Free Essay

Infections

In: Science

Submitted By ZelChung2012
Words 613
Pages 3
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) –Bacterial Infection
Causes:
* Bacteria traveling from the digestive tract to the urethra (women) * Having a large prostate gland or not being circumcised (men) * Weak immune system * Kidney stones * Sexual intercourse
Symptoms:
* Pain or burning when you urinate * Urine is cloudy or smells bad * Stomach feels tender or heavy * Nausea and vomiting * Having pain on one side of your back, under your ribs (Kidney area)
Diagnosis:
Doctors can confirm if you have a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) by testing a sample of your urine, having a blood test done or a X-ray to screen for structural abnormalities or incomplete emptying of the bladder.
Mode of transmission: * UTI is not a contagious disease, it occurs from cross contamination.
Example- wiping from back to front after a bowel movement.
Treatment:
* Antibiotics (Penicillin, Cephalosporin, and Minocycline etc.) * Drinking cranberry and blueberry juice (contains hippuric acid which acidify the urine making it less hospitable to bacteria) * Drinking more liquids and not holding urine
Relevant Comments: * UTI’s are most common in females * UTI’s during pregnancy can cause premature birth

Scabies- Skin infection
Causes:
* Sarcoptes Scabiei
Symptoms:
* Itching * Rashes * Thin, pencil like mark lines
Diagnosis:
A simple examination of the skin shows signs of scabies. You may have to do an examination under the microscope of skin scrapings or by performing a skin biopsy.
Mode of transmission: * Prolonged skin contact with an infected person * Sharing of bedding, towels and clothing * Sexual contact * Swimming pools
Treatments:
* Topical lotions, creams and ointments (Sulfur, Benzyl Benzoate, Crotamiton and Permethrin etc.)
Relevant comments: * Scabies outbreaks are more common in child care centers, nursing homes and nursing facilities * Scabies is not a result of poor hygiene

Candidiasis- Yeast infection * Candida organisms naturally live on the skin. Under certain conditions, they can become so numerous they cause infections. Examples of infections are vaginal yeast infections, thrush (infection of tissues of the oral cavity), skin and diaper rash, and nail bed infections.
Causes:
* Over growth of yeast in the body * Change of estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy * Antibiotics that kill the beneficial bacteria in the gut * A weakened immune system from prolonged illness or high stress
Symptoms:
* Clumpy discharge * Redness, soreness and irritation of the vaginal area (women) * Rashes that spread into the groin and anus with itching and irritation (men) * Pain with sexual intercourse or burning with urination. * Oral thrush causes curd like white patches inside the mouth * Skin infection appears as a clearly defined patch of red, itchy skin, often leaking fluid
Diagnosis:
Microscopic examination, culturing or a full gynecologic exam is performed. In people with weakened immune systems, oral, vaginal, and skin candidal infections usually can be diagnosed by sight.
Mode of transmission: * Oral contact * Sexual contact
Treatment:
* Antifungal medication, cream, ointment or powder
Relevant comments: * Pregnant women who have a vaginal infection when giving birth run the risk of the infant developing an oral infection * Candidiasis can kill if it reaches our vital organs such as the heart, but is rare

Uterine Cancer- Endometrial adenocarcinoma
Causes:
* Abnormal overgrowth of the endometrium * Obesity * Family health history * Radiation therapy to the pelvis
Symptoms:
* Pelvic pain * Prolonged periods or bleeding between periods * Abnormal watery or blood -streaked discharge * Pain or difficulty when emptying the bladder * Any vaginal bleeding after menopause
Diagnosis:
A pelvic exam, ultrasound or biopsy is performed to tell whether cancer is present.
Treatment:
* Surgery * Radiation therapy * Chemotherapy * Hormone therapy
Relevant comments: * Cancer of the uterus occurs most often in women between the ages of 55 and 70 years * Treatment of cancer of the uterus depends on the stage of the disease, the growth rate of the cancer, as well as the age and health of the woman…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Infection Control

