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Words 879

Pages 4

This paper explores the various areas of basic statistics including: descriptive statistics, correlations, t-tests for independent samples, t-test of dependent samples and data mining used during the research process. In this 2 pages summary of those listed methods, I will identify the keys aspects of its usage, importance in the research process, provide examples of its usage and value and how it will be used my future research projects throughout this coursework.

Meaning Use of Statistics

Understanding the use of statistics requires one to understand the experimental design or how the research is conducted. Knowledge about the methodology allows use to input and interpret the results of the values. Statistics values are not just random numbers but values that have been generated out of research. Basic statistic values are tools utilized to assist with answering the questions of what, why, and how. Understanding the reasoning for using statistics will better help one’s understanding of basic statistics.

Descriptive statistics is a quantitative description of data collection sometimes referred to as inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to summarize the sample and measures of values as they form the basis of quantitative analysis of data (Criswell, 2009). Utilizing descriptive statistics draws conclusions by extending beyond the data known. It utilizes judgments of the probability that are observed between groups and reduces that data into a summary (Criswell, 2009). An example of this would be a hitters’ batting average. This single average value is simply the number of hits divided by total at bats forming an average that is easily understood as an average of how frequently a hit is attained by the batter over the course of a game or season. This value reflects performance as a single…...

...the fact that SIM’s existing hardware infrastructure does not support the use of a Macbooks (or Macs for short). This report sets out to investigate whether or not SIM’s Integrated Information Technology Services (IITS) department should seriously consider updating the university’s hardware to keep up with SIM students changing usage. A statistical analysis of our findings is conducted. Based on anecdotal observations, we hypothesized that 30% of the school population use an Apple Macbook. We then carefully conducted an online survey of 51 SIM students, ensuring a stratified sampling which reflects the distribution of the university’s student population. After conducting an upper tailed one-sample z test, we obtained sufficient evidence to reject our null hypothesis. Based on our proportionate sample, we found out that more than 30% of our school population use an Apple Macbook. The large proportion of students using Apple Macbooks warrant an initiative by IITS to equip and update the school infrastructure with Mac-friendly software and hardware. The preference for an Apple Macbook has transformed it from an exotic choice to a popular choice chosen by the school population. We recommend IITS to embark on a feasibility study immediately to update the school’s firmware to support the Mac platform 1. Introduction: The Problem SIM's existing hardware infrastructure does not support the use of Macs. Students rely heavily on laptops to get their university course......

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...EHR system used in meaningful ways as the key to reforming the healthcare systems. Meaningful use of the EHR systems can also improve the overall quality of healthcare, insure patient safety, as well as reduce the cost of healthcare to individuals (Bigalke & Morris, 2010, p. 116). The responsibility of employing the new EHR Medicare and Medicaid incentive programs has been given to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. CMS established and launched standards and managed the implementation specifications. CMS also oversaw the certification criteria, including the certification process for the EHR technology. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services also insured the safety of the patients by establishing privacy and security protections under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act (Burchill, 2010, p. 232). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provided incentive payments to eligible professionals and hospitals that are determined to be meaningful users of a certified EHR program. According to an article by Jones, Heaton, Friedberg, and Schneider (2011) incentives totals may add up to $27 billion dollars between the years 2011-2016. Implementing electronic health record systems (EHR) is simply not enough to qualify for incentive payments, qualified healthcare professionals and hospitals must also be able to demonstrate meaningful use of the......

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... UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND EXTERNAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND DISTANCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES. NYERI EXTRAMURAL CENTRE MASTER IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT COURSE: LDP 603: RESEARCH METHODS ASSIGNMENT STUDENT; GITHUNDI BEDAN. ADMISSION REF-27086/2013 LECTURER; Dr. Lilian Otieno, Resident Lecturer I am tasked to distinguish between parametric and non-parametric statistics and explain when to use each method in analysis of data. I shall first seek to define what parametric and non-parametric statistics mean and then compare and contrast them in the analysis of data. Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics that assumes that the data has come from a type of probability distribution and makes inferences about the parameters of the distribution. Most well-known elementary statistical methods are parametric. (According to Wikipedia, the online dictionary). In statistical analysis, parametric significance tests are only valid if certain assumptions are met. If they are not, nonparametric tests can be used. A parameter is a measure of an entire population, such as the mean height of every man in London. In statistical analysis, one practically never has measurements from a whole population and has to infer the characteristics of the population from a sample. Generally speaking parametric methods make more assumptions than non-parametric methods. If those extra assumptions are correct, parametric methods can produce...

