Free Essay

Meaning of Global

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By jamiechung
Words 1319
Pages 6
Date:
To:
From:
Subject:

Introduction
The following memo attempts to contrast the concept of a “Global” enterprise as modeled by the authors B. Kogut in “What Makes a Company Global?” a Review of The Myth of the Global
Corporation, M. Mangelsdorf in "Building a Transnational Company", INC. Magazine 1993,
Bartlett and Ghoshal in "Managing across boarders New Strategic Requirements", Sloan
Management Review, Summer 1987 and Johan Lembke in “Global competition in the information and communication technology Industry...", Business and Politics, v.4,#1, 2002. The contrast discussion will form around five factors identified as fundamental to operating across nations. Factor #1: The Significance of National Origin
The authors appear to be evenly divided regarding the role the nation of origin plays in the formation, comparative advantage and effective operation of a global industry. Kogut and
Mangelsdorf believe the nation plays a significant role in structure and operation. Kogut forms his entire article on the notion that the nationality of an enterprise is the sole determinate of comparative advantage. His theory is that if global markets remain free, nations will become elements of a global value chain. Kogut’s only variable for a global enterprise is how much to converge the various national operations.
Conversely, Bartlett and Ghoshal (B&G) and most particularly, Lembke, indicate that the nation should not have to play a determining role in the enterprise. Rather B&G present the notion of the “Transnational” (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1989) enterprise. The enterprise that is able to reap the benefits of each nation locations expertise, yet share this expertise among all locations forming a singular, responsive organization. Lembke takes the transparency of the nation to a new level. His description of the liberal‐strategic view suggests that there are “public actors try to tweak the rules of the world economy to structure global competition in ways that enhance job creation, overall competitiveness” (Lembke 2002). Lembke describes what he believes is almost complete national transparency in segments of the high technology industry, heralding the arrival of a true global economy. It is the opinion of this author that although organizations

are increasingly acting in a transnational role, the nation of origin will continue to impact global operation and organization as long as geo‐political boundaries define an “us” and “them” position. Social and political issues will always impact the organization and operation of global industry. Factor #2: The Value of free flowing Bi‐Directional Communication
Kogut finds himself alone on this issue. His statement, “As long as the global economy remains relatively open, nations will increasingly consist of highly specialized activities in a worldwide production chain.” (Kogut 1998), leaves one with the idea that communication is more in line with the communications between channel partners rather than the close communication within a individual enterprise. Communication is the essence of B&G’s transnational organization. They describe, in detail, the flow of information and knowledge between nation locations. This free exchange, for B&G, is what elevates an organization from merely a multinational enterprise. Mangelsdorf describes the tendency of local units to develop their own way of operating, often quite different from that expected by the leadership. She describes the formation of cross national committees for IT and other vital operational elements to avoid this fragmentary behavior.
Finally, Lembke’s new model is based entirely on communication between elements within the enterprise, between competitors and between nations. If competitive organizations are to form a global economy, they will need to communicate the ground rules. Communication would appear to be the life blood of all organizations, whether a transnational enterprise competing globally, or the family unit competing for the remote.
Factor #3: The Value of common IT infrastructure
Again, Kogut appears to anchor one pole of this factor. He recommends that global organizations embrace the comparative advantages offered by each nation in which the enterprise exists and to leverage these advantages to the greater good of the enterprise. He seems to indicate that local operations be allowed to develop independently so that they might generate the greatest expertise within the nation of origin. The autonomy recommended by
Kogut would not require a particularly sophisticated international IT infrastructure. B&G embrace a globally interconnected organization. The learning, responsive, transnational entity would require a well designed and functional IT architecture to share local expertise in the face of increasing global competition. Mangelsdorf outlines the construction of a wide‐area network to support email, teleconferencing and application sharing. This type of comprehensive network