...Reflection of my Observation visit For my Observational visit I attended K W RCF. For the last six years I have been working in a aged care setting which includes assisting the elderly in their own home. During my visit to K W I concentrated on observing in particular Infection control practices within the care facility, as I am currently working within the community area, and the practices we use are completely different, due to lack readily available equipment. At the entry to the facility I noticed that there were posters on the entry doors requesting that anyone displaying symptoms of cold and flu, not enter the facility. I also noted that located around the entry were several micro-shield dispensers, and posters requesting visitors to please sanitize their hands on entry and exit of the facility. As it states in Stuart, Cheng, Marshall, and Ferguson (2009) “The primary goal of infection control is to protect health care workers (HCWs), other patients and community members from acquiring a potentially serious disease.” This is a practice I was already aware of, and my observation visit just reinforced the practice. The Clinical nurse educator for the company took our group for a tour of the facility, where she pointed out several features including the facility’s wellness centre, where she explained that a local Co-op doctor’s service practiced weekly, for staff and residents of the facility. We were then informed about the annual program for providing flu...

Words: 626 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Infection

...INTRODUCTION Infection remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in man, particularly in developing areas where it is associated with poverty and overcrowding.In the developed world increasing prosperity, universal immunization and antibiotics have reduced the prevalence of infectious disease. However, antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms and diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease ,avian influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) have emerged. In the developing world successes such as the eradication of smallpox have been balanced or outweighed by the new plagues. Infectious diseases cause nearly 25% of all human deaths. Two billion people one-third of the world’s population are infected with tuberculosis (TB),500 million people catch malaria every year, and 200 million are infected with schistosomiasis. 39.5 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, with 4.3 million new HIV infections in 2006 (65% in sub-Saharan Africa). The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) hope to be achieved by 2015. These are: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, universal primary education, gender equality and empowerment of women, reduction in child mortality,improvement in maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS,malaria and other diseases, ensuring environment sustainability and developing global partnership for development. DEFINITION INFECTION An infection is the entry and multiplication of an infections......

Words: 6675 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Chain of Infection

...facilitate this process? Give a specific example. Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.   There are six links in the Chain of Infection. Those areas include:  1. The infectious agent itself-  2. The reservoir where the infectious agent can live and multiply or lie dormant until the organism can find the opportunity to cause disease  3. The susceptible host  4. A means of Transmission 5. A portal of exit  6. A portal of re-entry    Each link in this chain must be intact for a disease to be transmitted and infect another person. There is the potential to defeat a communicable disease process by disrupting the link in this chain at any point along the way thus preventing infection in another person.  An example of the simplest chain of infection is an infected patient cared for by a health care worker who doesn't wash their hands before caring for another patient. Human sources of microorganisms are healthcare workers, patients themselves and visitors, any of whom may be individuals who are in some stage of an incubation period of a disease process, may already have a disease, or may be a chronic carrier of an infectious agent. The patient may be their own source of infection. (Baldwin, 2008)   The bacteria must be able to find a susceptible host. Some individuals are immune to infection or are able to resist colonization by an infectious agent while others will develop a full blown clinical disease process. Then there are those who......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Hospital Infections

...Assignment 1: Issues in Public Health- Nosocomial Infections Nosocomial infections are defined simply as hospital-acquired infections. These infections are not present initially and typically occur within 48 hours of a patient’s admission, within 3 days of discharge or approximately 30 days after an operation. (Inweregbu, Dave & Pittard, 2005) Not just in the United States, but also globally, such infections are rising significantly with no solutions available currently. And, though it is exceedingly difficult to gather reliable information, especially within smaller countries, it has been shown that hundreds of millions of individuals are impacted by such infections each year. Nosocomial infections are an endemic globally with high incidence in both developed and undeveloped countries. Such infections are particularly pertinent in both ICU and NICU patients. In America, it is typical to find that 4.5% of patients will fall ill to such infections when taking the entire population into consideration. European countries see a prevalence rate of approximately 7.1% when considering the population as a whole. These rates will become higher when looking at a sample such as the ICU or NICU where rate of infection can range from 30%-51%, taking into consideration, the longer the stay the greater the risk. (World Health Organization) However, when considering the low and middle-income populations of underdeveloped countries, these rates are considerably higher. It is......

