Life Cycle Testing of Electrical Loads by Down Counter

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By rayhanfahim
Words 878
Pages 4
Life Cycle Testing of Electrical Loads by Down Counter

Rayhan Ferdous Fahim
1102018, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology
Chittagong, Bangladesh Md. Sadman Sakib
1102029, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology
Chittagong, Bangladesh Abstract— A desired number is entered through a keypad interfaced to a microcontroller. Upon activation, the system counts down one in each second till the set number reaches zero. A relay switches the load ON & OFF for every count thus testing the life cycle of a product.

Keywords— Life cycle; Down counter; Microcontroller; PIC16F877A; Relay.


The working life of many products such as lamps depends on the number of ON/OFF cycles it encounters. This project is designed to be used in industries for testing the life cycle of such electrical loads (lamps, motors etc) using a down counter.

This circuit basically performs automatic ON/OFF operation. If it is supposed to see whether a light can withstand 100 times on/off encounter, the value is set to 100 through the keypad. Then the circuit automatically performs 100 times on/off operation. The count is shown in the LED. After operation the circuit is prepared for next operation. That is how an important task of industrial operation can be obtained by automation.


This project uses a microcontroller (PIC 16F877A). A 4*4 matrix keypad is interfaced to it to enter a required number. A 16*2 LCD is used for displaying the count number.

The code for down counter is written on MACRO C pro language. After the count no. is given, the counter starts counting in the decrementing order from the set no. to zero. Simultaneously the load condition is…...

Similar Documents

The Product Life Cycle and Customer Life Cycle

...The Product Life Cycle A product's life cycle (PLC) can be divided into several stages characterized by the revenue generated by the product. If a curve is drawn showing product revenue over time, it may take one of many different shapes, an example of which is shown below: Product Life Cycle Curve The life cycle concept may apply to a brand or to a category of product. Its duration may be as short as a few months for a fad item or a century or more for product categories such as the gasoline-powered automobile. Product development is the incubation stage of the product life cycle. There are no sales and the firm prepares to introduce the product. As the product progresses through its life cycle, changes in the marketing mix usually are required in order to adjust to the evolving challenges and opportunities. Introduction Stage When the product is introduced, sales will be low until customers become aware of the product and its benefits. Some firms may announce their product before it is introduced, but such announcements also alert competitors and remove the element of surprise. Advertising costs typically are high during this stage in order to rapidly increase customer awareness of the product and to target the early adopters. During the introductory stage the firm is likely to incur additional costs associated with the initial distribution of the product. These higher costs coupled with a low sales volume usually make the introduction stage a period of negative......

Words: 2583 - Pages: 11

Life Cycle

...System Development Life Cycle This paper will begin with discussing the development of a custom application and the selection of proprietary systems. The system development life cycle has evolved over the years in response to changing scenarios and pattern shifts pertaining to the building or the inquiring of new software. The Life-Cycle has also gone through iterations of different names and a number of different steps (McMurtrey, 2013). The SDLC has been called one of the two dominant system development used today, along with prototyping (Piccoli, 2012). Many SDLC frameworks exist; however, most have four general stages which are planning and analysis, design, implementation, and support and evaluation (Wager & Lee, 2006). Each stage has tasks that need to be performed. The main focus of planning and analysis is the healthcare organizations strategy. Problems are identified and selected as opportunities for business improvement. Within this stage, the organization will determine whether a new system is needed and is the business financially able to invest in the development of this new system. If the business determines that the system is needed, it will need to determine the users of the system need and requirements. The business should get a system that will specifically help meet the goals of the company. The second stage is the design stage where the business considers all options ( (Wager, 2009). In this stage, alternative solutions to different problems are...

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

System Development Life Cycle

...System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) SDLC is a set of activities which are perform by analyst and developer to create the system for software. SDLC is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in information system development project from a preliminary study through maintenance of the complete application. SDLC follows six steps-: 1 Preliminary study 2 Determination of system requirement 3 System design 4 Software development 5 System testing 6 Implementation & Maintenance 1 Preliminary study -: Preliminary investigation is the first step in the system development life cycle. The preliminary investigation is a way of handling the user’s request to change, improve or enhance an existing system. The objective is to determine, whether the request is valid and feasible before any recommendation is made to do nothing, improve or modify the existing system, or build altogether a new one. Preliminary study divided into following 3 categories – A. Request Analysis B. Feasibility study C. Request Approval Request Analysis:- In this category, the users need is clearlyIdentify. Analyst identifies that what are the requirements of the user. Feasibility study:- The aim of the feasibility study is to access alternative systems and to propose the most feasible and desirable system for development. Thus, feasibility study provides an overview of the problem and acts as an important checkpoint that should be completed before committing......

