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Kodak Case - This Case Is in Portuguese

In: Business and Management

Submitted By InesOliveira
Words 1369
Pages 6
Caso Kodak
“Você carrega no botão, nós fazemos o resto”
“Share moments. Share life”

ÍNDICE

NOTA PRÉVIA 3 INTRODUÇÃO 4 CASO EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY: FUNTIME FILM 5 BIBLIOGRAFIA 9

NOTA PRÉVIA

No presente trabalho expomos as conclusões que retirámos da nossa análise do caso “Eastman Kodak Company: Funtime Film”, apresentando as mesmas numa estrutura “pergunta – resposta”, de forma a respeitar a sequência que o Professor Dr. João Carlos Rosário nos forneceu. Desta forma, os temas serão apresentados em tópicos numerados, de modo a facilitar a compreensão e a consulta dos temas desejados.

INTRODUÇÃO

Em primeiro lugar, é importante fazer um enquadramento histórico da Eastman Kodak Company e, por conseguinte, à indústria a que esta pertence.
Em 1880, com apenas 26 anos, George Eastman iniciou o fabrico de placas secas, um produto inovador, criado pelo próprio após três anos de estudo intensivo sobre fotografia.
Apesar de, comparativamente às pesadas máquinas e chapas húmidas que se utilizavam na época, estas placas serem já um produto revolucionário, Eastman ainda não estava satisfeito com o produto final: queria levar a fotografia a todas as pessoas.
Continuando a sua pesquisa conseguiu, em 1883, criar um filme fotográfico em rolo, que surpreendeu toda a indústria e, alguns anos mais tarde (1888) lançou a primeira maquina Kodak que funcionava exclusivamente com rolo e tornou a fotografia acessível a todos.
A partir de 1892 a empresa passou a ter a actual denominação “Eastman Kodak Company”.
Até meados de 1980, a Kodak não enfrentava qualquer concorrência real no mercado da fotografia. Por um lado este foi um aspecto favorável, pois permitiu à empresa criar fortes raízes, mas por outro, fez com que esta se acomodasse e não tivesse necessidade de promover grandes inovações.
No entanto, com o surgimento de outras marcas concorrentes, a Kodak começou a perder continuamente quota de mercado, passando esta de 76% em 1988 para 70% em 1993, data do caso em estudo no presente trabalho.

CASO EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY: FUNTIME FILM

1. Porque razão perde a Kodak quota de mercado e o que acontecerá se mantiver o status quo?

A Kodak começou a perder quota de mercado devido ao aparecimento de marcas concorrentes, tais como a Fuji Photo Film CO e a Konica Corp., que apresentavam aos consumidores produtos semelhantes aos da Kodak a preços inferiores (aprox. menos 20%), ou seja, extremamente concorrenciais.
A Fuji (maior concorrente da Kodak) começou a ganhar território em 1984, quando patrocinou os jogos olímpicos de Verão, em Los Angeles.
Entre 1993 e 1994, tanto a Fuji quanto a Polaroid tiveram um crescimento de mais de 15% e as marcas de distribuição 10%, enquanto a Kodak apenas cresceu 3%.
Tendo em conta que o crescimento global do mercado é de 2%, podemos afirmar que a Kodak está a perder quota de mercado relativamente à concorrência e, se mantiver o status quo vai continuar a perder quota de mercado e como tal pode sofrer uma queda de lucro. Outro aspecto que influencia negativamente a rentabilidade da Kodak é o facto de, desde 1921 (“1921 consent decree”) ter ficado impedida de comercializar os seus produtos como marca de distribuição (private label), o que criaria um novo canal para a obtenção de lucros e possibilitaria à Kodak entrar na “guerra de preços”.

2. Quais os objectivos da Kodak? Trade-off entre quota de mercado, lucratividade, valor de marca.

No momento em questão, o maior objectivo da Kodak é parar de perder quota de mercado e começar a recuperar terreno.
Assim, para além de recuperar os 6% que perdeu (e voltar a ter uma quota de mercado de 76%), a Kodak pretende captar os consumidores da concorrência e fidelizá-los. Para além disso, a Kodak quer ainda assegurar que os novos consumidores que vão entrando para o mercado se tornam seus consumidores, e não consumidores dos seus concorrentes.
Para isso, está disposta a perder uma parte da sua margem, em troca de mais quota de mercado. Aqui deparamo-nos com a noção de trade-off, ou seja, para conseguir algo, há sempre outra coisa à qual se tem de renunciar. Neste caso, de modo a poder aumentar a quota de mercado, a Kodak está a enfrentar um risco, está a sacrificar alguma da sua estabilidade. Da mesma forma, ao criar a Funtime com um preço inferior, está a sacrificar margem de lucro para ganhar quota de mercado.