Words: 6204 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Cytomegalovirus Infection

...for my report is Cytomegalovirus (CMV). I chose this Contagious Disease because it hits very close to home. This disease is also linked to other members of the herpes virus family that cause chickenpox, infectious mononucleosis, fever blisters (herpes simplex type I) and genital herpes (herpes simplex type II). Like other herpes viruses, CMV infection can become dormant for a while and may reactivate later. The virus is carried by people and is not associated with food, water or animals. The high numbers of multiple people infected with Cytomegalovirus is about 50-80 percent at some time during their lives. In my report I will focus on key pints such as: • What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV)? • How is CMV spread? • What are the symptoms of CMV infection? • How long can a person carry CMV? • How it’s diagnosed and what treatments are available? • Precaution and Prevention of CMV. In a recent article that was brought to my attention by a colleague referencing Cytomegalovirus; it goes on to explain that CMV is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in line with risk factors such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Several viral infections are linked to hypertension, including human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and HIV-1. By focusing on this subject, I hope to convey to my audience the importance of this topic and also the severity in immune-compromised and pregnant patients. Key Points: • What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV)? Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Infection Control

...Following correct infection control procedures in care homes is critical. Not only are infections spread easily in contained environments such as nursing care homes, or hospitals, or schools, but care home residents are often susceptible to infections. That's because they are very often elderly, suffering from medical conditions that may affect their immunity, they may have open wounds from surgery, be fed via tube or have an IV. All of which present potential sites for infection. If two or more people (residents or staff) in the same care home get the same infection, then it is classified as an outbreak. As such, all nursing care staff have the responsibility to observe correct infection control procedure at all times. Responsibility of Care Home Staff All care home staff have a responsibility to contribute towards effective infection control in the care home setting. This means observing infection control procedures and protecting your own health, as well as that of your residents. If you’re caring for sick or vulnerable residents and you come to work unwell, you could potentially pass on your illness to those you’re caring for. If you are unwell, it is best to stay away from work until well after your symptoms have cleared. You may still be able to infect others even if you no longer feel unwell. Hand Hygiene Infections are easily transmitted between people if poor hand hygiene is observed. Even if your hands look clean, they could still be covered in bacteria and......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Infection Control

...Performance Assessment Task Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. It is an essential, though often under recognized and under supported, part of the infrastructure of health care. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice, practiced within the confines of a particular health-care delivery system rather than directed at society as a whole. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the health-care setting (whether patient-to-patient, from patients to staff and from staff to patients, or among-staff), including prevention (via hand hygiene/hand washing, cleaning/disinfection/sterilization, vaccination, surveillance), monitoring/investigation of demonstrated or suspected spread of infection within a particular health-care setting (surveillance and outbreak investigation), and management (interruption of outbreaks). It is on this basis that the common title being adopted within health care is "Infection Prevention & Control." (Infection control. (2013, November 01). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection_control) I. Economics A. Fact: In 2002, one in every 20 hospitalized patients developed a healthcare-associated infection (HAI), making HAIs one of the leading causes of death and illness in the U.S., and costing up......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Infection Control