represented a significant investment in 1992. Lembke’s piece centered on the very essence of common IT infrastructure, the international standard. The various ICT players recognized the strategic advantage of being the firm, group, nation or region that determines an IT standard.
Their efforts to promulgate the protocol standard for wireless communications across the globe are evidence of its importance.
Factor #4: The Value of shared learning
B&G and Lembke are together on this factor. Their models carefully outline the importance of shared learning in reducing national barriers. B&G lists shared learning as one of the characteristics necessary for a business to elevate to the transnational status. It is this dimension that facilitates both the responsiveness to national preferences and the efficiencies inherent in a centralized organization. Without these three characteristics, B&G feel a business cannot survive in the increasingly competitive global economy. Lembke extends this concept to include shared learning between competitors within a global industry. He proposes to grow the global economy through the cooperation among competitors. By focusing on global standards, a global industry can grow sufficiently to support a number of competitors. Kogut and
Mangelsdorf do not stress shared learning in their articles. Both authors describe the development of local expertise as natural and appropriate. These repositories of local expertise are linked to form a single robust enterprise, but sharing the expertise suggests a waste of valuable resources.
Factor #5: Control
This factor is the most variable among the authors. The model offered by Kogut suggests that localized control is best suited to promoting the comparative advantage inherent in each nation.
He indicates that local operations should naturally diverge from off shore, centralized control to align more with practices of the nation of origin. B&G and Mangelsdorf both model a centralized headquarters entity. B&G suggest a central control group that is not tied to any one nation location. Their concern is that a central management group, located in one location, will color the attitudes and behavior of leadership. Their design is a leadership group that floats among the various locations. Mangelsdorf also advocates a centralized control, but one that is representative of all locations, specifically a leadership committee with representation from all local units. This, she believes, is necessary to prevent the leadership committee from forcing the expertise of one location on others and stifling valuable local development. Lembke promotes a distributed model of control. His liberal‐strategic view supposes organizations cooperating

across national and regional boundaries to stimulate competition and growth. This type of cooperation, often among competitors, precludes a central control point. Few business leaders would be willing to cede control of their organization to another actor, political or industrial.
Conclusion
The global economy is a reality and here to stay. Each author offers some advantages in their model. As geopolitical stability has not and may not be achieved in the foreseeable future, a combination of elements from the various models that allows for the greatest fluidity may be the best answer. Lembke’s liberal‐economic model is definitely the most fluid of the models, but also involves the most risk. Cooperation among competitors, even global competitors, leaves one open to infringement. It is the fear of this infringement that has lead to the protectionist doctrine of most businesses and nations. Perhaps a “transnational” approach that promotes and preserve local expertise, sharing it with global competitors when the opportunity for market growth presents itself.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Meaning of Success

...Brandin Harvell English 111 Definition Paper Have you ever wondered why so many famous and rich people are stressed and unsure of the meaning of their life? The media has basically brainwashed us to believe that being successful involves having a lot of money, living in a huge house, have new sports cars. Even dictionary.com says success is “the attainment of wealth, position, honor, or the like” but this really isn’t the case. (Dictionary.com) Success is really based on ones aspirations which aren’t always about money. In this essay I’m going to talk about the deeper meaning of success. So what is success? For me success involves respect, appreciation and happiness. These traits are considered hard to attain. But in today’s world success is deceived in our thoughts to become rich. The media wants us to believe that being successful involves living in a self-centered life, in which involves nothing but the pursuit of riches. They say this will bring you happiness but this is not true. Money is simply like a new toy that eventually gets boring. Don’t get me wrong money can buy you luxuries, and might make your life easier but will it really make it better? No. For existence money can’t make somebody educated in a field; that can only come with hard work and dedication. Also money can’t help you solidify a long –term relationship with your boyfriend or girlfriend only thing that can do that is love and commitment. (Sasson) The terms respect, appreciation,......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Meaning of Life

