Managerial Accounting Paper

In: Business and Management

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Chapter 2: ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS

2-1 The four financial statements contained in most annual reports are the balance sheet, income statement, statement of retained earnings, and statement of cash flows.

2-2 No, because the $20 million of retained earnings would probably not be held as cash. The retained earnings figure represents the reinvestment of earnings by the firm. Consequently, the $20 million would be an investment in all of the firm’s assets.

2-3 The balance sheet shows the firm’s financial position on a specific date, for example, December 31, 2002. It shows each account balance at that particular point in time. For example, the cash account shown on the balance sheet would represent the cash the firm has on hand and in the bank on December 31, 2002. The income statement, on the other hand, reports on the firm’s operations over a period of time, for example, over the last 12 months. It reports revenues and expenses that the firm has incurred over that particular time period. For example, the sales figures reported on the income statement for the period ending December 31, 2002, would represent the firm’s sales over the period from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2002, not just sales for December 31, 2002.

2-4 The emphasis in accounting is on the determination of accounting income, or net income, while the emphasis in finance is on net cash flow. Net cash flow is the actual net cash that a firm generates during some specified period. The value of an asset (or firm) is determined by the cash flows generated. Cash is necessary to purchase assets to continue operations and to pay dividends. Thus, financial managers should strive to maximize cash flows available to investors over the long run.
Although companies with relatively high accounting profits generally have a relatively high cash flow, the relationship is not…...

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