Jacques Legoff, Nasterea Purgatoriului - Recenzie Carte

In: Historical Events

Submitted By tiestog
Words 3660
Pages 15
Jacques LeGoff, Naşterea Purgatoriului, Ed.Meridiane, 1995, vol.I-II.
- prezentare carte-

(Introducerea) Cel de-al treilea loc: înainte de purgatoriu; creştinismul moştenise de la civilizaţiile anterioare o geografie a lumii celeilalte; dintre concepţiile despre o lume uniformă a morţilor (sheol-ul iudaic) sau ideile despre un dublu univers după moarte: Hadesul şi Câmpiile Elizee la romani, creştinismul a adoptat modelul dualist, amplificându-l chiar; a plasat lumea morţilor drepţi în cer; antagonismul cer-pământ, preferat de creştinism şi năzuinţa spre cer, paralelă cu frica de adâncimile subterane.

Partea I: Lumile de dincolo înainte de naşterea Purgatoriului
1. Spaţiile imaginare antice: Cele 3 căi hinduse; În Iran: focul şi puntea; În Egipt: imaginarul infernal; Coborârea în Infern la Grecia şi la Roma; O filozofie a reîntrupării: Platon; Un precursor: Enea în Infern; Ghilgameş în Infern; O lume de dincolo neutră şi întunecoasă: sheol-ul evreiesc; Viziunile apocaliptice iudeo-creştine; O sursă: Apocalipsa lui Pavel; Evreii descoperă o lume de dincolo intermediară; Purgatoriul creştin există oare în germen în Sfânta Scriptură? Coborârea lui Christos în Infern; Un loc de răcorire: refrigerium; Cea dintâi reprezentare a unui purgatoriu, în vedenia Sfintei Perpetua.

2. Părinţii Purgatoriului:
La Alexandria: 2 ctitori greci ai Purgatoriului:Clement din Alexandria şi Origene (sec. III): ideea că pedepsele Infernului sunt mijloace de purificare, că Dzeu pedepseşte ca foc nu entru a se răzbuna, ci pentru a purifica; viitorul botez cu foc al lui Dzeu; Clement e primul ce deosebeşte 2 feluri de păcătoşi pe lumea asta şi cealaltă; focul nimiceşte şi mistuieşte sau sfinţeşte; Origene crede că nu există păcătos atât de rău să nu se poată îndrepta, Infernul fiind trecător – e un eretic.
Creştinismul latin: Sf. Ciprian, Lactanţiu, Ilarie din Poitiers, Sf.…...

Similar Documents

Ala Carte Menu

...Ala Carte Menu Appetizers |Fresh Fruit Salad |$2.50 |Herring in Sour |$4.00 | | | |Cream or Wine Sauce | | |Tomato Juice |$1.50 |Potato Pancakes (2) |$5.50 | | | |With sour cream and apple sauce | | Hot Wings (8) $5.00 Crab Bites $5.50 Soup |Fresh Homemade Soup of the Day | |Cup |$1.75 |Bowl |$2.50 | Salads |Tossed Salad |$1.75 |Pickled Beets & Onions |$1.75 | |Cucumber Salad |$1.75 |Fresh Salad Bar |$8.50 | German Potato Salad $1.75 Entrees 3-25-12 | ...

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Jacques Ellul

...Jacques Ellul Jacques Ellul was a French philosopher and critical theorist born in Bordeaux France in 1912. He grew up in poor living conditions, however received a good education in the public schools, entering the University of Bordeaux at age 17. It was during this time that Ellul had an epiphany with God, where he believed he felt His presence, and since declared himself a Christian. Ellul’s other influences growing up were his father, World War II, and especially Karl Marx. Ellul is most famous for publishing thousands of books and articles on technology and propaganda, topics that were both popular in the midst of war. Author’s such as C.S. Lewis, and Aldus Huxley touched on such ideas, because of the fascination over Germany and Socialism. Ellul touched on a number of subjects through his lifetime, including politics, theology, propaganda, and technology. Like most theorists who study Marx, Ellul was very critical of power and institution. Following the second World War, Ellul served as a French Councilman in the government, but quickly resigned realizing he was too critical of the Left as well as the Right. He preferred to take no side, but later developed the ideologies of the Ecumenical movement, defined as seeing the Church as the larger establishment, and how everyone can come to common spiritual terms. Ellul has a very distinct interpretation of Church and State, one he called Christian Anarchism. He believed the two to function......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Jacques Prevert

