Medieval

In: Historical Events

Submitted By StonewallVMI
Words 1499
Pages 6
Part I: Textual Identification

Passage 2.

This passage is from The Song of Roland. The author of this manuscript is unknown. The Song of Roland was believed to be written during the early 11th century. The passage describes the death of Count Roland after a battle with the Saracens. Count Roland had been fighting admirably all battle. The battle looked to be over, and then his horse and the archbishop were killed by the Saracens. Roland realized this and went to go take a break from battle under a tree. However, one of the enemy soldiers spotted Count Roland as he laid down beside the tree. When Roland’s back was turned, the Saracen soldier stabbed him in the back. Roland ended up killing the man, but he suffered a pretty substantial wound. The passage begins with Count Roland laying back down under the tree and realizing that his life on this earth is coming to an end. It seems as if he is having a moment where is remembering all the great things he has done in his life. These thoughts make him really emotional and bring him to tears. He then shifts his attention to the Christian God. He asks him for forgiveness for all the sins he has committed in his life. The next part of the passage is very interesting as Saint Gabriele comes down from heaven to bring Count Roland to heaven. Gabriele is arguably one of the most famous angels in the bible because he was the angel that came down to the Virgin Mary to tell her she was pregnant with Jesus. The last sentence states that Roland is dead and his soul has been taken to heaven. This is one of the most important passages in the Song of Roland because it’s the death of the hero. It also shows how important he was to God because three angels accompanied him into heaven. He had obviously been a valued servant of the Lord. This text solidifies him as the hero of this manuscript.

Part…...

Similar Documents

Medieval Theatre

...1. INTRODUCTION Medieval theatre refers to the theatre of Europe between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. and the beginning of the Renaissance in approximately the 15th century A.D. Medieval theatre covers all drama produced in Europe over that thousand year period and refers to a variety of genres, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality plays, farces and masques. A theatrical performance in the Middle Ages was much more than just an example of a literary genre; it was often a social, religious, and commercial event affecting a whole community and involving not only the spoken word, but also spectacle, music, and even dance. 2. HIGH AND LATE MEDIEVAL THEATRE As the Viking invasions ceased in the middle of the 11th century A.D., liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia to Italy. Only in Muslim-occupied Spain were liturgical dramas not presented at all. Despite the large number of liturgical dramas that have survived from the period, many churches would have only performed one or two per year and a larger number never performed any at all. The Feast of Fools was especially important in the development of comedy. The festival inverted the status of the lesser clergy and allowed them to ridicule their superiors and the routine of church life. Sometimes plays were staged as part of the occasion and a certain amount of burlesque and comedy crept into these performances. Although comic episodes had to truly wait......

Words: 3428 - Pages: 14

Medieval Ages

...During the Medieval Ages, numerous religions had emerged as well as subsided. It is known to be that majority groups such as Christianity and Islam overpowered the minority groups such as Judaism. Irrespective of the diverse cultures, and religions, Jews had not been supported by numerous individuals and were looked down upon. It was up to the scarce amount of Jews left during this period of time to amplify their religion, their culture, and share it with the world. Savoring as much tradition as possible to be passed down to their children, taught day and night, the Jews struggled severely to value their religion and to remain who they are today, who they were in the past, and who they will transform into the future. According to the article the Success of the Jewish Medieval Ideal, the author goes into depth displaying to its readers the amount of profundity, which existed within their home, synagogue, customs, and traditions in the European Age. Often referred to as Master Benedict as the Rabbi, and his wife as Mistress Rachel, the couple would first wake upon reminding themselves to thank God for all he has provided for them. Furthermore, remembering to appreciate their one God “Hashem”, reciting prayers and celebrating all the goodness that God had to offer for all his children. Attending the bet haknesset, was where the Jews would reunite and travel as a unity. Disregarding “special training”, and not individualizing anyone out, this was a harmonious place......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Medieval Characteristics

...Medieval Characteristics ENG/106 Survey of Literary Masterpieces March 25, 2013 Comparison and Contrast Paper: Medieval Characteristics Heroes The early epic poem may have served to reinforce shared cultural values within a nation and provide a mythic history for a people. Ancient classical epics contain references to gods and magic and often feature a hero beset by mystical forces. Many later epics imitate these earlier works and may use similar literary conventions, depending on the culture. Early poems based on oral traditions are often called primary epics, while the later works are called secondary or literary epics. (The longman anthology of world literature: Compact edition, 2008). The ancient peoples of Mesopotamia, Greece and India produced several important epics that have continued to influence the development and study of literature for thousands of years. The ancient epic poem first emerged as an oral tradition to be re-told by storytellers throughout a culture. The development of writing in these areas allowed these stories to be written down and preserved for later generations. The Iliad and The Odyssey are early examples of the epic poem. Later Roman and other civilizations continued this literary tradition through the rest of the classical era. (http://ancienthistory.about.com) Pre-classical or ancient period hero; “The Aeneid is epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Medieval Knights

