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International Marketing

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Unit 2: International Measures and Conversions

Objective:
At the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: * Define measurement systems * Define metric system * Convert values from metric to metric system * Convert values from metric to American system and vice – versa. * Convert temperature values.

2.1. Introduction:
International Standards for measures and conversions were felt as a need, as the international trade between the nations started to increase. With the increase of the trade, the disputes between the buying and selling nations started increasing, as these nations employed different standards of measures. The interpretations of the business contracts varied from nation to nation and this factor started hurting the international trade. Hence to counter the fact that the weights and measures are different in different countries, a set of internationally accepted standards for measures and conversions were needed. The international standards should be enough to give single guidelines for the measures and conversions as well as reduce any points of conflicts. To reduce the points of conflicts the international trading community moved on to the metric system of measures and conversions. In the modern times the measurement and conversions have also been in use. 2.2. Measurement Systems:
We can define “Measurement” as a set of integers assigned to a characteristic of an object or an event, which should create a system that can be compared to the similar characteristics of other objects or events.
A measurement system can be defined as a “Collection of units of measurement and the rules and regulations pertaining to such collection of units.” It has been seen that the systems of measurements have been regulated and defined as well as very important.
Examples of Measurement Systems: a. Metric System b. Imperial System c. United States Customary Units.
As per historic records, the art of measurement was discovered / invented by the Egyptians but the Greeks brought about the science of measurement to the world. The Greeks and the Egyptians started the system of measurements with the specific use in cooking, with passage of time the measurement systems were being demanded for the construction of the major monuments that we see now. It was the Greeks that gave the definitive values and nomenclature to the measurement systems.
The historic records also show the use of the measurement systems in Ancient Indian Civilisations and the construction of the houses and roads with very specific systems also point towards the use of the measurement systems.
In the modern times the measurement systems have been accepted under the various names and forms, the widest used systems is Metric System. The other systems in use in the current times are Imperial System and United States Customary Units.
All the Measurement systems have been so devised that the following parameters are measured: a. Temperature b. Distance c. Area d. Volume e. Weight f. Time g. Frequency h. Speed / Velocity i. Acceleration j. Mass k. Force l. Momentum m. Work & Energy n. Power o. Pressure p. Density
In general all the countries use the metrication system. United States and Liberia use the US Customary units. Myanmar uses the traditional Burmese Units. Canada partially uses the US Customary units to due to huge trade percentage with United States, even though Canada is using metric systems. Generally India also uses the Metric System but in case of land area Indian traditional units are used. 2.3. The Metric System:
The Metric system of measurement has evolved in France in the year 1795. This was the first well defined and structured system of measurement in the world. This system spread to the world over during its evolution. At the start the non- English speaking system started using this system and later on metric system spread to the English speaking populace as well.
The metric system uses the multiples of ten and its powers to calculate the multiples and submultiples of the related metric units. The metric system is compatible with the decimal system of the numbers and hence it is very convenient to use.
The metric system evolved with two base units; (1) Metre for length and (2) Gram for mass. Later, the other units of the length and mass, and all the units of area and volume as well as the derived units like density have been derived from these two base units.
Various countries have been using different variations of the metric system; for example the erstwhile USSR used the Meter – Tonne – Second System as well as the Meter – Kilogram – Second System. The gravitational system of Centimeter – Gram – Second System is useful in scientific calculations.
The international standard metric system is known as International System of Units or SI System). This system is a Meter – Kilogram – Second System as well as utilizing Kelvin – Ampere – Candela – Mole system.
The SI System units include well-defined and internationally agreed classes of units. The SI System uses two separate classes of units. The first class used by the SI System are seven base units of time, length, temperature, mass, electric current, amount of substance and luminous intensity.
The SI has evaluated at the close of nineteenth century and it was carved out of the three existing systems: 1. CGS based system / Gaussian System / ESU System 2. CGS Based EMU (Electromagnetic Units) System 3. MKS based system.
It was very difficult to convert the electrical units on the basis of the units of length, mass and time. This was to be done using Dimensional Analysis and the difficulty was to adapt the dimensions which depend wither on the ESU System or on the EMU System. This was resolved in the year 1900. In this year Giobanni Giorgi advocated that a fourth base unit should be used alongside the base units of length, mass and time to bring the electrical units also on the common platform. The fourth base unit to be used can be electric current, voltage or electrical resistance. During the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century a number of units based on the Kg / Gram, CM / M, and seconds, for example, Metric Horse Power (for Power), Milimetres for Barometric and Blood Pressure and The Darcy for Permeability were formulated. These measures incorporated standard gravity in their concept and definition. 2.4.1. Metric to Metric Conversions: A. Length i. Kilometers to Meters
1 Kilometer = 1000 Meters ii. Meters to Centimeters
1 Meter = 100 Centimeters iii. Centimeters to Millimeters
1 Centimeter = 10 Milimeter iv. Millimeters to Micrometers
1 Milimeter = 1000 Microometers v. Nautical Miles to Meters
1 Nautical Miles = 1852 Meters vi. Nautical Miles to Kilometers
1 Nautical Miles = 1.852 Kilometers