...Prévert, Jacques (1900-1977), poète, parolier et scénariste français dont l'œuvre, composée pour un large public, est une célébration des thèmes de la justice, de la liberté et du bonheur. Né à Neuilly-sur-Seine dans un milieu modeste, il a passe sa jeunesse à Paris, où il a fait différents petits métiers avant de se lier avec les artistes d'avant-garde et de rejoindre Marcel Duhamel, Yves Tanguy, Raymond Queneau et Georges Sadoul dans le groupe surréaliste . En 1931, il a publie de description d'un dîner de têtes à Paris-France, un poème fantaisiste composé de contrepèteries et de calembours. Il a écrit également pour le théâtre de courtes pièces, jouées notamment par la troupe du groupe Octobre, il a compose des chansons qu'interprétèrent plus tard Juliette Gréco, Yves Montand ou les Frères Jacques. Il se passionna aussi pour le cinéma et a rédige plusieurs scénarios de films pour Marcel Carné (Drôle de drame, Quai des brumes, les Visiteurs du soir, les Enfants du paradis). Ce n'est toutefois qu'après la guerre que le poète a rencontre son plus grand succès, avec la parution du recueil Paroles (1945). Dans un style proche de la langue parlée, il a réhabilite la vie ordinaire, invitant le lecteur à se fier au pouvoir de la "!parole!" pour accéder au bonheur, individuel et collectif. Son œuvre s'enrichit alors de nombreux poèmes (Histoires, 1946!; Spectacle, 1951!; la Pluie et le Beau Temps, 1955), évoquant tour à tour l'amour, la liberté, le rêve et l'imagination, tout en......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Carte Comercial

...CARTA COMERCIAL PEDIR INFORMACIÓN Y CONTESTAR A PETICIONES DE INFORMACIÓN Manifester de l'intérêt Estoy interesada especialmente por...: je m'intéresse particulièrement à... Tengo mucho interés en..: je suis très intéressé par... Me intereso mucho por ese sector: je m'intéresse beaucoup à ce secteur Dado mi interés por...: étant donné mon intérêt pour... Demander de l'information, des renseignements Le ruego me transmita...: je vous prie de me transmettre... Le agradecería me enviara...: je vous serais reconnaissant de m'envoyer... Quisiera disponer de.../ que me enviaran...: je voudrais disposer de… / que vous m'envoyiez... Quisiera por la presente pedirles. ...je voudrais par la présente vous demander... …la mayor información sobre...: de plus amples renseignements sur... ... una información respecto a...: une information sur... ...cuantos detalles puedan facilitarnos...: …tous les détails que vous pourrez nous fournir... Spécifier le contenu de la documentation Sírvanse enviarnos...: veuillez nous envoyer... ...un folleto explicativo: ...un dépliant ... una lista de precios: ... une liste de prix ... un catálogo detallado: ... un catalogue détaillé …las muestras: ... les échantillons …sus condiciones de pago: ...vos conditions de paiement Sírvanse cotizarnos las siguientes referencias: veuillez nous donner les prix des références suivantes Se renseigner sur des personnes, des entreprises Les rogamos nos transmita...: nous vous prions de nous...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

