Free Essay

Meaning and Nature of Language

In: Business and Management

Submitted By DAShaw
Words 3052
Pages 13
Meaning & Nature of Language

Introduction Language is the heart of our world. We create our concept of the world by thinking and naming things. Using words helps us communicate effectively in different situations. Without language, we would not be able to communicate at all. Verbal communication is one of life's naturally occurring communication systems. Communication is essential for human beings.
Language is the primary way in which adults pass ways of thinking and conversing on to their children. Language is an accumulation of knowledge because we learned everything by somebody through language. Society would have to recreate itself every generation if it could not pass its knowledge on through language.
Language is one of the most powerful tools in human communication. Words are meant to establish and maintain friendly contact. Through words, people shape their identities. People can express their feelings, attitudes, and experiences to each other through words. By speaking, information can be give to others about oneself and the world around him/her.
In Christine Leong's essay Being A Chink, she describes the power of language. She said, "It gives us identity, personality, social status, and it also creates communities, defining both insiders and outsiders. Language has the ability to heal or to harm, to praise or belittle, to promote peace or even to glorify hate." I believe this is what language is all about. Language has two purposes. Depending on what is said, and how others perceive what has been said, language can be helpful to the soul or destroy one's self-confidence. Words are intended to inform others so they can understand us. Words are not intended to establish superiority; if they are, people get hurt in the process.
Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language.

By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language.
Meaning and Nature of Language as a Communication Tool
The Oxford Dictionary defines language as 'The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.' We are aware that language is, today, an inseparable part of human society and human civilization has been possible only through language. It is through language only that humanity has come out of the stone age and has developed science, art and technology in a big way. Language is a means of communication, it is arbitrary, it is a system of systems.
Language enables individuals to give expression to their feelings, ideas and concerns. As they mature, it is through language that they will communicate their personal needs and claim their rightful place in society. Through naming, describing, classifying and modifying things and ideas, knowledge is extended and the command of language developed. In this way, language subsumes experience. Words become the bank in which a growing fund of knowledge and concepts is stored. Thus, language is the medium through which new learning is assimilated and defined.
Any language speaker knows something about his/her language, but it is difficult for a language speaker to tell us what language is. This make it evident that the access to the inner knowledge about language is not an easy task despite our competence in language(s) and its importance to our mental and social life. Such a task requires following certain systems in order to discover, describe and analyze the underlying rules that control any language. This led to the emergence of language theory or model which is likely to be tested like any other theory.
The interactional view of language sees language primarily as the means for establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships and for performing social transactions between individuals.
The world ‘language’ involves many aspects of human and animal communication (such as the language of bees, body language etc.).
Verbal communication: It describes language as a mechanism for conveying meaning which operates independently of other means of human communication (e.g. gesture) and differ from animal communication.
Non-verbal communication: It includes body movement, facial expression and other non-verbal phenomena are part of the complex progress of human communication.
Language is sound based
Sound is perhaps the most elementary and yet common communication vehicle used by humans and animals alike. This statement point out the primacy of the languages sounds over the other representations in writing which are regarded as secondary phenomenon of speech. For instance, all traditional orthographies and letters used in common alphabets, such as the familiar Roman alphabet, represents different sounds in different languages.
Such a claim that language is sound, prove the fact that all human beings produce speech sound with the same equipment (by the movement of the speech organs).
Language is systematic
Although language is symbolic, yet its symbols are arranged in a particular system. All languages have their system of arrangements. Every language is a system of systems. All languages have phonological and grammatical systems, and within a system there are several sub-systems. For example, within the grammatical system we have morphological and syntactic systems, and within these two sub-systems we have systems such as those of plural, of mood, of aspect, of tense, etc.
Although stating that language linear which permit a combination of symbols together but not all the possible combinations of symbols (sounds) is possible. This is what makes language systematic, means that is describable in terms of finite number of units that can combine only in a limited number of ways. Due to that, terms such as sound system, grammatical system, etc. emerged as part those terms used in describing and comparing languages.
Language is arbitrary
Language is arbitrary in the sense that there is no inherent relation between the words of a language and their meanings or the ideas conveyed by them. There is no reason why a female adult human being be called a woman in English, aurat in Urdu, Zen in Persian and Femine in French. The choice of a word selected to mean a particular thing or idea is purely arbitrary but once a word is selected for a particular referent, it comes to stay as such. It may be noted that had language not been arbitrary, there would have been only one language in the world.
This refers to the idea that the conditions required for the existence of more than one language: that there be no direct necessary connection between the nature of things or ideas language deal with and the linguistic units and combinations by which these things or ideas are expressed.
A less definable characteristic of human language is its arbitrariness, which takes several forms. First there is no necessary connection between the object and the word that represents it. A rose could be called a sorp and smell as sweet. Different languages indeed call the same object by different names. English rose may indeed be rose in French but it is bara in Japanese and warda in Arabic. The connection between objects and words is largely arbitrary.
Animal languages in a sense have a limited list of ‘words’, like those Konrad Lorenz found in crows. In animal communication, a ‘word’ is an entity of its own. Each of the monkeys’ cries has a distinctive meaning, ‘snake’, ‘eagle’, and so on. They cannot be decomposed into a small set of meaningless components like phonemes. Animals have a dictionary consisting of a limited number of signs but they do not have sound or writing systems.
In human languages the set of words is open-ended, formed from a strictly limited set of components, whether phonemes, gestures, or letters. The fact that these symbols are themselves meaningless and arbitrary allows them to generate a vast stock of words. Though Roman alphabets vary slightly from one language to another, their 26 letters can encode, not only all the words in the Oxford English Dictionary, say, but all the words in the dictionaries of French, Italian, Malaysian, etc, as well, with a handful of additional symbols. Arbitrariness of the actual phonemes or letters is a highly useful characteristic that gives language its infinite flexibility, unlike the total rigidity of animal systems.

