his merit pay model, referred to as “The Conditions that influence the success of pay-for-performance systems.” His diagram depicts 3 bubbles all being pointed to one large bubble with the words “Success of Pay-for-Performance System” written in it. The 3 smaller bubbles say “The People Producing the Output,” “The Kind of Output,” and “The Organizational Setting in Which the Output is Produced.” This diagram shows that you need quality teachers producing the output, you need those quality teachers to produce the correct type of output (as in, teach the students correctly), and you need a quality structural environment in which the teachers can work. All these factors add up to the “Success of Pay-for-Performance” system. Another model for success outlined in John W. Ritter and Nathan C. Jenson’s article presents five key lessons based on work with three Arkansas charter schools of how to best implement a merit pay program to avoid criticisms and common failures within the merit pay system. Basically, the five key lessons are that school administrators should generate staff support, they should create a bonus structure that is motivating to teachers, adopt assessments to help teachers track student performance, encourage collaboration, and define merit more broadly than improvements in student test scores. These five lessons are all great incentives for teachers tied to the merit pay program and it will encourage efficient effort with cooperation. These also end up helping answering questions generated by the cartoon “Teacher Evaluations vs Student Evaluations” by Eric Schawdron. The better the evaluation of students process is, the easier it is on the teachers and the better results will come from the merit system. The more teachers know about what they are dealing with in terms of student ability, the more they can do to help their students.
In Evan Sojourner’s article "When Does Teacher Incentive Pay Raise Student Achievement? Evidence From Minnesota's Q-Comp Program,” it shows that to prevent free riding by some teachers, this system may make individual or small team incentives preferable. The article is able to investigate whether incentives offered to the individual teacher are more or less productive than those offered at the school or district level as well. Sojourner’s findings suggest that if districts design plans locally, many will design plans that base rewards largely on informed evaluations. Finally, a solution to the failed merit pay systems of the past would be to reframe the teacher’s accountability in order to benefit not only the students, but also themselves. The basic principles that the article “Reframing Accountability as a Strategy to Save Public Education” by George Thomas covers are that it “focuses on engagement rather than compliance” and it “fosters trust rather than blame.” It declares many principles like those that it claims will only improve a Pay-for-Performance system. This article really focuses on the positive encouragement for students and faculty that need to go hand in hand with a merit pay system to help it function correctly. The positive reinforcement portrayed in his article can do nothing but secure the success of a merit pay system. Intertwining all these proven methods researched by various experts can help make the merit pay system reach its eventual goal of improving not only the life and abilities of students, but of teachers and school districts as well.
Merit pay systems have been attempted many times since their first modern implementation, but still have yet to yield consistent results. The problems have been identified like never before, and the solutions to those problems are ready to be implemented. Students, teachers and school districts are all set up to benefit from the proper execution of a merit pay system. With all the solutions provided by experts on this system, students are that much closer to doing better in school, teachers can be set up to reward their good teaching abilities, and schools will be better funded based on the success of these systems. While still not perfect, more and more kinks are getting worked out every day as new systems are being executed all around the country. The “Pay-for-Performance” system is no longer a good plan in theory, but it is ready to be a good plan in execution.
Work Cited
Caillier, James. "Paying Teachers According To Student Achievement: Questions Regarding Pay-For-Performance Models In Public Education." Clearing House 83.2 (2010): 58-61. Professional Development Collection. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.
Caillier, James. “The Conditions that influence the success of pay-for-performance systems.” Diagram. The Clearing House, 83.2 (2010): 61. 7 Mar. 2013.
Downes, Peter. "Book Reviews." Cambridge Journal Of Education 23.2 (1993): 226. Professional Development Collection. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
Fleming, Nora. "Some Efforts on Merit Pay Scaled Back; But other states and districts moving forward with plans." Education Week 21 Sept. 2011: 1. Educators Reference Complete. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
Livingston, Kay and McCall, Jim. “Evaluation: Judgmental or Developmental?” European Journal of Education. 28.2 (2005): 166-170. Web, 7 Mar. 2013.
Nadler, Carl. “Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay” Association for Education Finance and Policy. (2011): 75-78. Web, 10 Mar. 2013.
Ngoma, Sylvester. "Improving Teacher Effectiveness: An Examination Of A Pay For Performance Plan For Boosting Student Academic Achievement In Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools." Online Submission (2011): ERIC. Web. 9 Mar. 2013.
Ritter, Gary W., and Nathan C. Jensen. "The Delicate Task Of Developing An Attractive Merit Pay Plan For Teachers." Phi Delta Kappan 91.8 (2010): 32-37. ERIC. Web. 9 Mar. 2013.
Schwadron, Eric. “Teacher Evaluations vs Student Evaluations.” Cartoon. Pdkintl.org May 2011. 9 Mar. 2013.
Sojourner, Evan. "When Does Teacher Incentive Pay Raise Student Achievement? Evidence From Minnesota's Q-Comp Program." Society For Research On Educational Effectiveness (2011): ERIC. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
Spencer, Leanette. Personal Interview. 9 Mar. 2013.
Thompson, George. “Reframing Accountability as a Strategy to Save Public Education.” Professional Association of Georgia Educators. (2012): 27-29. Web, 10 Mar. 2013.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

