Mental Retardation

In: Psychology

Submitted By dinanazriani
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MENTAL RETARDATION

DEFINISI
Mental retardation refers to significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the developmental period (Grossman, 1983)

KLASIFIKASI

Sistem AAMR
- Mild retardation (IQ 50 – 55 s/d 70)
- Moderate retardation (IQ 35-40 s/d 50-55)
- Severe retardation (IQ 20 – 25 s/d 35-40)
- Profound retardation (dibawah 20 - 25)

Sistem Pendidikan
- Educable Mentally Retarded (Kategori mild atau dengan IQ 50 s/d 70 - 75)
- Trainable Mentally Retarded (Kategori moderate atau dengan IQ 25 – 50)

Sistem AAMR – 1992
• Intermittent : anak membutuhkan bimbingan dalam jangka pendek, hanya pada masa transisi
• Limitted : anak membutuhkan bimbingan secara konsisten namun tidak intensif
• Extensive : anak membutuhkan bimbingan secara reguler dengan waktu yang tidak terbatas
• Pervasive : anak membutuhkan bimbingan dengan intensitas yang sangat tinggi dan melibatkan banyak pihak

KARAKTERISTIK

Karakteristik Kognitif
- Rentang perhatian rendah
- Daya ingat rendah
- Mengalami hambatan bahasa
- Prestasi akademik rendah

Karakteristik Kepribadian
- Outer-directed
- External locus of control
- Kemampuan adaptif rendah

Karakteristik Fisik (DS)

Kemampuan Adaptif (AAMD)
Bagian I (Domain Perilaku)
- Independent functioning
- Physical development
- Economic activity
- Language development
- Numbers and time
- Domestic activity
- Vocational activity
- Self direction
- Responsibility
- Socialization

Bagian II (Domain Gangguan Kepribadian dan Perilaku)
- Violent and destructive behavior
- Antisocial behavior
- Rebellious behavior
- Untrustworthy behavior
- Withdrawal
- Stereotype behavior and odd mannerisms
- Inappropriate interpersonal manners
- Unacceptable vocal habits
- Unacceptable or eccentric habits
- Self –…...

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