Can communication exist without language?

Language is restricted to humans
Chomsky (1968) claimed that language in specific to humans as only humans possess a language acquisition device to acquire language – the universal grammar. It is a hard matter to define what language really is.
According to the layman definition by Cambridge University Press (2008), language is a system of communication that consists of sounds, words and grammar. In the past literature, there have been claims that non-human primates like chimpanzees and bonobos are capable of comprehending human language (Benson et al., 2002; Brakke and Savagerumbaugh, 1995).
However it is doubtful whether comprehension constitutes a comprehensive use of language. In this essay, we would discuss whether non-human animals are capable of commanding the comprehensive use of language by critically evaluating whether they show some of the design-features of human spoken language in their speech documented in Hockett (1960) and whether they are able to acquire syntax and morphology (Laidrem, 2008).

Language is symbolic
Language can be symbolic in several ways:
1) Language is a symbol or testament to one's culture. People think differently in other languages. People have different beliefs. Not everything translates the same. There are words in some languages that do not correspond with any word in another language. Translations really are difficult. Thus, language could be a symbol for culture.
2) Language has symbolism. This is common in literature. A rose is often a symbol for passion in English. Symbols are diverse.

3) Language is symbolic of intellect, from my interpretation. Ever notice that humans are much further ahead than any species? That's because our ability to communicate through language is much more powerful than most creatures. We have abilities that accompany this, but our ability to communicate makes us very special. Suppose you could not convey anything to the rest of the world. You would be alone. There would be no globalization. Another special thing we have about language is the fact that we have so many different ways to communicate. We communicate through math, music, movement, writing, speaking. We communicate in so many different ways. Thus, it is a symbol of our intellect, and if you dare say-superiority.