Words: 3076 - Pages: 13

System Development Life Cycle

...Systems Development Life Cycle The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance. The SDLC is the foundation for all systems development methodologies and there are literally hundreds of different activities associated with each phase in the SDLC. Typical activities include determining budgets, gathering system requirements, and writing detailed user documentation. The activities performed during each systems development project will vary. The SDLC begins with a business need, followed by an assessment of the functions a system must have to satisfy the need, and ends when the benefits of the system no longer outweigh its maintenance costs. This is why it is referred to as a ‘lifecycle’. The SDLC is comprised of seven distinct phases: planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance. This section takes a detailed look at a few of the more common activities performed during the phases of the systems development life cycle along with common issues facing software development projects (see Figure D.1 and Figure D.2 ). Phase 1: Planning The planning phase involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals. Planning is the first and most critical phase of any systems development effort an organization undertakes, regardless of whether the effort is to develop a system......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

Testing Electrical Hypothesis not a bulb issue or an interior breaker issue. I also know that the power company has no reported outages in the area. I do know that the house was built in the 50’s and the electrical panel has not been upgraded since the home was built. Based on this information my hypothesis is that issue is within the main breaker outside the home. Due to the age of the home and electrical panel, it is likely a burnt out fuse that has caused all the lights to not work. Just to be sure I have tested the interior breakers of the house by flipping them to the off position and back on, still no lights. I also tested the exterior breaker by flipping it to the off position and back on, still no light. Now by replacing the fuse and switching on the lights I have solved the problem and have light throughout the house. From the research above I have found the problem was in fact a burnt out fuse at the main breaker of the exterior of the house. Question 2: It’s dinner time, I have all the ingredients ready to cook but when I go to turn the stove on nothing happens. I look at the knobs to double check they are on in the correct position and they are, in the on position. That’s when I observe that not only is the stove not working but in conjunction with the stove one half of the kitchen lights and electrical is not working either. I learned the stove was not working when I went to cook dinner; it was then that I found that half of the kitchen didn’t work when I started to explore......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Life Cycle Costing

...1.0 Life cycle costing (LCC) 1.1 Definition Life cycle costing is a cost management approach which includes all costs and ensures that all those costs are managed over the life cycle of the product. Product life cycle begins from conception of the product until its abandonment which can be referred as ‘from cradle to grave‘. Product life cycle has four stages: 1) Product planning and initial concept design It involves process of identifying any underlying conditions, assumption, limitations and constraints such as minimum asset performance, maximum capital costs that might restrict the range of acceptable options to be evaluated. It is a valuable reference for better decision whether the plan should be carried on. This includes the research and development cost market research costs. 2) Product design and development Starting from preparation of development contract until equipment is ready to be introduced to the business. It is also a stage where the factory trials take place. Cost of product design, prototyping, and market testing costs. 3) Production All the manufacturing costs related to producing the products such as direct material, labor, overhead and administrative costs will be incurred. 4) Distribution and customer (or logistical) support This stage is where product are sent to customers and ready to be used. All marketing, selling and distribution costs are incurred at this stage. As for logical support cost, it involves delivery and......

Words: 2824 - Pages: 12

Load Testing

...Taiwan, and Japan. PVS Testing Services offers end to end management, execution and analysis of performance tests to identify performance defects and to identify performance tuning opportunities. PVS Testing enables proactive actions to be taken to minimize and to eliminate performance defects from entering production. PVS Testing enables proactive actions to be taken to minimize, and to eliminate performance defects from entering production. Performance testing enables Large US Payer to deliver applications that satisfy customer expectations, hence ROI is obtained is satisfactory. PVS objectives are as follows: OBJECTIVES BENEFITS Interoperability Ensure that multiple applications can share both physical and logical resources without contention within a shared infrastructure environment. Proof of Concept Validate that a change in software design or infrastructure component performs as expected. Scalability Repetitive execution of a test cycle with progressively increasing volumes to verify system thresholds. Iterative Repetitive execution of a test cycle with a fixed volume during software/infrastructure configuration tuning Project Overview VOLUME TESTING - It applies to large amount of data to determine if the system meets specified objectives. NETWORK ANALYSIS - It captures system network characteristics for inefficiencies to identify potential performance and network risks. ENDURANCE TESTING - It executes an extended test cycles to identify......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Product Life Cycle