La Carte Didentite de La Terre

...ASSIGNEMENT 5 financial perspective of pepsico and coca cola business 508: THE BUSINESS ENTERPRISE strayer university by 12/05/10 Coke and Pepsi are the two major soft drink companies in the whole world; both companies have an international footprint. However, they also face substantial competition, as the market for non-alcoholic drinks is highly fragmented. In order to understand the investment characteristics of these two companies, it is worthwhile to take a look at these companies from the financial perspective, comparing their different financial ratios. Some of the important ratios that should be analyzed are the liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, cash flow indicators and investment valuation ratios. By analyzing the financial ratios this paper will help determine which of these two companies the better investment is. Ratios computation and analysis 1) Using the current ratio, discuss what conclusions you can make about each company’s ability to pay current liabilities (debt). A common liquidity ratio is the current ratio. This is calculated as the current assets / current liabilities. The current ratio reflects the ability of the company to meets its financial obligations for the next year. The current assets reflect assets that can be liquidated quickly, for example cash, inventories and receivables. The current ratio for Pepsi is $12,571 / $8756 = 1.44. The current ratio for Coca-Cola is $17,551 / $13,721 = 1.28....

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Cartes de Paiement

...The Capital Asset Pricing Model: An Overview Email Icon Email Print Icon Print Posted: Nov 24, 2010 | Reprints Icon Reprints Filed under Economics Financial Theory Ben McClure Contact | Author Bio Advertisement No matter how much we diversify our investments, it's impossible to get rid of all the risk. As investors, we deserve a rate of return that compensates us for taking on risk. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) helps us to calculate investment risk and what return on investment we should expect. Here we look at the formula behind the model, the evidence for and against the accuracy of CAPM, and what CAPM means to the average investor. Birth of a Model The capital asset pricing model was the work of financial economist (and, later, Nobel laureate in economics) William Sharpe, set out in his 1970 book "Portfolio Theory And Capital Markets." His model starts with the idea that individual investment contains two types of risk: Systematic Risk - These are market risks that cannot be diversified away. Interest rates, recessions and wars are examples of systematic risks. Unsystematic Risk - Also known as "specific risk," this risk is specific to individual stocks and can be diversified away as the investor increases the number of stocks in his or her portfolio. In more technical terms, it represents the component of a stock's return that is not correlated with general market moves. Modern portfolio theory shows that specific risk can be......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Playtime by Jacques Tati Shot Analysis

...PLAYTIME by Jacques Tati Shot from 03:12 – 04:48 / Airport waiting room __________________________________________________________________________ Jacques Tati’s 1967 film, Playtime, captures a cascading series of events through the sterile architecture of Paris, in which few familiar characters inhabit. Tati’s infamous alter ego, Monsieur Hulot, haphazardly occupies many scenes as he stumbles through Paris after trying to contact an American official. The film is confined to no genre, nor does it necessarily form a new one – it simply exists in its own right as an exploration of societal function. Originally shot on 70mm, the film carries impressive visual power in its clear details which are necessary for the comedic impact of its visual cues. The film was infamous in its use of extravagant sets created from scratch, composed mostly of concrete, steel, and glass which in the end made Jacques Tati’s film one of the most expensive French films of its time. This, coupled with an initial poor reception of the film, bankrupted Tati. Today, the film is renowned as a masterpiece of mise-en-scene, an avant-garde picture released ahead of its time. The film is certainly one of mere observation and an encapsulating look at humanity’s occupation of the modern world. The fourth ......

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Jacques Seguela

...Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. We live in a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. ‘ Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first......

Words: 3224 - Pages: 13

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: the Social Contract

...James Staton Mr. Borton World Literature II October 6, 2015 Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a prominent writer in the eighteenth century and influenced different revolutions in his work such as the revolutionary sentiments in France and American colonies. Rousseau helped start the Romantic Movement and is responsible for creating the new genre in literature known as an autobiography. This came from the one of the stories he wrote called Confession, which he goes in to detail about what he has been through in life. He was writer during the Enlightenment period and he drew influences from Immanuel Kant. A lot of beliefs of the enlightened way of thinking show in Rousseau‘s writing called The Social Contract. Being “Enlightened” is ones freedom to think for them and not be trapped in social status that societies may put on people. Rousseau put together the social contract to persuade people to break the political rule of authority and give power to the people and not one person. The Social Contract was written in 1762 containing four different books explaining the possibilities of how people can achieve equality and power with the help contract. Rousseau's intended audience were the people who were under the political rule of authority. I feel that the way he explains his contract is effective especially because each book is something different that would erase the political rule of authority and bring equality among the citizen.......