4) All language is metaphor. It is a sound or a set of graphic symbols that represents something else. Words don't really take part in the existence of the things referred to. Think of the word Apple, or the word information. What are they? How many meanings could they have? We could as easily call them phlimbara or quinch. (www.answers.com) Retrieved 10/20/14
Language is maturational
The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition, and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals (particularly other primates). Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection.
This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study. In 1866, the Linguistic Society of Paris banned any existing or future debates on the subject, a prohibition which remained influential across much of the western world until late in the twentieth century. Today, there are numerous hypotheses about how, why, when, and where language might have emerged. There is scarcely more agreement today than a hundred years ago, when Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provoked a rash of armchair speculations on the topic. Since the early 1990s, however, a growing number of professional linguists, archaeologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and others have attempted to address with new methods what some consider "the hardest problem in science.
There is a close connection between the development of thought and the development of language. Language also develops within a social context and depends on social development (Bates, 1976). Various theorists attribute importance to different factors in the development of language. The nativist view (Chomsky, 1976) stresses that children are preprogrammed and have an innate ability to acquire language. The behaviorists focus on the importance of the language environment. The infant and young child need appropriate language models and constant feedback as they attempt to communicate.
Other theorists (Piaget, 1952; Vygotsky, 1962) viewed the development of language as a complex interaction between the child and the environment, which is influenced by both social and cognitive development. Both Piaget and Vygotsky believed that as children develop language, they actively build a symbol system, which helps them to understand the world. They differed in the way in which they viewed how language and thought interact with one another. Piaget believed that cognitive development led to the growth of language whereas Vygotsky viewed language as developing thought.
A child's external speech is the first step in the development of thinking. Vygotsky's theory stresses the importance of communication with others as a major factor in the development of a child's language, which stimulates the development of thought. Vygotsky's theory views the important effect that an adult has on the development of language. His theory describes the importance of the zone of proximal development, which is present in interactions children have with adults. This zone is described as the "distance between the child's actual developmental level determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance." This adult guidance is referred to as scaffolding.
In order for the scaffolding to be effective, it must match the child's developmental level so the child is comfortable enough to use the guidance, which may present enough of a challenge to reach the next level in a particular area. For example, an adult whose goal is to provide an appropriate amount of scaffolding may engage in a conversation with a young child using various strategies. If the child asks a question about a particular topic, the adult may first ask a child, "Well, what do you think about that?" Once the adult knows what the child thinks, he can decide which ideas to confirm and which ones to extend and determine just how much information the child can assimilate during one conversation.
Adults who do not typically provide scaffolding will not ask the child's thoughts on the matter, but will answer the question directly. In doing this, they have not figured out exactly what the child is asking, nor do they know what the child already knows about the particular topic. Even though the child in this situation may be satisfied with the answer, he has not had the opportunity to actively discuss and manipulate ideas in order to construct knowledge. Sometimes adults can ask young children open-ended questions. The children's responses are often filled with information, which adults in the scaffolding role can extend. Consider the various answers these 3- and 4-year-old children gave to a teacher's question, "What do you know about leaves?"
"The leaves fall from the trees and they always roll away."
"They do their jobs. They grow."
"They fall on the ground."
"The wind comes and blows them very fast and they roll across the grass. I can catch one of the leaves."
"Sometimes the leaves get into beautiful colors like a rainbow. They fall to the ground and I catch them, and when they stay up in the tree and they do their jobs and keep growing and growing and growing."
Clearly, these children already have a vast knowledge about leaves. The teacher can then take this information, which is meaningful to the children, and weave it into discussions about seasons, the life cycle of plants, weather, and an appreciation of the beauty of nature. A teacher can say, "You were talking about how the leaves get into beautiful colors like a rainbow. Let's find a book about leaves and find out how they do this."
Conclusion
The belief in the innateness of language is based on several arguments, and one of these is that all human languages obey some rules, which are called universals. It is claimed that the fact that all human languages obey these universals show that the latter are built-in in the human genetic information, because otherwise languages would diverge. However, languages are means for communication between humans, and this put some limits on their divergence. Therefore, any universal which may be a result of these restrictions does not require any innate information to explain it, and only universals which cannot be explained in this way can be used for the argument. Hence, it is important to determined which universals are a result of the fact that languages are means for communication among humans.