...How to Become a Medieval Knight In the middle ages there were men in armor called knights, they were brave, courageous and had very good swordsmanship. To become a knight you had many steps to complete and it started as a young boy. Becoming a knight was a tradition throughout your family and boy hood, if you were raised by a knight then you were trained to be one. So how did a boy become a knight? The first requirement for a boy to become a knight was the requirement of his heritage. If you were born to the right person such as another knight, Lord, a wealthy merchant, or someone who held title and position in the court of the king you were given the opportunity to become a knight. Once you were chosen to become a knight the training started at a very young age, and you were trained by your father or other lords, barons and knights. As you started training, everyday you would go to the lord’s castle and learn a host of basic skills to become a well-rounded and educated knight. Some of the skills you learned were fundamentals of court life such as table manners, care and maintenance of armor and weapons, and how to care for horses. Other training he had to complete courses in reading and music, complete martial arts training and learn how to hunt and how to hawk. Around the boys thirteenth year of life, he would be promoted to a squire. At this time he is assigned to a knight and becomes that knight’s personal assistant. During this time he focuses on......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

The Role of Religion in Medieval Society

...Andres Contreras Civilizations II Second essay October 9, 2013 The Role of Religion and Church during Medieval and Renaissance Society The role of religion and church was very influential during The Middle Ages and Renaissance society. They possessed a great deal of power that couldn’t be taken away by any ruler. In fact, the church was a counter to kings who wanted absolute power. Any king who wished to rule must have the church on his side. Opposing the church would lead to excommunication. Today this doesn’t sound like much, but at the time, excommunication translated to the downfall of one’s kingdom. The Middle Ages were a time in which everything was controlled by oaths. So for a king to oppose to the church meant that he was breaking the oath of allegiance he had with God. This resulted on the pope excommunicating the king. Now, everyone from the king’s subjects to his enemies could be freed from those oaths, and all of the allegiance with that particular king could be cancelled. This means that anyone could rise up in revolt or invade, without fear of condemnation by the church. Also, any subjects of the king who opposed his views could switch sides without being accused of treason. The church also played an important role in government. Being allied with the king, church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king’s council and played influential roles in society. These important roles granted them power and wealth. But not......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Medieval Medicine

...Today when you get a disease you go to the doctor. You get checked out and they might give you some antibiotics. You get better and carry on with your life as if nothing happened. But if you lived in Medieval Europe a head cold is a death sentence. Disease was a religious matter and knowledge of bacteria was non-existent. They believed that if you didn’t sin and you were dedicated to God you wouldn’t have to suffer from sickness. Often a cold would go away, until a secondary infection would kick in. Pneumonia was an infection that was often fatal. They had one major problem in their life style that intensified all infections and one fix. Herbs helped people become healthy while poor hygiene continued to spread sickness everyday. In Medieval times there were herb gardens in the monastery. These were called infirmary gardens. Because the church was the main function and a huge part of life sick families brought their sick to the church. “ Brother Richard has taught me that God provides cures in nature for many human ills.”(Storm,18). The herbs they used are still common in todays society. Many people use herbs to cure their own ailments. They often used lavender as a sleeping aid. Today you can buy lavender sprays for air freshening. Sheets and blankets can be washed in fabric softener scented to smell like lavender. Sage soothes sore throats and is used in herbal teas today. Many of their remedies are still common today. However, because of their awful hygiene many people...

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Medieval Literature

...Medieval literature As the Western Roman Empire started collapsing, many government positions were taken over by Christians who condemned drama for its making fun of religion, its debauchery and paganism. It is then in the 5th century that the medieval era began and miracle plays were established. Medieval miracle plays, also known as Saints plays, are one of the three principal kinds of vernacular drama that emerged from the European Middle ages. A miracle play is based on incidents from the lives and works of the Saints. During this era people believed that the power of saints could solve their problems. Holy relics supposedly taken from the bodies of saints were kept by the church. The people believed that by praying to these relics it could cure illness. This genre originated and developed from religion, specifically Christianity as the church held the power of authority during the medieval era. The church only targeted the privileged few who were educated and understood Latin, which was the language the bible, was written in. In order to expand their followers the church decided to dramatize key Bible stories from the Creation of the Universe and the Last Judgment. The cycles were usually performed in connection with the new early summer feast of Corpus Christi, which was instituted in 1311. The Mary plays consistently involve her in the role of deus ex machina, coming to the aid of all who invoke her, be they worthy or wanton. She saves, for example, a......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Medieval Age