...dynamics, of social institutions, and of cultural meanings. It allows us to see personal events and meanings as affected by historical forces and to see how historical events may be shaped by personal choices. WEEK 1 - TOPIC 1: SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL GROUPS Objectives Discuss the social construction of reality. Distinguish between sociological perspectives. Develop a sociological imagination. Identify components of social groups and organizations. Materials Readings for Week One: EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 1 of Sociology: A Brief Introduction. EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 3 of Sociology: A Brief Introduction. EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 5 of Sociology: A Brief Introduction. EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 12 of Sociology: A Brief Introduction. ARTICLE: Week One Electronic Reserve Readings Assessment Individual Assignment: Social Group Worksheet Martix Resource: Social Group Worksheet Matrix Complete the Social Group Worksheet using your sociological imagination to identify and describe the relationship between yourself and the other members of any social group of your choice. Submit the Social Group Worksheet Matrix. Social Group Matrix Refer to your course syllabus for additional instructions on individual and learning team assignments. WEEK 2 - TOPIC 1: SCIENCE OF SOCIOLOGY Objectives Apply the steps of the scientific method. Compare major research designs. Explain ethical issues in sociological research. Materials Readings for Week Two: EBOOK COLLECTION: Ch. 2 of......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Meaning of Freedom

...What Is the Meaning of True Freedom? To be "free," as generally understood, is to be free to do anything one desires to do, as long as you do not harm another person, thus interfering with his or her freedom. With this in mind, you can do essentially anything you want. There are no restrictions, no limits. In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson wrote that we, humans, have rights. Among these being the famous "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." I believe that the very essence of freedom is found in the early years of our American Revolution. There is no better way to describe freedom than an element that all humans strive for, to the point of incivility, or war. It is something that we treasure so dear to us that we chose to die defending it.  Freedom has both an external as well as an internal component. The external is associated with how we can "freely" operate in society so as to not, for example, encroach on the freedom of others. The internal component is related to grasping our own potential; and this requires that we understand ourselves, that we understand others through overcoming our prejudices against them, and also that we learn to attain the audacity to express this knowledge openly. Freedom without a goal or purpose is hollow but when the purpose is simply the search for truths in the wide sense of the word and for which there are many paths, it gains meaning. It is through these truths that we will learn to "better"......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Meanings of Minster

...EDLINE JASON A. DE JESUS BSBAMG-1B SACRAMENTS | MEANING | EFFECTS | MATTER, SIGNS, MANAGEMENT | MINISTER | BAPTISM | For Catholics, the Sacrament of Baptism is the first step in a lifelong journey of commitment and discipleship. Whether we are baptized as infants or adults, Baptism is the Church's way of celebrating and enacting the embrace of God. | The Remission of All Sin, Original and Actual.Remission of Temporal Punishment. Infusion of Supernatural Grace, Gifts, and Virtues. Conferral of the Right to Special Graces.Impression of a Character on the Soul. | Matter of BaptismThe pouring of water.Form of Baptism"I baptize you in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." | Ordinary MinisterExtraordinary Minister. | Eucharist | Catholics believe the Eucharist, or Communion, is both a sacrifice and a meal. We believe in the real presence of Jesus, who died for our sins. As we receive Christ's Body and Blood, we also are nourished spiritually and brought closer to God. | The Union With Christ by Love. The Spiritual Repast of the Soul. Forgiveness of Venial Sin and Preservation from Mortal Sin. The Pledge of Our Resurrection. | Matter of The Eucharist:Bread and wine.Form of the Eucharist:"This is my body...This is the cup of my blood..." | Is used to denote someone who assists the priest in administering the bread and wine. | Reconciliation | The Catholic Sacrament of Reconciliation (also known as Penance, or Penance and Reconciliation) has three...

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Meaning of Dreams

...The Meaning Behind Dream Richard Cantos Copper mountain college Abstract Sigmund Freud was a psychoanalyst psychologist who's studies were based on theory of personality and behavior while unconscious, in this research given we will be explaining the differences of dreams and nightmares derived by Sigmund Freud and how his methods of research paved a way into our society today. The Meaning Behind Dreams When most people go to sleep they either endure a dream or a nightmare. The question is, why? The reason behind it is explained in many ways but the most talked about is scientifically and/ or through theories. Austrian Physician, Sigmund Freud had an idea about the topic in his book called The Interpretation of Dreams. However, Scientists had a different approach dealing with how the brain interacts when we sleep. Dreams are most likely a product of our subconscious as debated by Freud. During sleep, our unconscious in uninhibited and is expressed literally and or symbolically (pg 583). The meanings range depending on repressed subconscious emotions and thoughts. This occurs because our waking conscious guard is let down, giving into our subconscious emotions. The power of subconscious emotions and thought, momentarily gives fruition to our own reality (pg 147). PET scans show that dreams are a product of emotions and thought. During REM sleep the frontal lobes which are responsible......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Negotiation of Meaning