References
• Fedurek P, Slocombe KE Hum Biol. (2011 Apr; 83 (2):153-73. Review. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution? Department of Psychology, University of York, YO10 5DD York, United Kingdom. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

• Naeem, Prof. (2010) Characteristics and features of language. www.profnaeem.com http://grammar.about.com
• Sosal A. Ahmed. (2011) The Nature of Language. Department of Linguistics. University of Khartoum.
• Chomsky, Noam. (1968) Linguistic Contributions to the Study of Mind (Future)
• UK Essays. http://www.ukessays.com/essays/english-language
• http://en.wikipedia.org/ Origin of Language
• N. Close — Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Forum Language Development and the Nature/Nurture Debate

...Forum Language Development and the Nature/Nurture Debate I believe that both Forms of language Development and Nature/ Nurture Debate are important for the language Development in children or Babies. Sure Language learning is natural. Babies are born with the ability to learn it and that learning begins at birth. All children, no matter what language their parents speak, learn language much the same way. Also Researchers have found that language development begins before a child is even born, as a fetus is able to identify the speech and sound patterns of the mother's voice and that language learning takes place in stages. I agree, but the other way I do tend more to support the Behaviorist B. F. Skinner. He believed that we can explain how babies acquire language entirely with principles of learning, such as the association of objects with the sounds of words, the imitation of language modeled by others, and the reinforcement of correct use of words and syntax by parents and teachers is that children still need the interaction with an adult to be able to learned to speak. I believed if a child would born 100% healthy and capable to learn anything, however there is no one talking or interacting with the child, the child wouldn’t be able to develop any verbal skills, because it’s never had any input. This would show that all the children’s natural learning stages wouldn’t worked without any input. The child needs input from the parent s or surrounding so they can learn how......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Invariant Meaning

...are partly related to each other in terms of their meaning and usage. Their presence and usage in sentences are often in order to express an idea or to provide information. From the analysis of the examples, it is found that they actually contain one invariant meaning. The difference is only in the degree or level of intensity. This is the invariant meaning of the chosen verbs: Invariant meaning: both these verbs have an invariant meaning which is the act of having conviction towards X, or accepting X to be true. The act is less likely to be affected by other person. The slight difference between the usage of these two verbs is that they convey different level of intensity of X. Basically, suggest implies that the subject does not necessarily fully confide in what he proposes. However, believe implies a greater level of conviction towards X. After analyzing the examples given previously as a whole, it is recognized that both verbs share a similarity concerning their meaning. Their invariant meanings are partly the same. They are used by the subject to convey something or to express something initiated from his self such as information and ideas. Despite this similarity, what is more apparent is that these words differ according to their level of intensity in their usage. Believe carries a message that the subject is more confident and certain towards X as compared to the word suggest. Based on the invariant meanings of the two words stated above, the word believe is...

Words: 1599 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Nature

... Nurture is what we are molded in as growing up but at the same time Nature is our personality, intelligence, aggression and sexual orientation are also encoded in each individual DNA. Nature can be defined in many ways I personally define it as life in general things that are natural in life plants, animals, and weather even from a baby coming into this world that is nature. Genetics vs. Environment you might hear someone say to you ‘‘you and your mother act so much alike” or “your following in your fathers foot steps”, however parents and guardians do play the key role in shaping a child personality. But, nature does most of the real work. The environment does influence most personality traits while the rest are genetics. Often times I role out of the bed and the weather is dreadful and I crawl right back in cancelling all my daily routines. What will you define that as? I will classify that as nature for the reason that if the weather was beautiful I would have been in a better mood and start my day; because the sun is shinning and at that moment you’re in a much pleasant mood. Page 72 & 73 in the Society textbook by John J. Macionis looks upon the Role of Nature as determining a person is innately gay, or holds any characteristics of that of a criminal. Page 1 of 3 I ssues of nature vs. nurture are still debated in the scientific community. There is......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Language Has No Meaning

