Long Lasting Effects of Preterm Birth

In: Psychology

Submitted By passions181
Words 892
Pages 4
Long Lasting Effects of Preterm Birth
Angel McClucas
Psychology 221

The National Institute for Child Health and Development (NICHD) published an article about long lasting effects of preterm birth. NICHD performed several research studies that shows preterm birth leads to different long term challenges after birth. The researchers explained that infants born 32 weeks of gestation or less are considered preterm, with being born early their brain and other organs are not fully developed as they would be if the infant was born after 32 weeks. NICHD continued to explain that preterm infants, most times, require life-saving medical treatments to survive. These treatments can cause pain and stress that is unwanted for the infant. The pain and stress during these critical development periods can cause problems long term. Some challenges for these infants long term can consist of visual memory, poor planning skills, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Several studies have been done by The Institute to understand how these stressors affect the brain development and to help find ways to make their first weeks after birth easier. NICHD is also hoping to promote healthy development with these studies. In one study the researchers measured the cortisol level in the children’s saliva before, during and after the children performed simple tests. The study showed the children who were born extremely preterm did worse than the children born preterm and full term. However, the study also showed that positive mother-child interaction helped reduce the stress in the extremely preterm children. In other studies researchers used brain imaging to measure cognitive deficits. These studies showed that children who were very preterm could not remember pairs of shapes that were shown just moments before. The very preterm children showed different brain…...

Similar Documents

Child Abuse Lasting Effects

...involvement with substances to try and cope. Because they are submerged to violence, abused children will grow up and learn to use violence as a main way of dealing with social situations. Victimized children will grow up with a great chance of suffering from harmful psychological problems such as depression, anxiety or psychiatric disorders. They will never be able to fully escape from their painful memories and traumas. To deal with the depression or disorder, they may lash out in violence or abuse substances to feel better. Overall, the brains development is fastest growing as a child and abuse affects the learning processes and behaviors that a child grows into. Violence and substance abuse appear in previously abused adults because the effects of child maltreatment are so harsh that they never completely fade. The violence is what they’ve learned to express and the substances are coping methods. Child Abuse Leads to Substance Use and Violence Childhood is the most precious time of our life for a reason. Not only does it start the foundation of our lives, but it shapes and molds the very person we are going to become and the characteristics we are going to acquire as we grow older. Those first years of our lives are influenced by our parents and how we are brought up. If humans are brought up with love, reason, and value, they are likely to gather behaviors and a personality that reflects love and value for the world around them. But what happens when an innocent......

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6

Autism, Adhd and Add: the Lasting Effects

...Tammy Tevis ENG-105 Analyzing a Concept 1 May 13, 2013 Russell Tiedt Autism, ADHD and ADD: The Lasting Effects When a baby is born a parent hopes for their children to be healthy, happy and normal. No parent ever hopes to raise a child with abnormalities or handicaps yet unfortunately, a percentage of babies born will have some form of a disability. Whether the condition a child has is of the mildest form requiring only supervision or is considered severe requiring lifelong care and medication, parents stress and have difficulties dealing with the everyday life their child goes through and deals with throughout his or her life wondering if they are doing all they can to make sure their child is well taken care of. This essay will examine the effects of ADD, ADHD and autism focusing on adolescents and children with these impairments and the parents and caregivers who struggle to maintain a daily balanced life. As a mother with a son who has ADHD I can speak first hand on the struggles a parent has to face and the challenges we deal with raising a child. My son was diagnosed shortly after he began kindergarten when he first started displaying signs of anxiousness during class time and how his teacher would struggle to keep him under control. His dad and I were called in to a parent-teacher conference to discuss my son’s behavior during class. It was recommended by the teacher that we have our son evaluated for ADHD as that was what she believed he had. We made an......

Words: 1238 - Pages: 5

The Long Term Effects of Caffeine

...day? One can? Two cans? More? Caffeine is mandatory in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has shown that it is bad for us, or good for us. What are we to believe? Today I'd like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. It may not cause you to change your coffee consumption but at least you'll be better informed about what you are putting into your body. I'm going to talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine; the negative effects and discuss what are considered safe levels of caffeine consumption. Let's start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63 different plants, is well known as a stimulant. That's why people drink it, right? Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans. This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious work. Calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car is definitely a benefit to your well-being. Caffeine also contains antioxidants, which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities. The negative effects of caffeine are largely dependent on how much you consume. When consumed in small quantities, for example when you have one cup of coffee or one soda, caffeine can cause your heart rate to increase, you urinate more which can cause dehydration, and your digestive......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Low-Birth-Weight Infants and Preterm Births