...Discuss the concept of occupational health and control measures implemented to prevent such infection ? To prevent and to control the spread of infection is primary in the health care settings. It begins by believing that everybody is very much infectious therefore, its everybody's responsibility to prevent and control the spread of infection. Healthcare workers have a guidelines on how to prevent and control the spread of infection when providing care for all hospitalised individuals in healthcare. Workplaces are obliged under the Occupational health and safety Act (2004) to provide a safe work place by training the staff the infection control procedures, instructing them to use the right equipment or techniques to prevent infections from spreading over. Every health worker plays a big role to minimise the transmission of infection by following the workplace infection control procedures. Standard precaution, additional precaution, sharp safety, exposure policy, staff vaccination, single use policy and waste management policy are a principle that break the chain of infection. This essay outlines the concept of occupational health and the control measure implemented to prevent such infection. Berman et all. (2012) states that Standard precaution is work practice required technique to be used by healthcare workers to minimise the spread of micro-organism. Standard precaution includes good hand hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment(PPE), appropriate......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Infection Control

...Approaches to Decision Making Stephanie Kert HCA/250 October 16, 2014 Cynthia Baxter Reduce Infection Control Long term care facilities have high infection rates due to patients being within close proximity of one another. Long term care residents are usually older in which due to their immune systems are usually more susceptible to highly infectious illnesses. Due to this increase, there are specialized precautions and procedures that are expected to be followed in order to control spreading. Infection Protocols Spreading of infections can cost healthcare facilities more money especially if the proper precautions were not used. The first step is to identify the problem, than a plan must be put together to figure out how to begin implementation. The problem is reducing infection in which administrators could begin by holding weekly meetings that serve as a refresher on infection prevention protocol. During these meetings all staff and administrators can analyze what areas need extra focus which tends to be forgotten to hectic schedules. (Robbins, DeCenzo, & Coulter, 2011).  Also long term care facilities must keep their protocols and procedures reviewed and updated on a yearly basis in order to better reduce the number of infections. The director of nursing needs to be notified by the laboratory when any patient cultures come back positive that may represent a form of infection. Additionally, there needs to be specific “tracking of dates and times when......

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Nosocomial Infections

...Nosocomial Infections By princessbec76 | Studymode.com Section 1: Infections in Healthcare Settings Essay. Nosocomial infections, hospital acquired infections, are an on-going concern to healthcare professionals. These infections are one of the major causes of death in hospitalised patients and are a significant burden on not only the patient’s and the public’s health (as organisms causing nosocomial infections can be transmitted to the community through discharged patients, staff and visitors) but also the economy. A nosocomial infection is an infection acquired at least 72 hours after being admitted into hospital for any reason other than the infection or one which develops amongst hospital staff. Infections are also identified as nosocomial if they appear in a patient within 30 days after their discharge from hospital. Non nosocomial infections, community acquired infections, are infections acquired anywhere other than the hospital. The most common places where non nosocomial infections occur are schools, day care centres and sports facilities. They are spread through skin to skin contact, cuts and grazes, overcrowding and poor hygiene. The illnesses or infections can be the same, for example, pneumonia or gastroenteritis but it is the setting that they are contracted in which differentiate the two infections. Nosocomial infections occur worldwide and affect both wealthy, developed countries as well as the poorer ones with scarce resources. A survey conducted by the......

Words: 1639 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Nosocomial Infections

...Nosocomial Infections Monica Butler Strayer University Dr. Godson Ezejiofo HSA 535 Managerial Epidemiology January 25, 2015 Introduction Good Health Hospital has proved to be among the best hospitals in the region since its inception. The medical professionals and all members of staff are always committed to ensuring delivery of quality services to patients. The hospital has had a good reputation of excellent staff, good patient relations and top quality services. In the recent past, several cases of E. coli have been reported at Good Health Hospital. E. coli exists in a variety of types but most varieties a less harmful to human health. Research by medical professionals has shown that E. coli bacteria live in the intestines, for both people and animals. Symptoms of E. coli infection include diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting (Bennett, Jarvis & Brachman, 2007). E. coli emanates from taking contaminated food and water. E. coli may lead to death or permanent health problems if appropriate measures are taken on time. Nosocomial diseases can be termed as an infection that a person gets while being attend to in a health institution. The goal for this task is to explore the nosocomial infections, intervention strategies and recommendations on how to control and manage the various types of nosocomial infections. Analysis of Good Health Hospital records Records of Good Health Hospital show that a number of nosocomial diseases have been reported. Among the......