...Ethical language has no meaning. Discuss (35 Marks) The meaning and function of ethical language is the focus of meta-ethics. It can be discussed whether ethical language has any meaning at all by looking at different perspectives. An ethical naturalist would say that all ethical statements are the same as non-ethical ones; they’re factual and can, therefore, be true or false. So ‘Thomas More was executed for his beliefs in 1535’ and ‘Thomas More was a good man’ can be proved true or false by looking at the evidence. If we can find evidence, we can conclude that Thomas More was good and if not, we can conclude he was not. The same holds for any moral issue for example if one wants to know if euthanasia is right or wrong. They simply look at the evidence so they can test the accuracy of the statement, and from this they could argue that euthanasia ends suffering for an individual, therefore euthanasia is right. Ethical naturalist is an objective and cognitive theory, which means that they claim that there are moral facts and that they can be known, perhaps through reason, or through revelation and that they are true for everyone, for all time. Therefore ethical naturalists see ethical language as meaningful because they argue that ethical language has an underlined content of purpose. For example a knife is good if it cuts sharply. Therefore ethical language is showing what terms such as ‘good’ mean through the content of purpose within an ethical statement and is......

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Importance and Meaning of Body Language

...The Importance and Meaning of Body Language Customer Relations and Servicing - 4 Week 4 Julie Roberts Instructor: Hal Kingsley Monday, April 30, 2012 “Body language is just one element of nonverbal communication while other elements include voice tone, the environment, touch, and appearance.”(Thompson, 2012) Introduction Definition of “Body Language”: “Non-verbal communication cues that send powerful messages though gestures, vocal qualities, manner of dress, grooming, and many other cues.” The importance of body language is in part because we as humans need each other. We are social beings. In other words “We need people”. Body language is a language without spoken words and is therefore called non verbal communication. We use body language all the time, for instance looking someone in the eyes means something different than not looking someone in the eyes. Body language is usually occurs unconsciously, yet the body language we use can decide to a large extent the quality of our communication. However we can learn to control and read our body language and use it for a purpose. Body language is interlinked with spoken language and a whole pattern of behavior from a person. Example: The way a person’s facial expressions are given, excited (eyes lit up and a huge smile), boredom (a frown, listlessness, and posture) and the list goes on. Being aware of your expressions is a key to having positive body language. Body language is not only through the use of......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Nature

...Human development has been and would continue to be a very complex process; from birth to death. Human development spans a broad range of human endeavor that has attempted to understand why human beings to the things they do, grow the way they do, and the potential of human beings. There has been an ongoing debate whether human development is impacted by nature or nurture. If the growth of the individual were to be guided by nature, the individual would take the position that all or most of its behaviors and characteristics are the result of genetics inherited from their parents (Colella, 2013). Meaning that they were fully equipped with all the skills they need in their lives when they are born. On the other hand, if an individual’s growth were guided by nurture only, the individual would think and behave in a certain manner because that is how the individual was taught to do so or from experience (Colella, 2013). In this case the individual is also impacted by the environment surrounding them. Although nature has some impact on human development on an individual, nurture has a greater impact on an individual’s development. It has a bigger affect on human development due to early childhood experiences, acquired intelligences and socialization throughout their life. Early childhood is the most and rapid period of development in a human life. The experiences gained from birth to the four years of age are critical to the complete and healthy cognitive, emotional and......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Different Meanings of Body Language in China and West