...1. Five (5) phases of SDLC that the business organization must go through in order to develop the new system. Provide an illustration to show the Waterfall model of System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). SYSTEM PLANNING SYSTEM ANALYSIS SYSTEM DESIGN SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE Diagram: System development life cycle Waterfall Model System Development Life Cycle is used to organize activities needed to build a system to assist management by providing reports on project status and keeping track of resource needed. It assumes that all activities are performed in a strict sequence. One phase must be completed before the next activity can be carried out and that no phase is to be repeated. However, the linear systems development life cycle is subjected to a number of critics which are the real information systems project rarely follow such a simple sequential cycle. Phases may be overlapped and activities may have to be repeated. Alterations are needed as inadequacies in the analysis phase mat become evident only during the design, construction or implementation phase. A great amount of time may have elapsed between the preliminary investigation and the final implementation. Also, the new technology existence may not be possible to incorporate new technology without redoing the analysis and design work already completed. System planning Information system strategic planning is a set of long-term goals that describe the information......

Words: 6561 - Pages: 27

Erp Life Cycle

...ERP Life Cycle Abstract This paper explores ERP life cycle. The main focus of the paper is on fourteen stages of life cycle of ERP System. The analysis includes describing of features of introduction, a preliminary stage, description of business processes, team for introduction, choice of platform, structure of ERP System, choice of the performer and budget, technical task, development of design decisions, integration, training of users, testing of ERP System, trial operation and economic effect of introduction. Critical analysis of all these aspects displays complexity of ERP system and its importance for the enterprise. Its result will depend on many factors, which influence the process significantly. Nobody would deny the fact that life cycle of ERP System is rather long and includes many interrelated stages. Keywords: ERP system, life cycle, introduction, a preliminary stage, technical task, integration, testing ERP Life Cycle Introduction Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP System) is the corporate information system intended for automation of account and management. As a rule, ERP-systems are created according to the modular principle and cover all key processes of the company activity. It is possible to consider nodular writing of monks as the predecessor of modern ERP systems. Double record was used for transfer economic and statistical data. Historically the concept of ERP developed simpler concepts such as......

Words: 3137 - Pages: 13

Product Life Cycle

...JOEL REG //: 2015010034 NAME: STEPHEN L SULTAN REG //: 2015010035 LECTURER’S NAME: Dr. JANETH ASSIGNMENT N0 1 Describe the stages of the product life cycle and how marketing strategies change during the product life cycle. INTRODUCTION All products and services have certain life cycles. The product life cycle refers to the period from the product’s first launch into the market until its final withdrawal and it is split up in phases. During this period significant changes are made in the way that the product is behaving into the market i.e. its reflection in respect of sales to the company that introduced it into the market. Since an increase in profits is the major goal of a company that introduces a product into a market, the product’s life cycle management is very important. Some companies use strategic planning and others follow the basic rules of the different life cycle phase that are analyzed later. The understanding of a product’s life cycle, can help a company to understand and realize when it is time to introduce and withdraw a product from a market, its position in the market compared to competitors, and the product’s success or failure. For a company to fully understand the above and successfully manage a product’s life cycle, needs to develop strategies and methodologies. The product’s life cycle - period usually consists of five major steps or phases: Product development, Product introduction, Product growth, Product maturity and finally......

Words: 2189 - Pages: 9

Project Life Cycle

...Project Life Cycle The four sequential major time periods through which any project passes, namely: 1. Concept 2. Definition 3. Execution (implementation or development) 4. Finishing (commissioning or close out). Each period may be identified as a Phase and further broken down into stages that typically reflect the area of project management application and the size and complexity of the specific project. [D01432] A collection of project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project. [D01428] The complete set of time periods through which a project passes sequentially in a logical and orderly manner. In its simplest form the life cycle consists of four major periods: 1. Concept (where the project concept as a need solution is selected and defined) 2. Development or Definition (where the concept is verified and developed into a workable plan for implementation) 3. Implementation (where the implementation plan is carried out); and 4. Closeout (where the project process is completed and documented, and the finished product is transferred to the care, custody and control of the owner.) Progress through the project life cycle is identified by ‘milestones’, but these major periods should be separated by ‘Control Gates’ or ‘Executive Control Points’. [D01429] The four sequential phases in time through which any project passes, namely: Concept; Definition (or......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Cycle of Life

