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Internet Bankarstvo

In: Business and Management

Submitted By TeaSever
Words 2958
Pages 12
Ekonomski fakultet
ZAGREB
Trg J.F. Kennedyja 6

Projektni zadatak iz kolegija Informacijski sustavi u trgovini

Naslov projektnog zadatka:
INTERNET BANKARSTVO

Profesori: Članovi studentske grupe:
Prof.dr.sc. Nikola Knego Ivana Blažek
Doc. dr. sc. Blaženka Knežević Toma Pasarić (tpasaric@gmail.com) Martina Ruškač Tea Sever

U Zagrebu, 15. prosinca 2010.
SADRŽAJ:

1.UVOD 3
2. ŠTO JE INTERNET BANKARSTVO? 4 2.1. KORIŠTENJE I IDENTIFIKACIJA KORISNIKA 4 2.2. PREDNOSTI INTERNET BANKARSTVA 5 2.3. SIGURNOST KORIŠTENJA INTERNET BANKARSTVA 5
3. MOGUĆNOSTI INTERNET BANKARSTVA 7
4. INTERNET BANKARSTVO U HRVATSKOJ 8 4.1. ZAGREBAČKA BANKA 9 4.2. PRIVREDNA BANKA ZAGREB 9 4.3 Erste & Steiermarkische Banka 10 4.4. Raiffeisen BANK Austria 11
5. ZAKLJUČAK 12
6.LITERATURA 13

1.UVOD

Predmet i cilj našeg rada je jedna vrsta elektroničkog poslovanja, a naziva se Internet bankarstvo. Internet bankarstvo zahvaljujući suvremenoj tehnologiji i Internetu ima brojne prednosti u odnosu na klasično poslovanje. Karakteristično je po tome što se razvilo u relativno kratkom roku te je u velikoj mjeri prihvaćeno od strane svih korisnika zbog toga što pruža jednostavnost i brzinu korištenja. U Hrvatskoj broj korisnika bilježi kontinuirani rast, kako broj građana korisnika, tako i broj poslovnih subjekata korisnika te usluge.

Izvor podataka za izradu ovog projektnog zadatka velikim dijelom je Internet, odnosno web stranice sa stručnim člancima i tematikom Internet bankarstva.

U ovom projektnom zadatku naš je zadatak pojasniti i približiti vam pojam, nastanak, razvoj, strukturu i uporabu Internet bankarstva.

2. ŠTO JE INTERNET BANKARSTVO?

Posljednjih nekoliko godina razvoj svjetskih bankarskih usluga pokazuje dominantnu težnju da se klijentu pruži usluga u svakom trenutku, bez obzira gdje se on nalazi. Ta se težnja manifestirala na početku korištenjem automatskih telefonskih servisa, no od kada je Internet velikim koracima zakoračio u područje ekonomije, rođenjem "nove ekonomije" zasnovane na prednostima Interneta pojavilo se Internet bankarstvo.

Internet bankarstvo koristi Internet kao kanal distribucije po kojem se vrši bankarska aktivnost, kao na primjer, prijenos sredstava, plaćanje računa, pregledavanje i provjera stanja računa, plaćanje stambenih kredita, kupnja financijskih instrumenata itd. Kod Internet bankarstva klijent pristupa svojom računu iz preglednika kroz koji se pokreće program Internet bankarstva koji se nalazi na serveru banke, a ne na klijentovom računalu.[1]
Brzina, točnost i komocija koju osjećaju korisnici online bankarstva, nenadmašne su poluge razvoja nove vrste bankarstva, jer današnji klijenti banaka trebaju i žele jednostavan, brz, točan, diskretan, siguran, ali i jeftiniji pristup u raspolaganju svojim sredstvima. Takvim zahtjevima za sada može odgovoriti jedino Internet bankarstvo, koje je, prema nekim računicama, čak deset puta jeftinije od klasičnih bankarskih usluga, dok je telefonsko jeftinije od dva do četiri puta. Osim znatnog racionaliziranja poslovanja banke i pojeftinjenja bankarske usluge, Internet bankarstvo omogućava svojim korisnicima da prepuste zaboravu dobro poznate slike čekanja u redovima na šalterima i trčanje u banku prije zatvaranja. Velika prednost prema klasičnim odlascima u banku je da klijent transakcije može obavljati kada sam želi, neovisno o radnom vremenu banke.