...Different Meanings of Body Language in China and West Abstract: There’s language in her eye, her cheek, her lip. Nobody and dignity, self-abasement and servility, prudence and understanding, insolence and vulgarity, are reflected in the face and in the attitudes of the body whether still or in motion. While we speak with our vocal organs we converse with our whole bodies. Body language plays a very important role in both communication of daily lives and intercultural communication. However, in the past time, the attention paid to body language is not enough. Due to the cultural differences between China and west, differences in the meaning of body language exist. The importance of body language is reviewed and stressed, the features of body language in Sino-West cultural communication are analyzed, and some advices for body language using in intercultural communication is provided. Key words:intercultural communication, body language, china and western countries. What is the significance of American dating? Often dating means no more than getting to know one another and having some fun. It is often the beginning of a friendship with someone whom you may like but not necessarily marry. Dating is not as serious in America as it is in some countries, but it is important because every person has the freedom to choose his own marriage partner, one with whom he hopes to spend the rest of his life. Dating is one way to accomplish that goal. Where do most Americans......

Words: 1249 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Nature of

...God The Nature of God Barbara J. DeYoung University of St. Francis Abstract Through the reading of the book of Genesis and Exodus, one would almost say that God is a merciless God of punishment and rules. The truth is God is the same in the Old Testament and the New Testament of the Bible. We are just seeing different attributes of God at different times. God does not change, he is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. Keywords: Faith, Old Testament, God The Nature of God The Nature of God: The Old Testament The book of Genesis opens with an omnipresent (or everywhere present) God creating the world that we know today. How is it possible to be in all places at once? David asked the same question in Psalms 139:7-10 “Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me.” (Bible, KJV) God is everywhere at the same time, but we can be separated from God. God is “everywhere” present, but this does not mean that we are continuously with God. We can be separated from God as we read in Isaiah 59:2 “But your iniquities have separated you from your God; your sins have hidden his face from you, so that he will not hear?” The Bible clearly states that iniquities (sin) can separate us from......

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Concept of Nature

... The Concept of Nature in the Poetry of William Wordsworth and Robert Frost : A Comparative Study Chapter One Introduction 1. Background Poets have long been inspired to tune their lyrics to the variations in landscape, the changes in season, and the natural phenomena around them. The Greek poet Theocritus began writing idylls in the third century B.C.E. to glorify and honor the simplicity of rural life--creating such well known characters as Lycidas, who has inspired dozens of poems as the archetypal shepherd, including the famous poem "Lycidas" by John Milton. An idyll was originally a short, peaceful pastoral lyric, but has come to include poems of epic adventure set in an idealized past, including Lord Alfred Tennyson's take on Arthurian legend, The Idylls of the King. The Biblical Song of Songs is also considered an idyll, as it tells its story of love and passion by continuously evoking imagery from the natural world. The more familiar form of surviving pastoral poetry that has retained its integrity is the eclogue, a poem attuned to the natural world and seasons, placed in a pleasant, serene, and rural place, and in which shepherds often converse. The first eclogue was written by Virgil in 37 B.C.E. The eclogue also flourished in the Italian Renaissance, its most notable authors being Dante and Petrarch. It became something of a requirement for young poets, a form they had to master before embarking upon great original work. Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia and Edmund......

Words: 6645 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

What Is the Literatry Function of the Dialogue Between Language and Nature in David Malouf's an Imaginary Life

...literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 1 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? 2 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 3 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? 4 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 5 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? 6 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life? © International Baccalaureate Organization 2008 7 50 Excellent Extended Essays What is the literary function of the dialogue between language and nature in David Malouf’s An Imaginary......

Words: 514 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Language

...Language John Kendrick PSY/360 September 14, 2015 Professor Jackson Language Through sounds, gestures, and symbols humans have learned to communicate with each other. It is a developed system for communicating in a society. Languages will vary from one culture to the next and will take on different forms. Not only are languages spoken, they are expressed through hand gestures and written symbols. Language is a form of communication that allows humans to express emotion, opinions, thoughts, and beliefs (Galotti, 2014). The lexicon is the vocabulary contained within the language. It is the knowledge of the words contained in the language. It is a compilation of all words known, understood, and expressed by the individual. The language is compiled and understood by others contained in the same culture and supports how the language is expressed (Galotti, 2014). One key feature of language is broadcasting the message and then rapid fading of the message. The message will fade and then not heard. The next feature is interchangeability. This is the ability to both receive and send the message. Total feedback is occurs when the speaker can hear his own speech and can monitor the language performance as they go and specialization involves producing the speech through the specialized body parts adapted for this role (Galotti, 2014). The key features of language are phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. An expression of language occurs when an......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Religion: Meaning and Nature