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8

Carte Cleaning Company

...Nyemby Job Kwedi Yann Master degree in IHRM Assignment 7 Training and Developing Employees What is meant by ‘organizational development’? Briefly explain the different characteristics of organizational development. Organizational development deals with the overall arrangement of the organization and its functions, including both the long-term and short-term identification and development of its human resources. It includes the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions; the set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. There are a lot of characteristics of organization development. These characteristics are from various dimensions of organization development. Characteristics of organization development: a) Focus on culture and process: Organization development on culture and process of proper and organization on following suitable and positive culture level and process success organization development program depend. b) Collaboration: Organization development encourages heartfelt collaboration between managers and employees and members managing culture and processes. c) Accomplishment of tasks: Various kinds of teams and groups play important roles for accomplishment of organization development activities. Thus targets can also be achieved. d) Human......

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "The Social Contract" (1762)

...Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “The Social Contract” (1762) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a leading intellectual during the French Enlightenment period, published his seminal work, “Du contract social ou principes du troit politique” in Holland in 1762. This is translated as “Of the social contract or principles of political right” and as the name suggests, is a political treatise outlining the principles that Rousseau felt would reform political society. The Age of Enlightenment existed in seventeenth century Europe, and was essentially a cultural movement of intellectuals who wanted to challenge set ideas or advance knowledge. Rousseau, Voltaire, and Diderot, among others, were known as ‘philosophes’ and their goal was to bring attention to societies’ ills. However, Rousseau has been found to be an unusual man with many contradictions in his writing. He was a man who was a champion of individual freedom yet his “social contract” proposed a collectivist state. This essay will discuss the author and the historical background behind the “social contract”. Next, the document will be analysed as to its purpose and central ideas. Rousseau was born in Geneva in 1712 but came to live most of his life in France where he became acquainted with other fellow intellectuals. After winning a major essay prize, Rousseau then contributed to the crowning glory of the enlightenment, Diderot’s “Encyclopedie”. Love said in 2008, ‘Rousseau was the eighteenth century’s leading apostle of democracy’...

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5

Chicken a La Carte

...several beggar ask some money to us and so on. I am also had seen a mother bring her small two kids in a night market asking money and foods from people that walk in front of them. I am also had seen many kinds of these situations in a famous reality television show in TV3 channel, Bersamamu, where a father, sometimes a single mother, and sometimes even their kids have to work in order to survive in a single day. When they had no money, they cannot to afford to buy the foods for their family and they have to starve for that day. This scenario also can be seen not only in Malaysia, but most of the country too. 2. COMMENT & FEEDBACK ABOUT THE CONTENT OF THE VIDEO Based on a very true story that happening in Philippine, “Chicken a la Carte” is a short film that has been directed and produced by Ferdinand Dimadura. In duration about six minutes, this short film shows a forgotten portion of the society. The people who live on the refuse of men to survive. What is inspiring is the hope and spirituality that never left this people. This film is about the hunger and poverty brought about by Globalization. Based on the video, in the first two minutes of play, we can see that people come to one of the famous restaurant in the world and eat the food there. And then, a man come with his tricycle and bring a black trash bin to the kitchen restaurant. He takes away the trash and collect the leftover fried chicken and put in a plastic bag. After that, a very touching and heartbroken...