...Discuss disparities related to ethnic and cultural groups relative to low-birth-weight infants and preterm births. Describe the impact of extremely low-birth-weight babies on family and society (short and long term, including economic considerations, ongoing care considerations, and co morbidities associated with prematurity). Discuss whether you feel that support services and systems in your community for preterm infants and their families adequately address their needs or not. Explain your answer. Respond to other learners' posts in a manner that initiates or contributes to discussion. According to the World Health Organization, a LBW infant is one born weighing <2500 g (5). Preterm infants are those born at <37 wk from the first day of the last menstrual period, regardless of birth weight, whereas growth-restricted infants are those born weighing less than the 10th percentile of birth weight–for–gestational age, regardless of whether that weight is <2500 g Thus, it is possible for both preterm and growth-restricted infants to weigh >2500 g. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/2/584S.long Low birth weight is a public health problem in many countries; globally an estimated 15 per cent of births result in low-birthweight babies. Those who survive, have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and to suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Long Term Effects of Childhood Obesity

...pounds they add should be in direct proportion to their growth. If they take in more calories than they burn off, the result can be a significant increase in weight. According to Ogden, Carroll, Kit, and Flegal (2012) “childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 years” (p.483). The effects of obesity are varied and include the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, breathing problems, trouble sleeping and can even result in social isolation and depression. But what are the root causes of this epidemic? The causes themselves are just as varied and just as numerous as the effects. They encompass a wide variety of convoluted elements such as poor eating habits, lack of exercise, low self-esteem, family issues, peer problems and can even include medical causes such as illness or depression. One cause of childhood obesity is overeating and poor eating habits. Children are submerged in an environment that is conducive to overeating and maintaining their poor eating habits. In today’s fast paced society, some parents have little time to plan and assemble healthy meals for their children. Long work days and little time spent with family leads to the use of more processed foods and fast food substitutes instead of healthy home cooked meals. Some families are faced with geographic challenges when providing healthy foods. They live in rural settings that make access to stores with healthy food options unattainable, or......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

Birth Control Effects

...Birth Control Pill Effects Women should be able to choose if they want to become parents or not. They should also be able to choose if they want to take birth control or not. But nowadays people take birth control over the smallest issues not even related to “birth control”. Weak hair, take some birth control. Breaking out, take some birth control. Don’t want your period, take birth control. One of the most dangerous effects of any kind of birth control is blood clots. Birth control can cause breast cancer. It is not confirmed but people who have been more exposed to medications like birth control have a higher risk of getting it. Benefits of birth control would be, have a regular and lighter period, less cramps, and a lower risk for ovarian and endometrial cancer. Negative effects of birth control would be a higher risk of getting a heart disease, and high blood pressure. Minor side effects are nausea, headaches, sore breasts, weight gain, weight loss, irregular bleeding, and depression. Not every woman’s body reacts the same way to each medication. Some people may have no side effects at all, whereas some people’s side effects would be very severe. Most minor side effects fade, or go away completely after you take the medication regularly for a couple months. The pill is very easy to access for most people nowadays. Back then birth control was used to prevent pregnancies, and control menstrual cramps. You can......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Learning Problems in Kindergarten Student with Extremely Preterm Birth

...with extremely preterm birth by H Gerry Taylor, PhD, Nancy Klein, PhD, Marcia G Anselmo, MEd, Nori Minish, BS, Kimberly A Espy, PhD, and Maureen Hack, MB ChB Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study 1-3 by Ulf Ekelund, Jan Aman, Agneta Yngve, Cecilia Renman, Klaas Westerterp, and Michael Sjostrom Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first national health and nutrition examinations survey epidemiologic follow-up study 1-3 By Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Lorraine G Ogden, Catherine M Loria, Suma Vupputuri, Leann Myers, and Paul K Whelton The first study; Learning Problems in Kindergarten Students with Extremely Preterm, objective by the research objective was to implement a cohort study to assess early learning problems in extremely preterm(EP) children in kindergarten compared with term-born normal birth weight (NBY) controls; to identify risk factors of educational outcomes in the extremely preterm group with neonatal factor, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status (SES). Variables included the age, sex and ethnicity and children born January 2001-December 2003 (n=148), and term-born normal birth weight classmate controls (n=111). Main outcome measures are achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the extremely preterm (EP) and......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Learning Problems in Kindergarten Student with Extremely Preterm Birth