...connection between the story, negotiation of meanings and communicative competence? The main connection between these aspects is the fact that the story depicts the perfect example of what happens when there is no communicative competence, misinterpretation of intercultural context meanings and lack of negotiation. The connection among these three issues is pivotal on the one hand to consider as stated by Safriyani, R. (2009) “communicative competence is the ability to interact well with others. Communication takes place in an infinite variety of situations, and success in a particular role depends on one’s understanding of the context and on prior experiences of a similar kind.” On the other hand, negotiation of meanings helps people develop interlanguage capabilities and internalize proper inputs. It promotes a set of prompts such as “clarification requests” and “confirmation checks” (Long, 1980). In addition, negotiation is almost indispensable for having a proper comprehension of L2 input which should be modified or adapted in order to have real learning. As asserted by Krashen (1985), “for acquisition to occur, input should be always comprehensible…” (Krashen, S., 1985 in Arzamendi, J., Palacios, I. & Ball, P., p.39). And to conclude with our third aspect, intercultural context meanings, which plays a necessary role when interpreting and conveying messages, it should be considered that “confusion between cultural context meanings often causes......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Meaning of Baptism

...Baptism Terminology Baptism: is to dip or immerse It’s a ritual of cleansing Rite of initiation into the Christian community Dyeing and rising with Christ. The meaning of baptism  It is a public announcement of a personal experience  It is a Christian act of obedience and a public testimony of a believer’s willingness to identify with and follow Christ.  It is a picture of Christ’s death, burial and resurrection- one baptized is dying in sin, burying the sins and resurrecting in a new life in Christ.  It is an outward picture of a person’s inward change- leaving behind the old way of life in exchange of new life in Christ.  Baptism is a symbol of salvation NOT a requirement of eternal life.  Baptism is an indication of our willingness to tell our church and the world that we are committed to the person of Christ and his teachings.  One baptized who is born of the love of the two now is born of water and spirit into the kingdom of light.  Enables the one baptized to live as adopted son or daughter of God  By him/herself or through the parents the newly baptized person desires to put his/her life under the lordship of Jesus- under his reign whereby the sign of baptism seals that agreement. Meaning of the elements Water: this means the cleansing into new life is the sign of the kingdom of light into which the Lighten candle: baptized is entering. White garment: wedding garment of the saints (Revelations 7) Sign of the cross: signifies that...

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Meaning and Purpose

...What Gives meaning and Purpose to One’s Life? What brings meaning and purpose to my life is actually a simple concept if you think about it. I can sum it up with two main ideas, knowledge and happiness. Knowledge or the pursuit of knowledge is perhaps the more important of the two. I feel this way because as one gains knowledge and the ability to apply what is learned to one’s life. a person gains the ability to become truly happy. I can’t speak for everyone but when I metaphorically speaking “unlock secrets of the universe”, I feel a deep sense of accomplishment especially when what I learn can be used to help other people or further my career. This pushes me to learn more as this feeling is addictive. Through knowledge comes happiness. I don’t feel one can really be happy without a certain level of knowledge attained simply because until you become “aware” ore “conscience” your basically living life in a hole never even knowing what true happiness is. This is reflective of how I used to live. Just day to day with very simple things bringing me a perceived and very short sense of happiness. When I was able to open my eyes to the world I feel I experienced what true happiness is. These ideas give meaning and purpose because I am able to gain knowledge and channel them into a skill or ability to help myself and others which in turns makes me strive to learn more and repeat the cycle. Ultimately the joy I gain most is that unlike a drug this sort of......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Meaning of History