...RELIGION: MEANING AND NATURE Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Meaning of Religion: Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Meaning Nature and Kinds of Disability

...Meaning of Learning Disability The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined learning disabilities as a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind. Somebody with a general learning disability is said to have a significant impairment of intellectual, adaptive and social functioning. The way Learning Disability has been defined has been changing over different phases. The term has experienced a shift in dominance from Physicians to Psychologists and most recently to Educationist. The shift has been from an evaluation phase to instruction, education and training. Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV 1800-1930 1930-1960 1960-1980 1980-Present / / / Foundation Phase Transition Phase Integration Phase Contemporary Phase Phase Details Foundation Phase During the Foundation Phase, medical theories of brain function and dysfunction were formulated. Transition Phase Transition Phase emphasised more on the Clinical Study of the Child by Psychologists Integration Phase Integration Phase was characterized by the rapid growth of school programme for learning disabled children Contemporary Phase The current phase is an eclectic approach with a shift to the Educators. It is a coming together of the doctors , psychologists, parents and teacher with ultimate responsibility lying on the teachers The term Learning Disability actually was coined in 1963 here in......

Words: 2253 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

The Importance and Meaning of Body Language

...The Importance and Meaning of Body Language Customer Relations and Servicing - 4 Week 4 Julie Roberts Instructor: Hal Kingsley Monday, April 30, 2012 “Body language is just one element of nonverbal communication while other elements include voice tone, the environment, touch, and appearance.”(Thompson, 2012) Introduction Definition of “Body Language”: “Non-verbal communication cues that send powerful messages though gestures, vocal qualities, manner of dress, grooming, and many other cues.” The importance of body language is in part because we as humans need each other. We are social beings. In other words “We need people”. Body language is a language without spoken words and is therefore called non verbal communication. We use body language all the time, for instance looking someone in the eyes means something different than not looking someone in the eyes. Body language is usually occurs unconsciously, yet the body language we use can decide to a large extent the quality of our communication. However we can learn to control and read our body language and use it for a purpose. Body language is interlinked with spoken language and a whole pattern of behavior from a person. Example: The way a person’s facial expressions are given, excited (eyes lit up and a huge smile), boredom (a frown, listlessness, and posture) and the list goes on. Being aware of your expressions is a key to having positive body language. Body language is not only through the use of......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Meaning of Meaning

...2424A STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING RMIT University, Melbourne School of Accounting and Law, Symposium on Statutory Interpretation Chapter House, St. Paul‟s Cathedral 13 August 2009. The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG RMIT UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING AND LAW SYMPOSIUM ON STATUTORY INTERPRETATION CHAPTER HOUSE, ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL 13 AUGUST 2009 STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG THE MAIN TASK OF MODERN LAWYERS Although we still describe ours as a common law system (to distinguish it from the countries of the civil law tradition), the label is now looking somewhat dubious. The distinctive feature of contemporary Australian law derives from the overwhelming importance of the laws made by or under parliament. I refer to statutes, regulations, by-laws, executive instruments, rules of court and all the other ways in which the written law now manifests itself. In my youth, the statutory law of the State of New South Wales was collected in twelve manageable volumes, supplemented by a threevolume index1. These books included many important statutes commencing in the colonial period, some of which, like the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), still apply today.  Past Justice of the High Court of Australia (1996-2009). President of the Institute of Arbitrators & Mediators Australia 1 R.J. McKay (ed.), The Public Acts of New South Wales 1924-1957, Vols.1-15, Law Book Co. Sydney 1958. 1 The......

Words: 9460 - Pages: 38