...Life Cycle A product life cycle is a cycle that all products go through from introduction through demise and possible rebirth. There are five stages to the product life cycle: embryo, growth, maturity, decline, and although rare, rebirth. Each of the five stages is a mixture of product, pricing, distribution and promotion. The embryo stage aka introduction stage of the product life cycle is where a new product is launched into market. During this stage there is heavy marketing, product promotion, limited supply and sales are slow and difficult. Manufactures spend a lot to “educate” the public. In this stage the goal is to let people know of the new product and not primarily to make money. Electric cars and hybrids are definitely innovative and appealing. Consumers could not have known that gas was not the only way to fuel your car. Pass or play. Introduction was a success. In the growth stage, the market has accepted the product. Marketing efforts have boosted sales beyond original target market, therefore brand loyalty starts to build and sales increase, as do costs, including staffing. The good news is that profits increase because greater quantities are produced, lowering the cost per unit. The downside is current manufacturing facilities and equipment may not be able to keep up with demand. The Amazon kindle is currently in the growth stage. The idea of having hand-held technology larger than a smart phone but smaller than a full-sized tablet is new. ...

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Life Cycle

...Chapter 2 Exercise 3 The software development life cycle (SDLC) is the entire process of formal, logical steps taken to develop a software product. Within the broader context of Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), the SDLC is basically the part of process in which coding/programming is applied to the problem being solved by the existing or planned application. The SDLC is broken down into six stages; project planning, requirements definition, design, development, integration/test, and application/acceptance ( The first stage is the planning stage in which you create a software product that is extracting the requirements or requirements analysis. The stages generally align with the phases of project management lifecycle; however SDLC phases do no correspond one-to-one with project management phases. Project management deliverables such as the Project Scope Statement, Project Schedule, and budget estimates are refined to reflect increasing clarity of scope and requirements with each iteration. Agile methods have proven their effectiveness and are transforming the software industry. As agile methods evolve and extend, Agile Alliance fosters a community where organizations and individuals find ways to transit Agile Alliance website offers an information hub where members can access a wide variety of resources; an article library, videos, presentations, local user group listings and links to additional agile resources. Agile Alliance organizes the......

Words: 991 - Pages: 4

Product Life Cycle Management

...Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT IOANNIS KOMNINOS Electronic Engineer, B.Eng M.Sc.(Eng) Thessaloniki 2002 Product Life Cycle Management 2 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PART 1: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MODEL DESCRIPTION 1. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PHASE 2. INTRODUCTION PHASE 3. GROWTH PHASE 4. MATURITY PHASE 5. DECLINE PHASE PART 2: ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MODEL PART 3: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE TECHNIQUE EXAMPLE: PRODUCT CANNIBALIZATION 1. UNFAVORABLE CANNIBALIZATION 2. OFFENSIVE CANNIBALIZATION STRATEGIES 3. DEFENSIVE CANNIBALIZATION STRATEGIES PART 4: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE IN RESPECT TO TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE PART 5: USE OF PRODUCT MANAGEMENT FOR SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ANNEX 1 ANNEX 2 REFERENCES 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 12 13 14 16 18 20 23 25 URENIO - Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit Product Life Cycle Management 3 INTRODUCTION All products and services have certain life cycles. The life cycle refers to the period from the product’s first launch into the market until its final withdrawal and it is split up in phases. During this period significant changes are made in the way that the product is behaving into the market i.e. its reflection in respect of sales to the company that introduced it into the market. Since an increase in profits is the major goal of a company that introduces a product into a market, the product’s life cycle management is very important. Some......

Words: 6228 - Pages: 25

Product Life Cycle

...Product Life Cycle-------Nick Combs The concept of product life cycle concerns the life of a product in the market with respect to business/commercial costs and sales measures. The product life cycle proceeds through multiple phases, involves many professional disciplines, and requires many skills, tools and processes. Product life Cycle management makes three assumptions. They are: Products have a limited life and thus every product has life cycle. Product sales pass through distinct stages, each posing different challenges, opportunities, and problems to the seller. Products require different marketing, financing, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each life cycle stage. The product life cycle is broken down into 4 stages. The first is the market introduction phase. In this phase, cost are very high, there is very small competition, customers have to introduced to the product and there is very little profit. The second stage is the growth stage. Here, costs are reduced due to economies of sale, you begin to see a profit, consumers are aware of the product, there is more competition which leads to decreases in price. The third stage is the maturity stage. Costs are lowered as a result of production increasing and experience, increase in competitors in the market, and industrial profits start decreasing. The last stage is the saturation and decline stage. Here we have sales declining, profitability falls due to an abundance of competition and......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2