...with extremely preterm birth by H Gerry Taylor, PhD, Nancy Klein, PhD, Marcia G Anselmo, MEd, Nori Minish, BS, Kimberly A Espy, PhD, and Maureen Hack, MB ChB Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study 1-3 by Ulf Ekelund, Jan Aman, Agneta Yngve, Cecilia Renman, Klaas Westerterp, and Michael Sjostrom Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first national health and nutrition examinations survey epidemiologic follow-up study 1-3 By Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Lorraine G Ogden, Catherine M Loria, Suma Vupputuri, Leann Myers, and Paul K Whelton The first study; Learning Problems in Kindergarten Students with Extremely Preterm, objective by the research objective was to implement a cohort study to assess early learning problems in extremely preterm(EP) children in kindergarten compared with term-born normal birth weight (NBY) controls; to identify risk factors of educational outcomes in the extremely preterm group with neonatal factor, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status (SES). Variables included the age, sex and ethnicity and children born January 2001-December 2003 (n=148), and term-born normal birth weight classmate controls (n=111). Main outcome measures are achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the extremely preterm (EP) and......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Abolition and the Lasting Effects in East Africa

...Abolition and the Lasting Effects in East Africa Unlike the Atlantic world, slavery in East Africa looked a little different. Slavery in Africa portrayed a complex use of labor, the exercise of rights in person, and of exploitation and coercion tempered by negotiation and accommodation. However the most common features on slavery in East Africa is the fact that it varies overtime and place. For instance, according to Miers and Roberts, “Slaves might be menial field workers, downtrodden servants, cherished concubines, surrogate kin, trusted trading agents, high officials, army commanders, ostracized social group dedicated to a deity…( 5). Perhaps the largest difference between slavery in East Africa versus slavery in the Atlantic world or the new world was the people who regulated slave trade. It is popularly known in African history that the British, French, Germans and the Spaniards played significant roles in the extrapolation of African people and their resources in the slave trade and, later, colonialism. However in East Africa, those who were in power were the Arab who, similar to the European colonial powers, found Africa to be abundant in profitable resources and sought to acquire the resources through free and forced slave labor in East Africa.   Much like their European counterparts, the Arabs conducted slavery in the same repressive manner. In defining slavery, Frederick Cooper, in his book “Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa” writes, “When comparing......

Words: 2827 - Pages: 12

Long Term Effects of Exercise

...1. What are the long term effects of exercise on… a) the cardiovascular system b) the respiratory system c) the muscular system d) the skeletal system a. The long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system are the heart becomes bigger and its walls become thicker and the coronary arteries become better at supplying the heart with blood. It will be able to pump more blood per min which makes the heart more capable of a higher heart rate, stroke volume and minute volume. b. The long-term effects of exercise on the respiratory system are increasing the air sacks in the lungs, clearing out any mucus that may be in any of them, increasing the vital capacity of the lungs and tidal volume of the lungs as well as increasing the strength of the diaphragm muscle. The lungs will become healthier and produce a greater number of alveoli. c. The long-term effects of exercise on the muscular system are the tendons (a connective tissue that connect muscle to bone) become stronger, our aerobic energy system become more efficient, slow twitch fibres increase in size. Also our muscles hypertrophy become bigger and individual muscle fibres become thicker becoming able to cope with lactic acid. Lastly the chemical reaction in our muscle that produces energy increase in quantity and the removal of lactic acid is faster. d. The long-term effects of exercise on the skeletal system are the mineral content of our bones increases and bones get......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Long Term Effects of Physical Abuse

...English 50 Cause and Effect Professor Morrison 11 May 2011 Long Term Effects of Physical Abuse There are many types of abuse that a child can be put through. Physical abuse makes up about 25 percent of the reported cases of abuse a year (http://www.childwelfare.gov). Some long term effects are physical health consequences, psychological consequences, and behavioral consequences. Physical health consequences caused by physical abuse are impaired brain development, poor physical health and shaken baby syndrome(sbs). Physical abuse has shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form properly (Perry, B.D 2002) Physical abuse has also been known to cause poor physical health such as sexually transmitted diseases. Shaken Baby Syndrome(SBS) is another physical health consequences due to the fact that it can cause blindness, learning disabilities in infants. Psychological consequences cause by physical abuse are poor mental and emotional health, cognitive difficulties, and social difficulties. Many of the young adults develop some type of psychiatric disorder early in life. As researchers stated, "These young adults exhibited many problems, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts (Silverman, Reinherz, & Giaconia, 1996). Children that have been abused or neglected have been known to do poorly in school. Children that are abused or neglected often have difficulties in relationships later in life with other......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Child Abuse and Its Long Term Effects