B. Weight i. Kilograms to Grams
1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams ii. Grams to Milligrams
1 Gram to 1000 Milligrams

iii. Milligrams to Micrograms
1 Milligram to 1000 Micrograms

C. Area i. Square Kilometers to Square Meters
1 Square Kilometer = 1000000 Square Meters ii. Square Meters to Square Kilometers
1 Square Meter = 0.000001 Square Kilometers

iii. Square Meters to Square Centimeters
1 Square Meter = 10000 Square Centimeters

iv. Square Centimeters to Square Meters
1 Square Centimeter = 0.00001 Square Meters

D. Volume i. Cubic Meters to Cubic Centimeters
1 Cubic Meter = 1000000 Cubic Centimeters

ii. Cubic Centimeters to Cubic Meters
1 Cubic Centimeter = 0.00001 Cubic Meters

E. Speed i. Kilometer per hour to Meters per second
1 Kilometer per hour = 0.277778 Meters per seconds

ii. Meters per seconds to Kilometers per hour
1 Meter per second = 3.6 Kilometers per hour

F. Time i. Millennium to Years
1 Millennium = 1000 years : 1 Millennium = 10 Centuries ii. Century to Years
1 Century = 100 Years iii. Decade to Years
1 Decade to 10 Years iv. Year to Days
1 Year to 365 or 366 Days v. Week to Days
1 Week = 7 Days vi. Day to Hours
1 Day to 24 Hours vii. Hours to Minutes
1 Hour = 60 Minutes viii. Minutes to Seconds
1 Minute = 60 Seconds ix. Seconds to Miliseconds
1 Second to 1000 Milliseconds G. Pressure
1 Pascal = 1 Newton per square meter 2.4.2. Metric to American and American to Metric Conversions: A. Length i. Kilometers to miles
1 Kilometer = 0.621371 miles

ii. Miles to Kilometers
1 Mile = 1.60934 Kilometers

iii. Meters to Feet
1 Meters = 3.28084 Feet

iv. Feet to Meters
1 Foot = 0.3048 Meters

v. Inches to Centimeters
1 Inch = 2.54 Centimeters

vi. Centimeters to inches
1 Centimeter = 0.393701 inches

vii. Inches to Feet
1 Inch = 0.0833333 Feet

viii. Feet to Inches
1 Foot = 12 Inches

B. Weight

i. Kilograms to Pounds
1 Kilogram = 2.20462 Pounds

ii. Ponds to Kilograms
1 Pound = 0.453592 Kilograms

iii. Kilograms to Stones
1 Kilogram = 0.157473 Stones

iv. Stones to Kilograms
1 Stone = 6.35029 Kilograms

v. Grams to Ounces
1 Gram = 0.035274 Ounces

vi. Ounces to Grams
1 Ounce = 28.3495 Grams

C. Area i. Hectares to Acres
1 Hectare = 2.47105 Acres

ii. Acres to Hectares
1 Acre = 0.404686 Hectares

iii. Hectares to Square Feet
1 Hectares = 107639 Square Feet

iv. Square Feet to Hectares
1 Square Foot = 0.0000092903 Hectares

v. Square Meters to Square Feet
1 Square Meter = 10.7639 Square Feet

vi. Square Feet to Square Meters
1 Square Foot = 0.09290304 Square Meters

vii. Square Meters to Square Yards
1 Square Meter = 0.111111 Square Yards

viii. Square Yards to Square Meters
1 Square Yard = 0.836127 Square Meters

ix. Square Kilometers to Square Miles
1 Square Kilometer = 0.386102 Square Miles

x. Square Miles to Square Kilometers
1 Square Mile = 2.58999 Square Kilometers

D. Volume i. Liters to Gallons
1 Liter = 0.264172 Gallons

ii. Gallons to Liters
1 Gallon = 3.78541 Liters

iii. Milliliter to Ounces
1 Milliliter = 0.033814 Ounces

iv. Ounces to Milliliters
1 Ounce = 29.5735 Milliliters

v. Centiliters to Ounces
1 Centiliter = 0.33814 Ounces

vi. Ounces to Centiliters
1 Ounce = 2.95735 Centiliters

E. Speed

i. Kilometers per hour to Miles per hour
1 Kilometers per hour = 0.621371 Miles per hour

ii. Miles per hour to Kilometers per hour
1 Miles per hour = 1.60934 Kilometers per hour

iii. Meters per hour to Miles per hour
1 Meters per hour = 0.000621371 Miles per hour