...Hypotheses and assumptions on the movie: 5 4. Christianity in the medieval age 6 5.1. Aslan, the Lion parallel to Jesus Christ 6 5.2. The Table of Stone. 7 6. The seven deadly sins 8 6.1. Gluttony – sin by Edmund 9 7. Knighthood 10 7.1. The battle and the coronation 11 8. Conclusion 12 9. List of References 13 Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the medieval influences and aspects in the movie The Chronicles of Narnia; The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe. The movie emphasizes important elements of the Middle age. It is about the four Pevensie children, Peter, Suzy, Edmund and Lucy who entered the magic land of Narnia and with the help of Aslan, the Lion, fought the Wicked White Witch Judas. Thus they gave freedom to the other animals and restored peace and harmony in Cair Paravel and Narnia. The film captures brilliantly these moments and transmits them to the public. One of the main focuses of the film was the religious belief ‘Christianity’. The movie responds to the quasi- spiritual Christian beliefs and truths of good versus bad, highlighting the defeat of the Witch and her death. Secondly, it shows how the younger brother Edmund fell in the trap of the White Witch due to his “gluttony” of the Turkish delights and betrayed his brother and sisters. Last but not the least; the movie stresses another important aspect of medieval age “knighthood”. Peter fought with the Witch and the......

Words: 2688 - Pages: 11

Medieval History

...| Thinking Like An Historian | The Dialectic in Faith/Reason and Ethics/Daily Life | | | History 104: The Medieval World: 500-1500 C.E. | This paper is going to cover two countries. One is a western European nation and one is a Middle Eastern nation. We are going to be covering France and Iraq and how their medieval formation of religion shaped their country into what it is today. The purpose of this paper is to outline how religion used to have such an impact and see how much that impact is today. Church and State have made a separation but is that a good thing or a bad thing? When you think of France you think of the Eiffel Tower, rolling fields of grapes at one of the many vineyards on the countryside, the fantastic food and the endless romance. Most do not often think about the days when soldiers in suits made of iron ran the countryside and collected the King’s taxes from all of the peasants he ruled over. It was a time when work and the Church were the only things in your life. Modern day France is Parliamentary Republic with two Houses of Parliament (the Senate and the National Assembly) and the Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister.1 The Republic of France is ultimately led by a President but he/she must confer with all branches of government before any major changes can be made. This political checks and balances system ensures that the people of France have a part in how government rules over nation. National sovereignty is vested in......

Words: 1929 - Pages: 8

Christianity and Medieval Literature

...Christianity and Medieval Literature The Middle Ages saw a great influence of Christianity on the literature of that time. Christianity also saw a period of growth and its influences on literature were also very notable. The Medieval Period was a time of significant social revolution and this is often reflected in the literature of that age. This can be seen by observing the principles of the time, and exploring the literature which addresses them. By analyzing the religious, political and societal ideals, the reader can see how these influenced the literature during this time period. The Medieval Period was a time in history that lasted from the 5th Century to the 16th Century. Through the early Middle Ages, literacy was often essential for entry into religious orders and even nuns were compelled to meet this requirement. However, the only people trained to read and write properly were those who were high church officials and monks. Society was centered mainly on the Medieval Church. However, the Church became corrupted but more at the higher levels. Geoffrey Chaucer illustrated this in his writings, “Prologue to the Canterbury Tales.” He exposes this in his prologue by his use of satire in regards to the religious figures. Using a naïve “Chaucer the Pilgrim” to describe them, he points out that certain characters, namely the Prioress and the Monk, are not as they should be. Although he does not criticize them openly, he merely emphasizes qualities that are......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Medieval Drama

...Meredith Masters 3/10/16 Block 7, LA4 Research Paper Word Count: 565 What is drama? Medieval drama was theater. Drama did not come about until the later part of the medieval time. It took the stage as one of the main forms of entertainment around 900 and fell through after the decline in the 1500’s. Plays did make a comeback, and are still popular to this day. There are no performances today that are associated with the plays from back then. After the fall of the Roman Empire, nomadic bands traveled whether or not there was an audience. They were a combination of jesters, jugglers, storytellers and other performers. Later, when festivals came about, other entertainers were given the chance to showcase their talents. Since the Catholic Church was so powerful, it overpowered such performances and the entertainers were then converted. Actors was their new title. Plays were performed in churches until around 1200, when they were also performed outside on occasion. At the end of the 14th century, churches had less and less control over plays. Towns took over and put on shows that the churches did not. Medieval Drama was very popular during this time, as it was, for a lack of better words, their form of entertainment. The types of plays that were performed during this time were morality, miracle, and mystery plays. Morality plays are didactic allegories often of a common man’s struggle for salvation. Miracle plays are about the lives of saints. They are also......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Medieval Medicine