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...Statistics is a powerful resource to determine important information. Statistics is used to determine whether the outcome of an experiment is the result of a relationship between specific factors or merely the result of chance. This concept is commonly used in the medical field to test drugs and vaccines and to determine causal factors of disease. Statistical also is used in the fields of psychology, environmental biology and other disciplines in which research is conducted through experimentation. Statistics are the mathematical calculations of numeric sets or populations that are manipulated to produce a probability of the occurrence of an event(Sullivan, 2003). A sample is used, and the results of the calculation are applied to an entire population. For example, it might be said that 80 percent of all adults in the United States drive a car. It would be difficult to ask each adult in the U.S. whether he or she drives a car, so a random number of people could be questioned, and the data could be statistically analyzed and generalized to apply to all adults in the U.S. This paper it shows three examples on how statistics relates to current life. Using the knowledge that I have obtained from this course, I will demonstrate techniques we have discussed in class to answer these questions. In 1798, Henry Cavendish measured the density of the earth using an instrument called a torsion balance. While the density is obviously not uniform, the value of the mean density is......

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...Meaningful Use Information Technology in Healthcare Mohammad Ali Torabi Meaningful Use In 2009 president Obama signed the Affordable Care Act, which is also known as ObamaCare, into law. ObamaCare is a national health care plan, which its main goal is to reform the American health care system so that every citizen would be insured by the year 2014. Healthcare providers are overwhelmed by the amount of patients they visit everyday due to the shortage of doctors we are having. One article from New York Times estimated that by the year 2025, America would be in shortage of 100,000 primary care physicians, based on the amount of doctors graduating and an increase demand of healthcare. Having said this, the atmospheric state in the healthcare environment can be described as barred linear unit in which everything within is in an incessant movement, whether it’s the personal, semantic role, and/or the application. In this crucial environment, access to patients’ medical record in a timely manner is essential in providing efficient and quality patient care. In a town meeting held in Northern Virginia Community College in Annandale, Va., President Obama called for fixing the inoperative healthcare system by investing in electronic medical records. President stated, “ I know that people say the costs of fixing our problems are great – and in some cases, they are”. He also stated that, “The costs of inaction, of not doing anything, are even greater. They’re unacceptable.” In an...

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...integrates applied business research and descriptive statistics. Students will learn to apply business research and descriptive statistics in making better business decisions. Other topics include examination of the role of statistics in research, statistical terminology, the appropriate use of statistical techniques, and interpretation of statistical findings in business and research. Policies Faculty and students will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: • University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. • Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Lind, D. A., Marchal, W. G., & Wathen, S. A. (2011). Basic statistics for business and economics (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. McClave, J. T., Benson, P. G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson-Prentice Hall. All electronic materials are available on the student website. |Week One: Understanding the Meaning of Statistics ......

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...Statistical Information Paper I will describe the use of statistic at Veterans hospital in Loma Linda that has 142 Hospital beds and 108 beds of Community Living Center. Employs 2,436 staff. The VA hospital Provided 546,017 outpatients visits in 2008.In 2010 Outpatients visits 584,028 it is increase 38011 or increase 1.07%. Statistics is data use to compare and analysis. Hospital statistics Includes current and historical data on utilization revenue, expenses, person and mush morel Will describe numerical data, numerical count, statically analysis, and four levels of Measurement. Numerical data. Bennett, Briggs, and Troika (2009). Numerical Numerical data is identified, measured, and numerical scale. Numerical data can be Displayed using charts, tables, and graphs. Example I work at medical floor is a busy floor. The Physician is always order many test for the new admit patient. Such as Order the patient, take X-Ray, EKG, CAT scan, GI lab so on. For example, if the patients come back for GI lab.Nurse has To take vital sign every 15 minutes times four, every 30 minutes times two, and one-hour time One. This Vital sign was taken to compare how the vital sign are difference between them. If the vital Sign Drop too low or too high that will nurse alert nurse to check the patient and report to the Physician right away. This entire vital sign nurse has to record in the computer that will show in Line graph. The line graph is easy to...