...Child Abuse and its Long Term Effects Franklin Mosley Christian Counseling 301 B02-LUO Abstract Child abuse is present in our society, in the United States and throughout the world. This paper briefly examines various issues surrounding child abuse and its long term effect upon the development of the abused. The goal of this paper is to underscore the fact that child abuse is prevalent and that help and treatment can be administered to both the abused and the abuser to end the crippling cycle of abuse in homes. Child Abuse and its Long Term Effects Child abuse is present in our society, in the United States and throughout the world. This paper briefly examines various issues surrounding child abuse and its long term effect upon the development of the abused. The goal of this paper is to underscore the fact that child abuse is prevalent and that help and treatment can be administered to both the abused and the abuser to end the crippling cycle of abuse in homes. The categorizing of types of abuse varies from country to country and therefore empirical statistics are very hard to establish. Definitions of child abuse also vary greatly, not only world-wide but also between states. The Federal government offers guidelines for states. Federal legislation provides guidance to States by identifying a minimum set of acts or behaviors that define child abuse and neglect. Note that these guidelines are classified as minimum standards. The Department of Health......

Words: 2965 - Pages: 12

The Industrial Revolution and Its Long-Term Effects

...The Industrial Revolution and Its Long-Term Effects Introduction The Industrial Revolution has been viewed as one of the most influential events to occur on to the economic world in the history of modern society. The invention of many new items that all helped people performed certain tasks more efficiently lead the world to be able to produce many more goods in a much shorter time frame. The impact of the Industrial Revolution on the world as a whole was that it catapulted the world economy into an almost frenzy like state, in which people had access to a much wider variety of goods and services offered to them by businesses. The impact that this event had on the worker’s life was not necessarily a good or bad thing, however. With the advent of new, more efficient technology, workers were able to more easily accomplish certain tasks that would have taken them a much longer time to complete before the start of the Industrial Revolution, however there were some serious negative side effects of such a quick influx of technology. With such new practices and ideas put into the workplace, many workers were expected to be as efficient as the new ways of producing a product or service, and as a result, their health and safety were often overlooked. The Industrial Revolution has had lasting effects on the entire population in almost every facet of our lives, as both consumers and workers, and will always be remembered as one of the driving forces behind the way in which the......

Words: 2435 - Pages: 10

Effects of Birth Control on Women's Lives

...The Effects of Birth Control on Women’s Lives On May 9, 1960, the Food and Drug Administration approved a drug that would revolutionize women’s lives. The life changing drug was an oral contraceptive, commonly known as “the Pill,” that would prevent pregnancy if taken correctly. Several other birth-control methods have been developed in the past ten years that are just as effective. Birth control has had effects on women’s mental, physical and social lives since its debut in the United States fifty years ago. One of the most researched drugs is the birth control pill. A great deal of information has arisen to improve the drug but there is one aspect that has not been studied as thoroughly, its effect on mood. The least publicized mental effect of the pill is that many women developed depression, until recently. There has not been any direct proof to back up the statement that hormonal contraceptives are the cause. Enovid, the first birth control on the market in the 1960’s, acknowledged in their packaging that there were cases where psychic depression occurred, but also declared that the relationship between the two were not clear. This is the only identified mental side effect that is thought to be associated with birth control. There are several physical effects that birth control has on women’s lives. The medical side-effects are commonly known because of commercials. These side effects include nausea, headaches and possible blood clots. The......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Effect of Low Birth Rate in Asia

...THE EFFECT OF LOW BIRTH RATE IN ASIA Hoa, D. P., Nga, N. T., Målqvist, M., & Persson, L. (2008). Persistent neonatal mortality despite improved under-five survival: a retrospective cohort study in northern Vietnam. Acta Paediatrica, 97(2), 166-170. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00604.x This article examines the neonatal mortality rate in Northern Vietnamese within 1970 – 2000 and analyses its socioeconomic effects. The article contains charts and tables describing the mortality trend over a large period of time. This source is very reliable as it references several government data and articles. McDonald, P. (2001). Low fertility not politically sustainable. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/Articles/2001/LowFertilityNotPoliticallySustainable.aspx This website article is concerned about high birth rates and their social, economic, and demographic effects have dominated the population field for the past 50 years. While for many countries these worries persist, for many other countries the problem now is very low rates of birth. According to McDonald; the aim of international efforts to reduce birth rates has been to bring them down to the replacement level of two births per woman. The article contain reliable proves that supports it ideal; such as chart, figures and different numeric analysis. Minja, K. C., Mason, A., & Retherford,, R. (2011, November 13). Declining birth rates raising concerns in asia. East-West Centre. Retrieved from http://www.eastwestcenter.org/ne...

Words: 442 - Pages: 2