School System

...Executive Summary Reforming Education: Firing and Motivating Teachers The public educational system in Texas is failing. The current practice of retaining underperforming teachers is preventing students from receiving the quality of education that is necessary to succeed. To correct this problem, we propose a system for evaluating teacher performance at the elementary school level based on state test scores. Teachers will be placed into one of four categories based on their students’ educational growth: top performing tier, high performing tier, medium performing tier, or lowest performing tier. Teachers performing in the top tiers will be rewarded with public praise and annual bonuses, while teachers in the bottom tiers will be placed on probation which includes performance improvement courses. Teachers who are unable to improve their performance will be fired. The tactics to sell this plan to the Spring Branch Independent School District board will be based on consistency, intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, emotion, and the Expectancy Chain. Convincing the school board to fire underperforming teachers will challenge the educational status quo, but will improve the quality of education given to students. Reforming Education: Firing and Motivating Teachers Public education is failing in Texas. Texas ranks forty-first out of fifty states in high school graduation rates. “The research shows that kids who have two, three, or four strong teachers in a row will......

Words: 2424 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

School System

...I think would help improve our school system at Spain Park High School. I have three main ideas and points that I will explain and back up with my reasons. My first idea is to have a ten to twenty minute break at some point during the school day. My second idea is to return the exchange of caffeinated beverages. My last idea is in class the teachers shouldn’t lecture as much as simply showing how to do the work. I think these ideas would greatly improve the likeness of school by attendants and improve the overall grades in the school. My first idea is to have a ten to twenty minute break in at some point during the school day. I think that this would give the students and teachers a break to relieve some stress and rejuvenate their decrepit minds therefore improving the compatibility of the teachers and students. I know this will also improve the recalcitrance of the students that are having trouble with behavior problems, the break would just calm them down so they would be so stressed and tired. The breaks I have proposed would be in two groups, seeming there is A lunch which is early and C lunch which is late. There should be a break in between the beginning of the day and C lunch for those who have lunch C. For those who have A lunch there should be a break in between A lunch and the end of the day. People with B lunch would split up between the two break times. This, I’m sure, will help the stress that is put on people throughout the school day, which brings me to my......

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Pay System

...Performance-related pay or pay for performance is money paid to someone relating to how well one works. Car salesmen, production line workers, for example, may be paid in this way, or through commission. Business theorists Professor Yasser and Dr Wasi were a great supporter of this method of payment, which is often referred to as PRP. He believed that money was the main incentive for increased productivity and introducing the widely used concept of 'piece work'. This standards-based system is used for evaluating employees and setting salaries by many employers. Standards-based methods have been in de facto use for centuries among commission-based sales staff: they are paid more for selling more, and low performers do not earn enough to make keeping the job worthwhile even if they manage to keep the job. In addition to motivating the rewarded behavior, standards-based methods can provide a level of standardization in employee evaluations, which can reduce fears of favoritism and make the employer's expectations clear. For example, an employer might set a minimum standard of 12,000 keystrokes per hour in a simple data-entry job, and reassign or replace employees who cannot perform at that level. Employees would be secure in k Performance-related pay or pay for performance is money paid to someone relating to how well one works. Car salesmen, production line workers, for example, may be paid in this way, or through commission. Business theorists Professor Yasser and Dr......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Merit Based Pay for Teachers