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...possibilities, it is statistics that is relied upon to find solutions to the problems and help determine what possibilities are truly feasible. Statistics may be best defined as the means by which data is gathered, analyzed, and interpreted to better understand a problem or situation. There are two types of data that can be analyzed in statistics. These are quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data deals with actual numbers and percentages, things that can be measured. Qualitative data deals with things which cannot be measured, but only perceived, such as color, texture, or odor. For example, one may say that a painting’s dimensions are 15” by 20”. This is quantitative data. One may then say that the painting’s primary color used is yellow. This is qualitative data. Quantitative data deals with quantity, where qualitative data deals with quality. There are four levels of measuring data in statistics. These levels are, in ascending order of specificity: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal levels of measurement deal with names and categories. Ordinal levels deal with ordering the data, but no distinguishing observations can be made. On the interval level, data can be ordered in a way that does make sense and make a difference in perception. At the ratio level, meaningful ratios can be made to represent the data at hand. For example, distance works on a ratio level. In business, statistics plays a vital role in the decision making process. Statistics......

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...Statistics Business Jason Garrett Qnt/351 YOHANNES MARIAM 5/4/2015 After review of the text and online research I have come to the understanding of Statistics in business it’s the most widely used quantitative method in business. This method has a lot to do with the accuracy the business collects of the information to review and help make the best decision based on these findings. It is concerned with extracting the best possible information from data in order to aid decision making. As Define statistics a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data Identify different types and levels of statistics. Nominal Measurement There are handful of types and levels of statistics, Nominal measurements, “In social research, variables measured at a nominal level include gender, race, religious affiliation, college major, and birthplace. Ordinal measurement, in this classification, the numbers assigned to objects represent the rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.) of the entities measured. The numbers are called ordinals. The variables are called ordinal variables or rank variables. Comparisons of greater and less can be made, in addition to equality and inequality” ("Level Of Measurements," 2015). Interval measurements, “the numbers assigned to objects have all the features of ordinal measurements, and in addition equal differences between measurements represent equivalent intervals. That......

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...Basics of Statistics Jarkko Isotalo 30 20 10 Std. Dev = 486.32 Mean = 3553.8 N = 120.00 0 2400.0 2800.0 2600.0 3200.0 3000.0 3600.0 3400.0 4000.0 3800.0 4400.0 4200.0 4800.0 4600.0 5000.0 Birthweights of children during years 1965-69 Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 30 20 10 0 0 Horsepower 100 200 300 1 Preface These lecture notes have been used at Basics of Statistics course held in University of Tampere, Finland. These notes are heavily based on the following books. Agresti, A. & Finlay, B., Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 3th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1997. Anderson, T. W. & Sclove, S. L., Introductory Statistical Analysis. Houghton Miﬄin Company, 1974. Clarke, G.M. & Cooke, D., A Basic course in Statistics. Arnold, 1998. Electronic Statistics Textbook, http://www.statsoftinc.com/textbook/stathome.html. Freund, J.E.,Modern elementary statistics. Prentice-Hall, 2001. Johnson, R.A. & Bhattacharyya, G.K., Statistics: Principles and Methods, 2nd Edition. Wiley, 1992. Leppälä, R., Ohjeita tilastollisen tutkimuksen toteuttamiseksi SPSS for Windows -ohjelmiston avulla, Tampereen yliopisto, Matematiikan, tilastotieteen ja ﬁlosoﬁan laitos, B53, 2000. Moore, D., The Basic Practice of Statistics. Freeman, 1997. Moore, D. & McCabe G., Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, 3th Edition. Freeman, 1998. Newbold, P., Statistics for Business and......

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...scales, test scores). Second, the relationship between the two variables must be linear — the data points must generally fall along a straight line. A non-linear relationship between variables, shown at right, produces a Pearson’s r near zero, even though is it clear from the example that there is a strong (“quadratic,” of the type y=x2) relationship between the two variables. The third condition is that both variables are normally distributed. A skewed © 4th ed. 2006 Dr. Rick Yount 22-3 IV: Statistical Procedures Research Design and Statistical Analysis in Christian Ministry distribution produces a smaller r than a normal distribution. Use a large scale for variables in correlational analysis, since the larger the variability, the stronger the coefficient will be. A common mistake in research design is to use age categories rather than actual ages, or salary categories rather than actual dollar values. The range of categories will always be much smaller than the range of actual data, reducing the value of r. Pearson’s r is computed with the following formula: where n equals the number of score-pairs, and X and Y equal paired scores. While this formula is somewhat foreboding, it consists of the following simple components: ΣXY ΣX ΣY ΣX2 ΣY2 (ΣX)2 (ΣY)2 Multiply X by Y and sum Sum all the X scores Sum all the Y scores Square all X’s and sum Square all Y’s and sum Square the sum of X Square the sum of Y Let’s say we have a set of......