2.1. KORIŠTENJE I IDENTIFIKACIJA KORISNIKA

Svaka osoba koja posjeduje osobno računalo, te ima pristup Internetu, može koristiti uslugu Internet bankarstva. Prednost je u tome da klijent ne mora fizički doći do banke, nego, može uredno sa svog računala obaviti željene bankovne transakcije. Da bi korisnik pristupio korištenju e-bankarstva on treba ugovoriti uslugu s bankom. Banka naplaćuje naknade za otvaranje računa te klijentu daje na korištenje Token uređaj. On služi za identifikaciju korisnika koja je izuzetno bitna jer banka mora pouzdano znati tko je korisnik, a isto tako korisnik mora biti siguran da se nitko drugi umjesto njega ne može predstaviti i poslovati u njegovo ime. Koristi se kod stvaranja sigurnosnog kanala između korisnika i banke, te za potpisivanje i autentičnost. Korisnik se predstavlja banci s dva podatka. Prvi je podatak identifikacijski broj otisnut na poleđini tokena te dodatno i kratkotrajno prikazan na zaslonu tokena prilikom njegova uključenja. Drugi je podatak jednokratni tajni broj kojega token generira i ispisuje. Nakon svakoga uključenja njegova je vrijednost različita od svih prethodnih, a buduću vrijednost nije moguće predvidjeti.
Alternativno rješenje identifikacije je identifikacija preko takozvanih pametnih kartica (smartcard), na koju su stavljeni podaci potrebni za uspješnu sigurnosnu komunikaciju s bankom. Uz to je potrebno imati i čitač tih kartica, koji se moraju prikopčati na računalo. Kod sustava sa smartcard pristupom aplikaciji nastaje problem u mobilnosti, tj. ako klijent često mijenja lokaciju i radno računalo, mora nositi sa sobom čitač (ako ga novo računalo nema). To predstavlja problem, jer se svaki uređaj kad se prvi puta spaja na računalo mora instalirati.

2.2. PREDNOSTI INTERNET BANKARSTVA

Elektronsko bankarstvo, kao specifičan dio elektronskog poslovanja i zahvaljujući Internetu i suvremenoj tehnologiji, ima mnoge prednosti u odnosu na klasično poslovanje: ▪ brzina i kvaliteta provođenja platnog prometa, ▪ smanjeni troškovi transakcija, ▪ racionalno korištenje vremena i ubrzavanje dostave naloga za plaćanja, ▪ siguran platni promet, ▪ mogućnost obavljanja transakcija sa radnog mjesta, ▪ brzo izvješćivanje o obavljenim transakcijama, ▪ mogućnost on-line upita o stanju i prometima po računu.

2.3. SIGURNOST KORIŠTENJA INTERNET BANKARSTVA

Najveći problem o kojem treba voditi brigu je sigurnost. Ne smije se dopustiti neželjeni ulaz u sustav poslovanja, jer se ovdje radi o velikoj odgovornosti. To znači da neovlaštena osoba ne smije obavljati transakcije, tj. ne smije imati apsolutno nikakve ovlasti za korištenje sustavom.[2]
Ima puno verzija sigurnosnih sustava, od kojih svaki koristi neki način kodiranja. Enkripcija se omogućava preko matematičkih funkcija tzv. hash funkcija. Rade na principu da se na brz i lak način kodira neka ulazna riječ, a iz te kodirane riječi gotovo je nemoguće saznati izvornu informaciju bez ključa koja je kodirana tom funkcijom. To znači da samo onaj tko posjeduje ključ (key) može pročitati informaciju. ▪ simetrično šifriranje - podrazumijeva da su ključ za šifriranje i ključ za dešifriranje isti. Tajnost se zasniva na tajnosti ključa. Glavni problem je distribucija ključeva. Za više korisnika mora postojati više ključeva. Nije pogodno za Internet. ▪ asimetrično šifriranje - podrazumijeva dva ključa: javni i tajni. Postoji relacija između njih. Javni ključ se šalje kroz mrežu. Tajni se unosi samo kod dešifriranja.
Kad se korisnik spoji na Internet, on je jedinstveno identificiran IP adresom. To povećava sigurnost sustava jer preko vatrozida (firewall) može doći do informacija koje su sigurno korisnikove. Sustav firewall-a radi na pricipu čitanja IP adresa koje žele pristupiti poslužitelju (serveru) te odlučuje da li je pristup dozvoljen ili nije.
Kao i kod klasičnih odlazaka u banku, transakcija se potvrđuje vlastoručnim potpisom. U svijetu Interneta se taj potpis preslikava u elektronički potpis. Tako se može ustanoviti autentičnost potpisanog dokumenta.