... The Meaning of History Student’s Name University Affiliation MEANING OF HISTORY The term history combines a number of terminologies for it to have a meaning. It therefore refers to a systematic account of natural phenomena involving accounts of events that are narrated in a chronological order and deal with past of mankind. History can also be defined as the dialogues that relates the present with the past. Evolution of mankind sometimes defines the word history. It explains the story of man and his progression in civilization, his downfalls, successes, his laws and wars, religion, arts and development. In other words it can be summarized as the biography of great men who were heroes in the past. The origin of history started way back in Greek being connected to the world famous historians Thucydides and Heredeotus.The word history also relates to writers or narrators of events referred to as historians e.g. we have historians narrating the new history of the Era of the Polis. History follows the example of discovering past human dimensions which one of the history authors divides it into five different stages. The Golden age, the Silver age, the age of Bronze and finally the Iron Age. History incorporates a number of significance that helps us to understand its meaning better. It makes life richer by providing importance to the......

Words: 679 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Meaning of Life

...Can life have meaning even if there is no afterlife? Why or why not? Before I can answer this question I must confess that I have no religious beliefs nor do I have any belief in heaven or hell, ghosts or immortality. Now it is purely my opinion that life is as we make it from the time we are born. Can life have a meaning? Life expectancy of a human can last 80+ years depending on where you live in the world. I think that the meaning of life is defined by the individual person. In my heart I believe that my life is meaningful and I know some people that believe there life also has a meaning. However, like I mentioned earlier it is up to the individual to make their life have a meaning. So far in my 36 years of life I have experienced both bad and good situations. My life has taken a path from which I chose to take. Life can be stress free or stressful depending on how you choose to live your life as an individual. For me, I know there is a birth, a life and then a death in store for me. I have no illusions of immortality or reincarnation or remaining in limbo until I find peace. Until the day comes where there is proof of an afterlife then all that I have just mentioned is all I have to work with. Back to the meaning of life, it is all on how we make our lives meaningful. Destiny has nothing to do with it and neither does some “divine intervention”. Once our mind has developed to the stage where we can make conscious decisions for ourselves then that is where I......

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Meaning of Life

...The Meaning of Life There is a certain point in our lives, regardless of the time, when we begin to ask ourselves a set of questions that challenge our existence on this earth. Was the human race created to wonder this world aimlessly? Or do we have a true purpose that we are destined to harness and attain? Why am I here? Like the rest of us, Thomas Nagel, Robert Taylor, and Raymond Martin have each made their own attempts to answer the question of the meaning of life and while doing so, each of the philosophers rendered their own solution to these universal doubts. Thomas Nagel explains that “to convey the absurdity of our lives often has to do with space or time: we are tiny specks in the infinite vastness of the universe; our lives are mere instants even on a geological time scale, let alone a cosmic one; we will all be dead any minute” (Nagel, 768-769). Nagel then defines absurd as “a situation that includes a conspicuous discrepancy between pretension or aspiration and reality (Nagel, 769). Translated, Nagel says that absurd is a situation in which life seems irrational and meaningless. Throughout his entire argument, Nagel hardly leaves room for a rebuttal to yield the answer to the true meaning of our lives. He suggests that we as humans have a special capacity to take a step backwards and observe the lives that we are “committed” to and call them into question. But, as he pointed out; while taking that backwards step we realize that the life that we are so......

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Meaning of Death

...opposites are connected and the same with life and death. In order to live you need to die and part of your body is your soul. So you need to not only be born with a body but with a soul which means when your body dies your soul has to still exist so it can be born again and continue the circle. The problem with this argument of opposites is in the explanation of the immortality of the soul. When looking at the soul itself, what is the opposite of the soul, the body. But the body is the container for the soul. This helps to understand its existence of a body and a soul and the necessity for both to be their for the opposites of to be living and to be dead and again to be born Melissa Gxxxx December 14,2010 Religions 310: The Religious Meaning of Death Final Paper The Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul in Phaedo In Phaedo by Plato, Socrates discusses the arguments for the immortality of the soul while awaiting his own death. His colleagues confusion as to why he didn’t “fight” death or is not upset at the prospect of his own death leads to the explanation of why for someone who lived the life of a philosopher fear of death would not be proper. He prefaces this discussion with an explanation of why if you live the life of a philosopher that death is not something to be feared but almost welcomed. The idea is that a philosopher is interested in truth. The problem with humans is that we experience life through the body, which uses the senses (sight, smell etc.) to......