2.4.3. Temperature Conversions
The temperatures are represented in three different units: a. Celsius: Celsius is the most commonly unit for temperature used in the world and is represented by symbol “C” b. Fahrenheit: Generally used in American Continent and for various scientific purposes and is represented by symbol “F”. c. Kelvin: This is one of the seven base units of SI Unit system and is represented by symbol “K”

i. Celsius to Fahrenheit:
Formula: F = (C*9/5) + 32
For Example: Convert 10 Celsius to Fahrenheit
F = (10*9/5) + 32 = 18 +32 = 50

ii. Fahrenheit to Celsius

Formula: C = (F - 32) * 5/9
For Example: Convert 10 Fahrenheit to Celsius
C = (10 - 32) * 5/9 = -22 * 5/9 = -12.22

iii. Kelvin to Celsius

Formula: C = (K – 273.15)
For Example: Convert 10 Kelvin to Celsius
C = (10 – 273.15) = -263.15

iv. Celsius to Kelvin

Formula: K = (C + 273.15)
For Example: Convert 10 Celsius to Kelvin
K = (10 + 273.15) = 283.15

v. Fahrenheit to Kelvin

Formula: K = ((F - 32) * 5/9) + 273.15
For Example: Convert 10 Fahrenheit to Kelvin
K = ((10 - 32) * 5/9) + 273.15 = (-22 *5/9) + 273.15 = (-12.22 + 273.15) = 260.93

vi. Kelvin to Fahrenheit
Formula: F = (K - 273.15) * 9/5 + 32

For Example: Convert 10 Kelvin to Fahrenheit
K = ((10 – 273.15) * 9/5) + 32 = (-263.15 *9/5) + 32 = (-473.67 + 32) = -441.67

2.4. Summing Up:
The measurement systems have been in force since 4rth Millennium B.C. Theses measurement systems can be attributed to Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Eram Civilizations. The most accurate and smallest of the measurements were found in the Indus valley ruins which based itself on Ivory Scale. This unit was equal to 1.704 millimeters or 0.067 inches. The Babylonian and Egyptian ruins have had proofs of measures of volumes. The weights have also been measured in these civilizations. The measure of CARAT is still in use for precious metals and stones. The measurements systems have traditionally included weights, length, time and angle. The same have been steadily increased to temperature pressure, speed, area, and volume.
With the passage of time every country and region developed its own measurement system, for example, Olympic System in Greece, Roman System, British System, Metric System, Indian System American System.
With the advent of the modern age, it was envisaged that the measurement system should be common for all the international trading community and the countries should adopt the system. This has given rise to the SI System under the metric system aegis. The SI System was also formulated to ensure that the scientific calculations are also standardized. The standardization of the units has helped nations to reduce confusion. It also has added to ease of doing business between nations as the countries will use the same system of measurement and the businesses will use standard measures to define weight and mass and size thus reduces disputes amongst the buyer and seller.
In the modern times the systems in use are SI System (Metric System), British System and the American Systems. The interchangeability formulae are devised to ensure that the confusions in dealing in the different units are eliminated. The exact measurements and their interchangeability have been very helpful to the scientific as well as the trading communities. Internationally these three systems are used in trades and are fairly accepted in whole world.
The systems are based on two bases (1) CGS (Centimeter – Gram – Second) and (2) MKS (Meter – Kilogram – Second). The modern units are based on MKS system. This was changed after the research paper published in the 1900.
The modern times unit system has the following parameters to be measured: Temperature, Distance, Area, Volume, Weight, Time, Frequency, Speed / Velocity, Acceleration, Mass, Force, Momentum, Work & Energy, Power, Pressure, Density.

2.5. Model Questions 2.6.4. Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the base of the modern SI System? a. CGS (Centimeter – Gram – Second) b. MKS (Meter – Kilogram – Second) c. CGS based EMU system d. Gaussian System 2. Which is not the part of the temperature measuring units? a. Celsius b. Pascal c. Kelvin d. Fahrenheit 3. Which is not the part of the weight measuring units? a. Kilogram b. Tonne c. Meter d. Ounce e. Gram 4. Which is not the part of the Length measuring units? a. Kilometer b. Meter c. Centimeter d. Hectare 5. Which is not the part of the Volume measuring units? a. Cubic Centimeter b. Gallon c. Cubic Meter d. Square Meter 6. Which is not included in the modern measurement system? a. Acceleration b. Mass c. Force d. Work & Time 7. Which of the following is essential for scientific measurements? a. Atmospheric Pressure b. Light Years c. Barometric Pressure d. All of the above 8. In which year was the problem of conversion to MKS system solved? a. 2001 b. 1904 c. 1900 d. 1934

2.6.5. Short Questions 1. Write a brief history of the temperature measurement system and units? 2. Write a short note about CGS System? 3. Write a short note about the Metric System? 4. Write a note about the American System of measurement? 5. Why was the modern SI system of measurement adopted?