...Evolution – Merit Based Pay for Teachers Today the issue regarding merit based pay for teachers is getting more and more heated, and more discussions are actively being done in various places. The crocs of this debate are regarding whether merit based pay is an effective way of boosting the quality of public education: depending on the effectiveness and the backlashes of the policy, it is time that we should make a clear choice. And at this moment, it is right to go for and adopt the merit based pay policy. The pivotal part of merit based pay is that teachers with different capacities in terms of teaching should get different pay. It is a logical thing that we pay more to the best teachers, and pay less in comparison to those who perform poor to others. If we institute this policy, there will be innumerous benefits, and these will outweigh any potential harm. The first and the foremost advantage of this policy is that it helps students. Students are educated by their teachers. When we implement the policy of merit based pay, more teachers will work hard to get better grades in teacher’s evaluation. Because the teachers are strongly incentivized to work harder in hand of pay, students will naturally be provided with higher quality education. A prestigious research organization, known as the RAND corporation, conducted a research where teachers within a group were given merit based pay and the other controlled group was not. The study revealed that the students in the......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pay System

...I. Pay System a) Job Position - Global Sales & Trading Analyst Industry - Investment Banking/Equities b) National Median Wage - $ 33.02 hourly Annual Salary - $ 68,680 c) There are considerable wage differentials for the global sales & analyst position among the different states in the United States of America. For example, USA National Median Wage - $ 33.02 hourly Annual Salary - $ 68,700 New York National Median Wage - $ 53.58 hourly Annual Salary - $111,400 Indiana National Median Wage - $ 36.04 hourly Annual Salary - $ 75,000 Hawaii National Median Wage - $ 25.02 hourly Annual Salary - $ 52,000 From the above data, we see that the national median wage and annual salary of New York and Indiana is considerably higher than that of the entire United States. This can be due to the reason that cost of living in New York is very high as compared to most of the other cities in the United States and hence the median wage and annual salary is higher. Using the same logic, we see that these figures for Hawaii are considerably lesser than that of the entire United States and other metropolitan areas because the cost of living in Hawaii is relatively lesser than the other places. d) The incentive pay system, which will be most suitable for this job, will be that of individual performance bonuses. e) One of the important KSAOs of this job is the ability to keep in close contact (email, phone,......

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Pay to Play in High School

...The Issues Surrounding “Pay-to-Play” and its Effect on Students in the United States Outline Science, Technology and Human Values Topic: Pay-to-Play I. Introduction A. About Pay-to-Play 1. “Pay-to-Play” is a policy implemented by school districts to help cover the cost of extra-curricular activities, such as sports, clubs, cheer and dance, and even some honor programs. It dates back to the 1970’s although it became more popular in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. The fees range from $850 to play football at Oakfield High School in Massachusetts, $350 to participate in band at Fairfield High School in Michigan, to $30 per year total, no matter how many extra-curricular activities the student participates in, at Holton High School in Kansas. The fees vary by state, by school district, and there are some schools who don’t charge a fee at all. In 1984, California passed a law that no school district will charge fees for extra-curricular activities. Stealth versions of pay-to-play exist at many high schools around the country. Sometimes they are clothed as transportation fees, equipment fees or donations. Some schools blanket their fees by asking students to donate $150.00 to their booster club, such as Lakeside High School in Atlanta. Therefore, it is a considered a donation, and not a fee. (Brady) 2. There isn’t a current policy in the United States for pay-to-play in schools. It isn’t governed, nor is it required or uncommon for districts to charge......

Words: 3443 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

School System

...Education system prpblems The drastically increasing cost of college is effecting many students all across the United States. Whether the student is coming from a low income home, or a high middle class family, it is starting to impact students all over the country regardless of back round or income. Although there are many opportunities for scholarships, it has become increasingly difficult to get a full ride, or even a partial scholarship. Financial aid is becoming harder to access, and loan rates are steadily on the rise. The increase in tuition across the board is causing many mixed emotions from students, whether to become educated and start life in debt, or try to find a decent job somewhere local and make ends meet. This is a decision that a student should never have to encounter, and there are steps that can be taken to ensure every student that is eager to gain a education is able to do so. The cost of college is sharply increasing day by day, while the resources students have decrease. According to a study done by the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, “college tuition and fees increased 439 percent from 1982 to 2007 while median family income rose 147 percent.”(“College May Become Unaffordable for Most in U.S.”). This means, that while the cost of the median family did go up by 147 percent, tuition cost went up nearly 2.9 times more. Almost triple the cost. This same study also found that “Student borrowing has more than double...