3. MOGUĆNOSTI INTERNET BANKARSTVA

U današnje vrijeme globalizacije tržišta i sveopće digitalizacije, poslovanje ne može biti uspješno bez upotrebe suvremene informacijske tehnologije. Umrežavanje poduzeća i javne administracije te razvoj Interneta doveli su do velikih promjena u načinu poslovanja. Omogućena je jednostavna i brza komunikacija te gotovo trenutno prenošenje velike količine podataka. Ovaj cjelokupni napredak dovodi nas do jednog potpuno novog oblika poslovanja koji se naziva elektroničko poslovanje (electronic business), a potom nas to elektroničko poslovanje dovodi do relativno nove aktivnosti koja se zove Internet bankarstvo. Glavni cilj je što brže povezivanje klijenata i tokova informacija bez obzira na geografski položaj. Internet bankarstvo nam nudi brojne mogućnosti, a najznačajnija je mogućnost obavljanja bankarskih transakcija iz kuće posredstvom Interneta. Korištenje usluge Internet bankarstva omogućeno je 24 sata dnevno. Internet bankarstvo je usluga i primjer toga je transakcija s računa korištenjem Interneta: dok vršimo transakciju, usluga je potrošena istodobno dok je i proizvedena. Rezultat usluge je očigledan i traje neko vrijeme.[3]

Internet bankarstvo, omogućuje korporativnim klijentima da izvode i jednostavne i komplicirane operacije putem domaćeg i međunarodnog bankarstva, s klijentovih "radnih površina", gdje je klijent instalirao sve komponente potrebne za funkcioniranje Internet bankarstva.

Mogućnosti koje se nude klijentima koji koriste usluge Internet bankarstva su: domaće i međunarodne platne transakcije, trenutno izvršenje platnih naloga u korist dužnikovog računa u banci ili drugim bankama, platni nalog unaprijed ili na dan izvršenja, uvid u račun, pregled prometa po računu, konverzije, isplate kamata i glavnice.

Osnovne usluge koje pruža Internet bankarstvo 1. Obavljanje unutrašnjeg platnog prometa 2. Obavljanje inozemnog platnog prometa 3. Trenutno izvršavanje naloga u korist računa primatelja u banci 4. Ispostavljanje naloga u korist računa primatelja u drugoj banci 5. Mogućnost ispostavljanja naloga unaprijed ili na datum izvršenja 6. Uvid u stanje računa 7. Pregled prometa po računu 8. Primanje izvoda

4. INTERNET BANKARSTVO U HRVATSKOJ

Za početak ovog dijela projektnog zadatka nešto će se reći općenito o bankarskom sektoru u Hrvatskoj. Danas u Hrvatskoj posluju 32 banke, dvije štedne banke, Hrvatska banka za obnovu i razvitak te pet stambenih štedionica. U pogledu vlasništva u stranom vlasništvu je 15 banaka, dok je u domaćem 17 banaka. Međutim taj podatak možemo slobodno reći navodi na krivo mišljenje iz razloga što je udio stranog vlasništva u aktivi banaka u 2009. godini iznosio čak 91%.