Words: 1017 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Meaning of Sociology

...Discuss the meaning of sociology Sociology is understanding the way people act and what they do it’s the focus on human institutions and our behaviours ,It’s about social issues , legal ,health & educational systems ETC ,and structures , and society itself and the people who make up society ,it can helps us make sense of the world and how its evolves and how people are changing constantly and how people fit into the world around us , It’s about discussing problems , equality , human rights, discrimination , According to (www.dartmouth.edu ,3/3/12 ) “Sociology enables us to understand the structure and dynamics of society, and their intricate connections to patterns of human behaviour and individual life changes. It examines the ways in which the forms of social structure -- groups, organizations, communities, social categories (such as class, sex, age, or race), and various social institutions (such as kinship, economic, political, or religious) affect human attitudes, actions, and opportunities.” For example feminists, they have strong opinions and have changed gender issues in relation to power a major change accorded , and according to (http://tutor2u.net/sociology/what-is-sociology. 3/3/12) “Feminists argue that society is dominated by men. In this patriarchal society men discriminate against women in order to prevent males and females gaining equal rights. There are various strands of belief within feminism; such as radical feminism, liberal feminism and......

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Meaning of Sociology

...DEFINITION OF SOCIOLOGY Tuesday, March 24, 2009 | Posted by Nimesh Suranga (නිමේෂ් සුරංග) | 'Sociology' which had once been treated as social philosophy, or the philosophy of the history, emerged as an independent social science in 19th century. Auguste Comte, a Frenchman, is traditionally considered to be the father of sociology. Comte is accredited with the coining of the term sociology (in 1839). "Sociology" is composed of two words : socius, meaning companion or associate; and 'logos', meaning science or study. The etymological meaning of "sociology" is thus the science of society. John Stuart Mill, another social thinker and philosopher of the 19th century, proposed the word ethology for this new science. Herbert Spencer developed his systematic study of society and adopted the word "sociology" in his works. With the contributions of Spencer and others it (sociology) became the permanent name of the new science. The question 'what is sociology' is indeed , a question pertaining to the definition of sociology. No student can rightfully be expected to enter on a field of study which is totally undefined or unbounded. At the same time, it is not an easy task to set some fixed limits to a field of study. It is true in the case of sociology. Hence it is difficult to give a brief and a comprehensive definition of sociology. Sociology has been defined in a number of ways by different sociologists. No single definition has yet been accepted as completely satisfactory.......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Meaning of Meaning

...2424A STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING RMIT University, Melbourne School of Accounting and Law, Symposium on Statutory Interpretation Chapter House, St. Paul‟s Cathedral 13 August 2009. The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG RMIT UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING AND LAW SYMPOSIUM ON STATUTORY INTERPRETATION CHAPTER HOUSE, ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL 13 AUGUST 2009 STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG THE MAIN TASK OF MODERN LAWYERS Although we still describe ours as a common law system (to distinguish it from the countries of the civil law tradition), the label is now looking somewhat dubious. The distinctive feature of contemporary Australian law derives from the overwhelming importance of the laws made by or under parliament. I refer to statutes, regulations, by-laws, executive instruments, rules of court and all the other ways in which the written law now manifests itself. In my youth, the statutory law of the State of New South Wales was collected in twelve manageable volumes, supplemented by a threevolume index1. These books included many important statutes commencing in the colonial period, some of which, like the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), still apply today.  Past Justice of the High Court of Australia (1996-2009). President of the Institute of Arbitrators & Mediators Australia 1 R.J. McKay (ed.), The Public Acts of New South Wales 1924-1957, Vols.1-15, Law Book Co. Sydney 1958. 1 The......

Words: 9460 - Pages: 38