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pay for Performance in the Healthcare System

...Pay for performance essentially is pay is based off of performance (Mathis, p. 377). Pay and incentives are structured to compensate performance variances among employees; while exceptional performers will be rewarded with greater pay and rewards than employees with acceptable level (Mathis, p.377). Unfortunately, if employee’s performance is below standards than the employee may not receive any compensation, be placed on a performance-improving plan or may even be fired. The idea is to encourage employees to do their best and they will be rewarded for their efforts. While I was in the healthcare field, there was a movement on pay for performance nationwide being implemented. The idea is to give better overall healthcare outcomes, while obtaining financial incentives. The way it is measured is through documentation in medical records, it is critical to have everything documented. I have mixed feeling about this because it would take at times, longer to document, while the patient did not get, as much time with the physician, in addition, just because the medical provider tries to get patients to change their behavior does not mean they actually will. For instance, when I was an office manager for a wound care clinic, many of our patients were their due to uncontrolled diabetes. We had to counsel patients to stop smoking, making healthier decisions and see a registered dietitian. I would estimate that less than 10 percent of our patients in a year actually made changes......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The School System

...Daniel Klucker Ms. Jennings English 111-13 1 October, 2014 More F’s are Needed in the School System In today’s Education system there seems to be problems on top of problems and the problems don’t seem to be getting fixed. One major problem seems to not be one factor, but many factors as Carl Singleton explains in his article “What Our Education System Needs is More F’s”. What our education needs in today’s world is more and more F’s. The basic problem in our education today is that many people are being credited for something they didn’t earn nor should receive. Students are being taught by teachers these days that they don’t have to work hard enough to pass their way through high school. This problem seems to be growing due to the lack of teaching and correct grading done by the teachers. It seems as if some of these teachers should have never been qualified in first place to be able to start teaching. Over the years, Illiteracy among High School students has risen, but the students seem to be graduating instead of flunking like many students should be. Teachers have become too generous and it is teaching these High School students laziness and it will cause problems for the students’ work ethic in the future. High School is the most important time for an individual to learn because it is the final step until you reach the real world. Sending these students home with decent grades show their parents that they seem to be alright, but in reality they are not. They......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Effects of Merit Pay on Job Atisfaction

...Effects of Merit Pay on Job Satisfaction I should start out by mentioning the fact that no employee at the school corporation that I work for has received a raise in the last five years. Recently the school corporation has decided to give everyone a merit raise based on the previous year’s performance evaluation instead of employee tenure. I have heard many employees carrying on conversations with other staff members about how upset they are that the raise is based on past performance instead of how long they have been employed at the school corporation. This had led me to want to discover how merit pay affects a teacher’s job satisfaction. I am not a teacher however, I am the schools registrar and I will also receive my raise based on my previous year’s performance evaluation. It has always been my past experience that typically raises are based on performance no matter where I have worked. Using Evidence-based Human Resource as presented by Rousseau and Barends (2011) I will attempt to present my findings on how merit pay affects a teacher’s job satisfaction. Summary of Rousseau and Barends (2011) Article The article by Rousseau and Barends (2011), presents us with an overview of the decision-making process called Evidence-based Human Resource (EBHR). “EBHR is a decision-making process combining critical thinking with use of the best available scientific evidence and business information” (Rousseau & Barends, 2011). Rousseau and Barends (2011), maintain that......

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Merits and Demerits of Caste System

...MERITS AND DEMERITS OF CASTE SYSTEM Merits of caste system: In spite of various demerits, caste system in India has been proved to be a stabilizing and interacting force. It cannot be denied that since its origin it has served the development and preservation of Hindu community. According to K.M. Panikkar, “The Hindu people constitute one of the oldest integrated societies of the world. For over two thousand five hundred years the Hindu have been a people. They had, broadly speaking, an organized social system the main characteristic of which were the same from Himalayas to Cape Comorin, No doubt the Dharma Shastras and the Griha Sutras which embody these principles applied only to certain dominant classes and beneath them were many communities professing a wide variety of customs and practices. And yet it is one of the miracles of history that loosely knit though it was, Hindu society has survived over two and half millions and remains today an active and vigorous society ready to make its place, in the world. Some of the principal merits of Indian caste system are mentioned as below: Harmonious Division of Society: Classification of society is indispensable in every country. In ancient India such classification existed in a perfect form. The whole society was divided into four classes namely. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishayas and Sudras. These classes were not rigid and closed. No one was Brahmin by blood nor was any one Sudra by birth. Everyone was free to attain......