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...Statistics in Business Tania Correia QNT 295 April 6, 2015 Jeff Jung Statistics in Business Statistics can be defined as the way we look at, understand, and interpret “data” using math. By collecting the data, or information, we can analyze certain portions of this information to allow us to come to a conclusion or guesstimate of what may happen next or even to get an answer to a specific question. It all depends on the purpose of gathering the data. There are four different levels that we can measure statistics. The first would be the nominal level of measurement. It is the lowest of the four ways to characterize data. Nominal data deals with names, categories, or labels, leaving it to be a qualitative type of data. The second level would be, ordinal level of measurement. Data at this level can be ordered, but no differences between the data can be taken that are meaningful. As with the nominal level, data at the ordinal level should not be used in calculations. The third level would be the interval level. This level of measurement deals with data that can be ordered, and in which differences between the data does make sense. Data at this level does not have a starting point. The fourth and highest level of measurement is the ratio level. Data at the ratio level possess all of the features of the interval level, in addition to a zero value. At the ratio level of measurement, not only can sums and differences be calculated, but also ratios. One measurement can be......

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...Meaningful Use for Nurses The goal of meaningful use is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, access and continuity of healthcare. This paper will provide an overview of the Meaningful Use program. An analysis of Meaningful Use implications for nurses, nursing, national health policy, patient outcomes and population health associated with the collection of core criteria will also be discussed. Recommendations for additional core criteria will also be presented. Overview of Meaningful Use NANDA International (NANDA-I) was developed to identify and classify health problems within nursing, increase the visibility of nursing, organize nursing data and allow for accurate reimbursement for nursing care (Thede & Schwirian, 2015). NANDA-I states that it’s diagnoses are intended to communicate the professional judgements that nurses make every day to patients, other healthcare professional and the public (NANDA International, 2015). NANDA-I diagnoses relevant to the patient scenario given are 1) fluid volume deficit related to increased fluid loss and insufficient fluid intake 2) electrolyte imbalance related to increased fluid loss and insufficient fluid intake 3) knowledge deficit. The Center for Nursing Classification and Clinical Effectiveness, CNC (2015) defines the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) as a comprehensive, research-based, standardized classification of nursing interventions. “The Classification includes the interventions that nurses do on behalf......

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...Descriptive and Inferential Statistics ________________________________________ Statistics can be broken into two basic types. The first is known as descriptive statistics. This is a set of methods to describe data that we have collected. Ex. Of 350 randomly selected people in the town of Luserna, Italy, 280 people had the last name Nicolussi. An example of descriptive statistics is the following statement : "80% of these people have the last name Nicolussi." Ex. On the last 3 Sundays, Henry D. Carsalesman sold 2, 1, and 0 new cars respectively. An example of descriptive statistics is the following statement : "Henry averaged 1 new car sold for the last 3 Sundays." These are both descriptive statements because they can actually be verified from the information provided. The second type of statistics in inferential statistics. This is a set of methods used to make a generalization, estimate, prediction or decision. Ex. Of 350 randomly selected people in the town of Luserna, Italy, 280 people had the last name Nicolussi. An example of inferential statistics is the following statement : "80% of all people living in Italy have the last name Nicolussi." We have no information about all people living in Italy, just about the 350 living in Luserna. We have taken that information and generalized it to talk about all people living in Italy. The easiest way to tell that this statement is not descriptive is by trying to verify it based upon the information provided. Ex....

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... Uses of Statistical Information in the Workplace HCS 438 November 9, 2011 Uses of Statistical Information in the Workplace The collection, interpretation, analysis and presentation of data can be used in the workplace (Bennett, Briggs, & Triola, 2009). Predictions are made based on the data collected. The workplace is a healthcare organization, such as on a post-partum unit provide opportunities to collect, organize, observe and interpret information regarding this population. The purpose of this paper is to determine which methods of statistics are used as a measuring tool and what levels of measurements are used or could be used to improve the decision-making process for this organization. Statistics in the Workplace Many areas of the hospital facility use statistics in measurement. How do statistics affect this hospital healthcare facility in women services? One example is measuring nurse/patient ratios based on patient census and acuity. Patient acuity and census determines how many nurses are assigned to each patient based on their acuity. This also ensures patient and personnel safety. Patient satisfaction surveys are performed to improve patient care outcome as measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems); these tactics were discovered by the Studer Group. HCAHPS encourages leaders and staff members alike to realize the results are meaningful and that they translate to better, more consistent......

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