Na bankarskom tržištu vlada prilično jaka konkurencija i svi nastoje zadržati starog i privući novog klijenta. Jedan od načina povećanja broja klijenata je pružanje novih usluga. Stoga je u zadnjih desetak godina došlo do razvoja novih proizvoda banaka, prije svega zbog značajnog razvoja informatičke tehnologije i kako bi se banke što više približile klijentu i olakšale mu poslovanje. Tako danas banke u Hrvatskoj nude pored Internet i telefonsko bankarstvo, mobilno bankarstvo i "drive - in - banking". Značajan porast dogodio se i kartičnom poslovanju pa se analogno tome povećao broj bankomata i EFT POS uređaja. Danas čak 75% kartica su chip kartice.[4]

U nastavku će se analizirati ponuda Internet bankarstva nekih najvećih banaka koje posluju na teritoriju Republike Hrvatske. Redom će se analizirati Zagrebačka Banka, Privredna banka Zagreb, kao dvije najveće banke, a potom još i Erste & Steiermarkische Bank i Raiffeisenbank Austria.

Razloga za uvođenje Internet bankarstva je mnogo. Prema istraživanju GFK u Hrvatskoj 66% kućanstava posjeduje računalo, dok se 49% građana koji se nalaze u populaciji od preko 15 godina služe Internetom[5]. Posjedovanje računala u kućanstvima preduvjet je razvoja Internet bankarstva. Malo koji građanin danas ne treba bankarske usluge, stoga zašto mu ne omogućiti da te usluge obavlja iz topline svog doma i uz manje troškove. Pored toga bankarske usluge može obavljati bilo gdje ukoliko ima pristup Internetu i ukoliko posjeduje token. S bankarskog aspekta bankama je itekako u interesu da njihovi klijenti koriste Internet bankarstvo s jedne strane zbog naknada koje ubiru, a s druge strane zbog manjih gužvi po poslovnicama i manjeg broja potrebnog djelatnika. Time se automatski troškovi snižavaju.

4.1. ZAGREBAČKA BANKA

Zagrebačka banka uslugu E - Zaba pokrenula je sredinom 2002. godine. Usluga E - Zaba može se reći da se dijeli na dvije pod usluge. To je E - Zaba za građane i E - Zaba poslovno bankarstvo ili Internet bankarstvo za pravne osobe. Usluga E - Zaba provodi se uz pomoć tokena koji služi za autorizaciju klijenata i koji se dobiva na korištenje od banke prilikom ugovaranja usluge. Usluga se naplaćuje 10 kn mjesečno za građane, ali isto tako usluga može biti besplatna ukoliko se s bankom potpiše ugovor o korištenju nekog drugog proizvoda banke[6].
Što se sve može s E - Zaba uslugom? • unijeti nalog s budućim datumom provedbe, • proslijediti primatelju potvrdu o izvršenju naloga e-mailom ili poštom, • pregledati stanje i promete svih svojih računa i računa po kojima ste opunomoćeni, stanje i promete svojih kredita, ulaganja i oročenja, • provjeriti rate kredita, kamate te troškove i limite po karticama, • platiti režije, rate kredita, • prenositi novac na druge račune, • primati izvatke po računima te obavijesti o učinjenim troškovima po karticama, • kupovati bonove za mobitel, • kupovati i prodavati strane valute te konvertirati valute, • kupovati, prodavati te prenositi udjele u ZB Invest fondovima.