Words: 1471 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Single Pay System

...PubHealth129- Final Paper TA: Vinne 12/12/12 Single-Payer Systems The United States health care system and the health coverage it has for its citizens are both unmistakably flawed. While our country offers many means of achieving health insurance like private, employer, and government assisted, twenty percent of citizens still do not even have health insurance. This means that these people are not getting coverage on their medical bills, and are therefore a lot less likely to visit the doctor until there is no choice. Even people who do have health insurance in the United States still do not get the affordable, comprehensive coverage they should. Compared to similar industrialized nations, we are far behind their level of comprehensive and affordable services. These countries often have what is called a single-payer system. The single-payer system is a health care plan that funds every person’s medical expenses from the same pool of money. The challenges of implementing the single-payer system are going to be from political barriers and transitioning the United States from a mixed insurance system. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this type of insurance mechanism, but this method has proven to have worked. There is no reason not to implement this advantageous system in America. Right now the insurance industry in the United States is not only complex, but inadequate. There are tens of thousands of different health care organizations; HMOs, private......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Merit System

...The merit system is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections. Federally, it was instituted by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. It is the opposite of the Spoils system | | | | |An example is hiring or promoting relatives solely because they are family members, with no consideration of the qualifications | |or merit of other job candidates or employees. | |Nepotism in the Workplace | |Workplace nepotism is not unusual, especially at smaller companies and non-profits in the private sector. | |The obvious reason aside, it's not unusual likely because there is no universal "nepotism law" at the Federal level that | |prohibits it in all states. Several state legislatures and city councils have passed nepotism laws (or anti-nepotism laws, as | |they're sometimes called), but typically only in regard to public-sector employment. | |However, the consequences of......

Words: 7141 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Does It Pay to Look Good in School?

...Does it Pay to Look Good in School? It the past decades, schools have become more about fashion rather than education. Public schools have debated whether students should wear school uniforms. There are many people who think that school uniforms should not be required to wear in school. In contrast, there are quite a few people who agree with wearing school uniforms. Students wearing school uniforms would be the best solution because school is the place for learning and students would be able to concentrate more and not feel pressured. Therefore, school uniforms are excellent because they ensure equality, provide security, and are cost effective. In today’s society, life can be very tough on students. They tend to forget about the real reason of why they are going to school and focus more on their appearance and popularity. If public schools were to bring in school uniforms, this would cut back on the “socio-economic” differences (Chen, 2015). Eliminating differences helps the students to be equal. Students would be able to go to school, and not have to worry about what another student would say about what they are wearing. It will help alleviate the pressure for each student. Also, school uniforms will cut down on the social conflicts like cliques or gangs. The school uniforms take away the style or colors that gangs or cliques would wear to stand out from one another. With the constant change of trends for clothing, the student will not feel pressured into having the......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Module 7 Action Inquiry Essay Merit Pay

...Running head: ACTION INQUIRY RESEARCH PAPER- MERIT PAY Action Inquiry Research Paper- School Finance Jennifer Ponton Grand Canyon EDA 535 July 01, 2012 Action Inquiry Research Paper- School Finance Statement of the Problem This past spring thousands of teachers protested at the Louisiana State Capital to prevent Louisiana lawmakers from passing an educational reform bill proposed by Governor Bobby Jindall that would change the face of public education in Louisiana forever. Many superintendents and school personnel were relieved of their professional responsibilities on the days they protested hoping that they could sway the governor and the lawmakers from passing the bill. The bill was passed even without the support of many educational leaders and lawmakers in Louisiana. The laws passed by Louisiana lawmakers read like a conservative education reformer’s wish list. Teacher tenure in Louisiana after three years of employment was eliminated and replaced with teachers receiving a “highly effective rating for five out of six consecutive years of teaching. Back to back “ineffective rating will result in a teacher being fired. Seniority will no longer be a dominant factor in layoff decisions. In fact most decisions involving teacher employment and pay will now be the responsibility of both the principal and the superintendent of school. Before Governor Jindall’s reform plan it was the responsibility of the local school board. The reform proposed by the......

Words: 1475 - Pages: 6