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Father Jacques

...Carmelite friar Father Jacques de Je was born Lucien Bunel in 1900. He was headmaster of the Petit College Saint-Therese de l Enfant Jesus in Avon, France, which became a refuge for Jews andyoung men seeking to avoid conscription for forced labor in Germanyduring the Nazi .Father Jacques was sent to KZ Gusen I for trying to rescue several Jewish boys in Nazi-occupied France. He had enrolled 3 Jewish boys, Hans-Helmut Michel, Jacques-France Halpern and Maurice Schlosser, as students under false names in 1943 and hid others in the Couvent des Carmes of Avon . Jacques and the 3 Jewish boys were seized by the Gestapo on January 15, 1944. On February 3, 1944 the Jewish boys and another Jewish family were sent to KZ Auschwitz. After being sent to several other Nazi camps, Jacques arrived at KZ Gusen I around July 1944. Here he was forced to engage in the most difficult labor constructing a water-reservoir. He also worked on the final inspection command of "Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG" at KZ Gusen I (Georgenmuehle), where he labored alongside Louis, Jean Cayrol and Professor Roger Heim.According to his comrades, "P re Jacques" was a most optimistic person in the KZ Gusen commands and motivated many of his comrads to share their food and to believe in liberation. So, like "Papa Gruber" , he helped many survive.P re Jacques also gave his comrades spiritual support and even baptized some of them in KZ Gusen I. Young Polish comrades of his also testify that P re Jacques celebrated illegal......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Nasterea Tragediei

...Nasterea tragediei “Nasterea tragediei din spiritul muzicii” este o lucrare scrisa in anul 1872 de catre Friedrich Nietzsche.In aceasta lucrare autorul expune teoria dramatica. Ulterior a fost republicata in anul 1886 ca “Nasterea tragediei”. Nietzsche ii dedica aceasta lucrare lui Richard Wagner. In debutul lucrarii, autorul sustine ca evolutia artei este strans legata de dualismul apolinic-dionisiac. Viziunea lui Nietzsche se extinde asupra intregii culturi si creatii artistice a Greciei, apolinicul si dionisiacul fiind cei doi poli intre care oscileaza intreaga spiritualitate elina.Acesta vede in cele doua zeitati ale artei grecesti, Apollo si Dionysos reflectarea unui urias contrast intre doua universuri artistice distincte. Apollo este zeul luminii, al contemplatiei senine, rationale si al imaginilor subiective din lumea de aparenta a visului, sub influenta sa aflandu-se artele plastice iar Dionysos este zeul extazului impulsiv al betiei, in timpul careia izbucnesc necontrolate fortele promordiale ale vietii, fiind asociat muzicii si dansului .Imbinarea acestor doua elemente intr-o forma de arta a dat nastere tragediei. Nietzsche a gasit in tragedia clasica ateniana o forma de arta care a depasit pesimismul si negativismul dintr-o lume lipsita de sens. Autorul discuta istoria formei tragice si introduce o impartire intre dionisiac si apolinic. Nieztsche cauta sa explice esenta apolinicului si dionisiacului prin referire la procesele psihice ale visului si......

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Jacques Maritain Christianity and Democracy

...Jacques Maritain Christianity and Democracy December 1949 http://www2.nd.edu/Departments/Maritain/jm604a.htm [From a typewritten manuscript by Jacques Maritain, who gave this address at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association in New York on the 29th of December 1949 and again at Gettysburg College under the auspices of the Adams County Round Table of the National Conference of Christians and Jews on the 19th of February 1950.] The French writer Léon Bloy, who called himself the Pilgrim of the Absolute, and who was a dear friend of mine, took pleasure in telling the following story: Once, in his youth, he was sitting at the table of a café with another poet, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam. A passer-by, who was a practical man, accosted the poet: "Hello, my dear fellow," he said to him with a patronizing smile, "always a poet, a beauty lover, always climbing in the clouds?" "And you." answered Villiers with a malicious smile, "you, my dear fellow, always going your way downwards?" Léon Bloy liked also to comment on the sententious sayings used in the common language. Many people who are good heathens but want to be assisted by religion on their deathbed, are apt to say: "Je ne veux pas mourir comme un chien; I don't want to die like a dog." Léon Bloy commented: "I have never understood why a man who lives like a pig does not want to die like a dog." These stories have no connection with the purpose of our meeting except as concerns the......

Words: 3857 - Pages: 16