2.6.6. Descriptive Questions 1. What is the need of the modern SI System? 2. What are parallels and differences between SI System and British System 3. Write briefly about the parameters of measurements in modern system (e.g. Temperature, Weight, Volume, Electricity etc.). 4. Why were there different systems of measurement in different regions and why a specific measurement system is needed? 5. Write a note on the various measurement units of weight, time, volume, distance, area and their conversion formulae from Metric System to American System.

2.6. Suggested Readings 1. International Marketing by Philip Cateora and John Graham 2. Learn Smart for International Marketers by McGraw Hill Education 3. International Marketing by Michael R. Czinkota 4. International Marketing by Dana Nicoleta Lascu 5. International Marketing by Subhash C. Jain…...

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...Introduction The original formula for Red Bull was developed in 1964; however, the Red Bull company was not founded until 1984 after a merger between Dietrich Mateschitz, marketing guru, and Chaleo Yoovidhya, the owner of the Red Bull formula. Categorized as an energy drink, Red Bull was initially designed to “treat jet lag and boost energy for truck drivers” (Hollensen, 2012). In today's era, Red Bull is commonly used as an energy drink; like coffee, and as a mixer in alcoholic drinks, like Red Bull Wings and the Jägerbomb. This aligns with the company's focus on the younger generations of partygoers and post-secondary students.   Red Bull’s marketing strategy is one of the key factors in their success, they created Mobile Energy Team that consists primarily of young university students driving around in specially designed Mini Coopers with large Red Bull cans on top to attract the younger audience. The students are Red Bull’s team out in the field that attend different events and provide sampling of the energy drink. Oftentimes, the Red Bull representatives host parties with cases of Red Bull. These representatives collect data from these parties and send it back to the company as a form of low cost market research. In 2010 Red Bull had 7,758 employees of which 5,000 were university students. Red Bull is also known globally for hosting extreme sporting events and sponsoring some 500 athletes. Over the years they have acquired four soccer teams, a Nascar team, and two......

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Premium Essay

International Marketing

...International Paper: Combining Industry and Social Responsibility Marketing 406 Roosevelt University December 6, 2014 Natalie Mierzynska, Sujatha Lekshmivaragan, Dmitry Rozental, Ebuka Nkwonta Table of Contents Background 2 Objectives 4 Procedures 4 Summary of Findings 4 Detailed Findings 6 Defying Common Criticisms 6 Integrating Sustainability Principles 8 “Greening” and Beyond 11 Enlightened Marketing 14 Social Responsibility & Financial Success 15 Conclusion 16 Works Cited 18 Background International Paper (IP) is the global leader in the production and distribution of paper and packaging products (Internationalpaper.com). It was founded more than 110 years ago, and produces products that we use every day including various types of paper, consumer packaging, pulp, recycling, and industrial packaging. The company’s stock symbol is IP, and a share of IP stock currently sells at around $53/share. IP is currently headquartered in Memphis Tennessee, and employs over 62,000 people (Kotler & Armstrong, 607). Last year, the company sold over $26 billion worth of product, placing it 111th on the Fortune 500. From a consumer perspective, when a multi-billion dollar producer of paper and packaging products comes to mind, we automatically assume that the company produces a large amount of pollution and destroys forests all over the world. However, International Paper prides itself on being on top of Fortune Magazine’s......

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Premium Essay

International Marketing

...Introduction 1 The principal activities of marketing 2 Marketing Mix 3 Market Selection 4 Segmentation and targeting 4 Accessibility/actionability 4 Targeting strategies 5 1. Concentration 5 2. Mass (global) marketing 5 3. Differentiated marketing 5 Market-entry strategies 5 International marketing mix 6 Product 6 Price 7 Promotion 8 Place (distribution) 9 References 10 Introduction Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders (AMA). International marketing is just the simple application of marketing principles by a company to overseas or other countries. International marketing involves additional risks and uncertainties compared to the domestic marketing. A company needs to analyze and prepare strategic plans before entering a new market. International marketing is often necessary for the companies in order to increase its sales and size of the market, extend the product life cycle, new opportunities and solutions, etc. In this chapter, we will discuss about the principal activities of international marketing, market segmentation and selection, marketing strategies and moreover, international marketing mix. The principal activities of marketing Marketing is the backbone of a business. For successful marketing, a company needs to analyze......

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8