4.2. PRIVREDNA BANKA ZAGREB

Privredna banka Zagreb nešto je ranije od Zagrebačke banke uvela uslugu Internet bankarstva, točnije sredinom 2000. godine. Usluga se naziva PBZ365@NET. Isto kao i u Zagrebačkoj banci usluga je namijenjena građanima i poslovnim subjektima. Prilikom ugovaranja usluge naplaćuje se jednokratna naknada od 45 kuna, ali često banka ima promotivna razdoblja za vrijeme kojih se ta naknada ne naplaćuje. Mjesečna naknada iznosi 8 kn. Korisnik pristupa aplikaciji Internet bankarstva uz pomoć čitača kartica što je najsigurniji oblik elektronskog bankarstva i zbog toga je Privredna banka Zagreb dobila certifikat za sigurnost ISO 27001. U nastavku su prikazane neke od usluga koje banka nudi kroz PBZ365@NET uslugu[7]. • pristup svojim bankovnim računima, • provjeru stanja i prometa po tekućem, žiro, poslovnom i deviznom računu, kunskoj i deviznoj štednji i oročenjima (za posljednjih 12, odnosno 15 mjeseci), • mogućnost ugovaranja deviznih i kunskih oročenja, • prijenos sredstava s jednog računa na drugi unutar Privredne banke Zagreb (tekući računi i žiro računi), • plaćanje računa u kunama na području cijele Republike Hrvatske s tekućeg, žiro ili poslovnog računa, • uplate rate PBZ kredita te uvid u detalje kredita, • kupnju i prodaju deviza po povlaštenom tečaju 0,15% povoljnijem u odnosu na službene važeće tečajeve Privredne banke Zagreb, • kupnju, prodaju i zamjenu udjela u investicijskim fondovima, • uplata računa komunalnih troškova za tvrtke s kojima Banka ima sklopljen ugovor, bez naknade, • devizna razročenja bez potrebe dolaska u poslovnicu i to ne samo za ugovore koji su sklopljeni putem Interneta, već i za važeće ugovore sklopljene u poslovnicama, • pregled kompletnog portfelja korisnika, • mogućnost zadavanja naloga u najavi, nalog za plaćanje koji ste autorizirali danas izvršava se na datum koji sami odredite - unutar 12 mjeseci u budućnosti, • personalizirana ponuda proizvoda i usluga namijenjena isključivo pojedinom korisniku, • kupnja SIMPA, VIPme, Tomato i Tele2 prepaid bonova, itd.

4.3 Erste & Steiermarkische Banka

U ovoj banci usluga Internet bankarstva naziva se NetBanking. Uvedena je relativno kasno u odnosu na druge banke, odnosno krajem 2002. godine. Kao i u ostalim velikim bankama uslugu NetBanking koriste fizičke osobe i poslovni subjekti. Kod ove banke autorizacija se odvija na treći način, odnosno upotrebom TAN kartice. Ova banka ne naplaćuje naknadu za ugovaranje usluge Internet bankarstva, TAN karticu dodjeljuju također besplatno, a mjesečna naknada je 5 kuna. U pogledu naknada za plaćanje opće uplatnice što građane najviše i zanima ona iznosi 0.25%, minimalno 1 kunu, a maksimalno 20 kuna. Kao i kod prethodne dvije banke slijedi pregled nekih usluga koje nudi ova banka kroz Internet bankarstvo.[8] • pregled stanja svih računa otvorenih u Erste & Steiermärkische banci, uključujući tekuće, štedne, žiro, kreditne i devizne račune, a isto tako i račune na koje korisnik NetBankinga ima punomoć, • pregled prometa po svim navedenim računima, • pregled svih transakcija zadanih putem NetBanking-a (proknjiženih, neproknjiženih, storniranih, neizvršenih i deviznih), • prijenos sredstava s jednog računa na drugi unutar Banke, • plaćanje svih vrsta računa u kunama općom uplatnicom (npr. račun za potrošnju vode, struje, telefona ili bilo kojeg drugog računa...), • oročenje sredstava po važećim kamatnim stopama, • pregled, otvaranje i zatvaranje trajnih naloga, • devizno plaćanje u korist pravnih i fizičkih osoba u inozemstvu, sukladno zakonu o Deviznom poslovanju, • kupnju i prodaju deviza, • kupnja/prodaja/zamjena udjela u Erste Invest investicijskim fondovima, • korištenje raznih alata i kalkulatora.