...David Dubkov 24. Mar.2016 EAC 150 - Aleksandra Bida In the Middle Ages, medical knowledge was limited and remedies were not as effective as they are in the twenty first century. This is because the people of the Middle Ages did not have the vast and in depth knowledge of the human anatomy the way, we do today. They were not able to pinpoint the causes of most diseases, and as a result, were not able to cure them as effectively. People in the Middle Ages also had certain personal beliefs, which affected medical treatment. For instance, the people of medieval England believed that infectious diseases occurred due to the wrath of God because that individual was practicing unethical behaviour (Truman, Health and Medicine in Medieval England). Doctors of the Middle Ages even cured migraines by digging a hole into the skull. They believed that evil spirits were the cause of one’s pain and this was the way to release them. This method was ineffective, and was due to their beliefs, the lack of knowledge of the human body, and the use of unsanitary and dangerous methods of treatment (Trueman). The lack of knowledge stemmed from the fact that dissection was not commonly done. Nowadays, it is routine practise for a medical student to dissect dead animals and perhaps even a human body. This has allowed modern society to understand the workings of the human body on a deeper level. In this essay, I will explain how current day medical professionals have had more......

Words: 1216 - Pages: 5

Medieval

...Your text here Your text here Traveling around in the medieval was very different to or stat of the art cars but back in the day they have to use horses and carriages.it would have taken longer than a day to get to let’s say Portsmouth to Birmingham it would have taken weeks or even months because of how fast the horses could back then could go than now. Food was very different to or food because they didn’t have any fast food places like kfc or nandos. What they had to live off to was meat and only meat, but some of their popular meal was meat pie if you were king henry the eighth you could never live without meat pie, but the only thing the poor could a ford was soup because it was very hard to get a proper because you’d have to have gone to university. Medieval sport was very competitive and dangerous. The sport that everybody new about was jousting, the sports basically starts in a big arena with a cord on one side and the posh on the other side with the king and queen of the kingdom along the centre of the arena was a long wooden line which split the two sides where the two knight on their horses. The only things that they had on them to protect them was armour a shield and their lances. The medieval has the worst sickness you can get the black plague. The proses starts like this a flea bites a rat then the rat will bit the human and human gets infected. There are side effects which start to form on your body like bobons, this kind of spot......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Canto Xv and Medieval Society

...Medieval society around the year 1300 A.D. can be summed up by Dante’s Inferno. In Canto XV we see Dante and his guide, Virgil, passing through the fourth ring of the seventh circle of Hell, the ring of the sodomites punishment. From his writings, we can learn about one of the technologies of Europe during Dante’s time. And also most importantly we can see glimpses of European society’s values as in heredity, idleness, fate, and the reach of Hell. In the beginning of Canto XV, we can see Dante and Virgil walking on to which seems to be a levee between a river and the fiery sands which tells us about technologies of the time. This he compares to “As the Flemings between Wissant and Bruges, to defend/ Against the tide that rushes in on them.”(15:4-5) By doing this, land is made useable to people. Land is a commodity. Here we see that medieval peoples had this technology at their hands to reclaim land lost to the sea for purposes of agriculture or town development. The fact that they could do this, tells that improvement in agriculture was growing. New technologies were being put to use which lead to more food production, in turn, lead to a growth in population of medieval Europe. As the two continue we can see the view of idleness in medieval Europe. When Dante and Virgil are walking along they come across a “troop of souls” and one of the souls sees Dante and recognizes him then pulls on his clothing to get his attention.(15:14) This is Brunetto Latini, a former mentor......

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Medieval Weapons Medieval Weapons

...Conclusion III. Castle (Defense and Offense) A. Topic sentence B. Trebuchet C. Catapult D. Cross-bow E. Conclusion IV. Coat and Arms Weapons A. Long-bow B. Flail C. Mace D. War hammer E. Conclusion V. Final Conclusion Medieval Weapons C. Wilburn 2 Have you ever wanted to know about the weapons knights used? Well the knights used different things including battle axes, bow-and-arrows, and catapults. Some were used by different people though. Some spent years of training, while others spent just a year. Some knights had armor while others didn’t. But the kind of weapons in use was the types of weaponry of the Medieval Ages. All in all, the knights had some good weapons. Medieval knights used some cool weapons. Usually when knighted, the knights would get spurs which are sharp spikes behind the heels of the knight’s shoe, to guide the horse, a shield to protect themselves in battle, and a sword to fight with. Some swords could be the slashing swords that were flat and wide sharp-edged swords to make a very destructive blow. Later in the Medieval Ages, sword makers would make thrusting swords which were longer and more pointed than slashing swords. The point of the sword can fit between armor of the knight and the chain mail which is the knights used as extra protection. Other swords were the hand-and-a-half......

Words: 729 - Pages: 3