3. Como avaliar a proposta do Funtime e a sua implementação tendo em conta o comportamento do consumidor?

A proposta da Kodak de implementar um produto com um preço mais acessível para competir com o segmento das “economy brands” parece-nos, à primeira vista, interessante. Tendo em conta o estudo feito ao comportamento do consumidor e à sua opinião acerca da qualidade das marcas, no qual se concluiu que a maioria dos clientes tende a comprar com base no preço (os rolos passaram a ser considerados como uma “commodity”) e não consegue distinguir qualquer diferença relevante na qualidade, ter uma linha mais económica permite à Kodak conquistar um target mais sensível ao preço. Em termos de estratégia, a falta de publicidade poderá ser um obstáculo, assim como a disponibilidade em quantidades limitadas e apenas em épocas “off-peak”. No entanto, e tendo em conta que grande parte dos consumidores da Kodak são leais a esta, o facto de se disponibilizar o Funtime, que é mais acessível, poderá deslocar os clientes fiéis das marcas Premium para este, causando deste modo uma quebra nas receitas sem garantir a entrada de novos clientes que compensem as perdas. Esta incerteza em relação à angariação de novos clientes é ainda potenciada pela falta de comunicação (publicidade) proposta. Este factor fará com que os primeiros a saber da nova possibilidade mais económica sejam os já clientes da Kodak e não os da concorrência. Apesar de não dispormos de dados suficientes para elaborar cálculos exactos, chegámos à conclusão que a margem bruta do Gold Plus seria de $2,44 e a do Funtime (considerando que a margem é a mesma, ou seja, 70%) seria de $1,95. Desta forma, se muitos dos clientes passassem a comprar Funtime em vez de Gold Plus, os prejuízos seriam difíceis de compensar pois seria necessário captar uma grande fatia dos consumidores das marcas concorrentes. Estes, por sua vez, são difíceis de conquistar, pois são clientes muito sensíveis ao preço e, não havendo sequer uma diferença qualitativa entre as marcas, não teriam incentivo algum para comprar Kodak.

4. Quais as alternativas?

Do nosso ponto de vista, este novo produto poderia ter sucesso se a estratégia de implementação fosse diferente: a) Teria de existir uma campanha publicitária para a Funtime para dar a conhecer o produto ao mercado e despertar a curiosidade e o interesse por parte dos potenciais clientes; b) Em vez de um produto “promocional” disponível apenas durante dois períodos, o Funtime deveria ser comercializado durante todo o ano, para criar mais uma opção para adicionar à gama existente. Isto porque existe uma tendência da parte dos consumidores para se habituarem às promoções, limitando ou pelo menos dando preferência a fazer as suas compras nos períodos de “saldos”. Esta tendência faria com que os consumidores comprassem grandes quantidades de rolos Funtime com o intuito de só voltarem a precisar na época de saldos seguinte.

De forma a inverter a situação de declínio, pensamos ainda que a Kodak poderia desenvolver produtos novos para criar novos mercados, por exemplo rolos especiais para crianças. Visto que o mercado enfrenta um período de crescimento lento e a maioria dos consumidores já estão satisfeitos, para além de tentar conquistar quota de mercado à concorrência, há que apostar na criação de novas necessidades.
Um outro aspecto a explorar diz respeito ao posicionamento. Pensamos que, apesar de os consumidores não reconhecerem diferenças significativas na qualidade do produto, a qualidade do serviço poderá fazer a diferença: seria interessante do ponto de vista estratégico criar um sistema de incentivo ao consumo que premiasse os consumidores “Premium” (Kodak Ektar e Kodak Gold Plus), por exemplo, com um “x” de revelações gratuitas a partir de um “x” de compras efectuadas.
Como o crescimento do mercado ronda apenas os 2%, a Kodak poderá obter ainda mais lucro se estimular o aumento do consumo por parte dos actuais clientes.…...

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