4.4. Raiffeisen BANK Austria

RBA iDIREKT naziv je za uslugu Internet bankarstva u ovoj banci. Usluga je uvedena u prosincu 2000. godine. Kao i u prethodnim analiziranim bankama uslugu koriste fizičke osobe i poslovni subjekti. Za korištenje je potrebno biti komitent banke i imati token koji se dobije prilikom ugovaranja proizvoda. Karakteristika ove banke kao i Erste banke je da ne naplaćuje pristupninu, dok je mjesečna naknada 10 kuna. U nastavku je pregled usluga koje je moguće obavljati putem RBA iDIREKT usluge[9]. • plaćanja svih vrsta računa u kunama s kunskih računa na području Republike Hrvatske, • plaćanja u inozemstvo, • plaćanja u korist članica Raiffeisen Grupe i UNIQE s tekućeg i žiro računa bez naknade, • plaćanja obveza po RBA kreditima građana i troškova po RBA kreditnim karticama bez naknade, • prijenos sredstava unutar kunskih računa u RBA bez naknade, • kupoprodaja deviza (do maksimalnog iznosa protuvrijednosti 100.000 kuna), • oročavanje i razročavanje sredstava, te pregled stanja oročenih depozita, • mogućnost zadavanja zahtjeva za smanjenje iznosa dopuštenog prekoračenja po RBA Flexi tekućem računu, • kupnju, prodaju, pregled transakcija i stanje udjela u investicijskim fondovima pod upravljanjem Raiffeisen Investa, • pregled prometa po RBA računima i kreditnim karticama.
5. ZAKLJUČAK

Svrha ovog projektnog zadatka bila je da spoznamo više o Internet bankarstvu, jednom od glavnih vrsta elektroničkog poslovanja koje je u velikoj mjeri prisutno kako u poslovnom svijetu tako i u privatnom životu. Definirali smo Internet bankarstvo, naveli njegove prednosti korištenja i uvjerili se u sigurnost koju pruža svojim klijentima. Također smo analizirali Internet bankarstvo u Hrvatskoj te naveli nekoliko primjera banaka koje nude usluge Internet bankarstva.

Naš je zaključak da nam korištenje usluga Internet bankarstva u znatnoj mjeri štedi vrijeme, povezuje nas s drugim klijentima i pruža mogućnost usluge 24 sata dnevno. Budući da se svijet iz dana u dan sve više digitalizira, a Internet bankarstvo unapređuje, ono postaje važan čimbenik u daljnjem napretku poslovanja privatnih i poslovnih korisnika.
6.LITERATURA

Hrvatska gospodarska komora: Bankarski sustav u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, 2010.

Francesca Arnaboldi, Peter Claeys: Internet Banking in Europe: a comparative analysis, Research Institute of Applied Economics, University of Barcelona, 2008.

Internet izvori:

web.efzg.hr/dok/OIM/oim_prester_RBA%20Internet%20bankarstvo.pdf

http://web.zpr.fer.hr/ergonomija/2004/kuzma/text/prva.htm

http://www.moj-bankar.hr/Kazalo/I/Internet-bankarstvo

www.zaba.hr

www.pbz.hr

www.erstebank.hr/

www.rba.hr/

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[1] http://www.moj-bankar.hr/Kazalo/I/Internet-bankarstvo [13.12.2010]
[2] http://web.zpr.fer.hr/ergonomija/2004/kuzma/text/treca.htm [13.12.2010]
[3] Hrvatska gospodarska komora: Bankarski sustav u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, 2010.
[4] Hrvatska gospodarska komora: Bankarski sustav u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, 2010.
[5] http://www.gfk.hr/public_relations/press/press_articles/005364/index.hr.print.html [14.12.2010.]

[6]http://www.zaba.hr/home/wps/portal/public/WCMStranice/Onlineusluge/!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hvI3cLdxMLIwt3ywAXAyM3F3dT49AwQwMDY30v_aj0nPwkoMpwkF48ag0h8gY4gKOBvp9Hfm6qfnBGkX5BdnCQhaOiIgAeqiKi/dl3/d3/L2dJQSEvUUt3QS9ZQnZ3LzZfSzJHOEc0ODI4RzJKMTAyRkRETVFDMzJFQzM!/?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/connect/zaba_hr/zabautils/onlineusluge/e-zaba+gradjani/438bf1804c9651a3a12de163a8bd6242 [14.12.2010]
[7] http://www.pbz.hr/Default.aspx?sec=366 [14.12.2010]
[8] http://www.erstebank.hr/elektronsko_bank_netbank_gr.asp?pos=elektronsko_bank_netbank&k=1 [14.12.2010]
[9]http://www.rba.hr/my/bank/services/product.jsp?product_type=Citizen&path=/usluge/direkt_servisi/online/internet_bankarstvo_%28g%29&language=HR [14.12.2010.]…...

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