Words: 1331 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Bladder Infection

...Melissa Flores Seriousness of Bladder Infections on Infants I. Introduction A. (Attention Getter) UTI (unary tract infection) is the most common serious bacterial infection in childhood, in which is bacteria that travels up to the urethra into the bladder and multiply, resulting in an infection; many affected children, particularly infants, have severe symptoms Approximately 7 to 8% of girls and 2% of boys have a urinary tract infection during the first 8 years of life. B. (Reason to Listen) Antibiotic treatment of children with urinary tract infections has almost eliminated the risk of death, which was approximately 20% among children hospitalized for severe kidney infections in the early 20th century. Some 50 years ago, one study described scarring found in the functional tissue of the kidney in 210 of 597 children treated for recurrent urinary tract infections. Another study in that era reported on an 11-to-27-year follow-up of 72 children hospitalized for urinary tract infections; 18% had died, 8% had progressive kidney damage, and 22% had persistent untreated or recurrent infection. C. (Speaker Credibility) The North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies21 list primary diagnoses for 9854 children who had received transplants over the previous 20 years. D. (Preview) 1. First, I will discuss what’s the long term consequences a UTI can have if left untreated. 2. Second, I will cover the cause of a UTI. 3. Third, I......

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Airborne Infection

...Airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) (FKA negative pressure isolation room) * Is a single-occupancy patient-care room used to isolate persons with a suspected or confirmed airborne infectious disease * Environmental factors are controlled in AIIRs to minimize the transmission of infectious agents that are usually transmitted from person to person by droplet nuclei associated with coughing or aerosolization of contaminated fluids * AIIRs should provide negative pressure in the room (so that air flows under the door gap into the room); and an air flow rate of 6-12 ACH ( 6 ACH for existing structures, 12 ACH for new construction or renovation); and direct exhaust of air from the room to the outside of the building or recirculation of air through a HEPA filter before returning to circulation * According to Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) (www.jcaho.org) requires the following five components of an infection control program for accreditation: 1. Surveillance: monitoring patients and healthcare personnel for acquisition of infection and/or colonization 2. Investigation: identification and analysis of infection problems or undesirable trends 3. Prevention: implementation of measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and to reduce risks for device and procedure-related infections 4. Control: evaluation and management of outbreaks 5. Reporting: provision of information to external agencies...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Infection Control

...small. Only one or two particles are required to cause an infection. Viruses cannot survive for very long outside the body. Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics but in some cases are treated with antiviral medication. The best defence against viruses is immunisation. Viruses can mutate to create new strains. Viruses can only multiply once they invade their host cell. The common characteristics of fungi: Fungi appears in the form of yeasts and moulds. Fungi infections can be localised or systemic. Some fungi are helpful. Fungi infections are treated with antifungal medication. The common characteristics of parasites: Parasites can live in or on the host body. Parasites survive by feeding from a host. Parasites are controlled and destroyed by antiparasitic medication. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and Parasites. Gastroenteritis MRSA Impetigo Are caused by bacteria. Herpes HIV Mumps Are caused by viruses. CU254 Athletes foot. Thrush. Ringworm. Are caused by fungi Head lice. Scabies. Threadworm Are caused by parasites. 1.3 Describe what is meant by Infection and colonisation An infection is a invasion and multiplication of harmful microorganisms within any system or organ of the host. The host can be either animal or human. If an infection can be pasted on its then known as infectious. Infection can cause disease, be treated and make the host......

Words: 1129 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mrsa Infection

...or breathing tube during a stay in a hospital. Potentially life-threatening MRSA infections most often occur within health care settings (CDC, 2011). Septic shock (result of a severe infection) can occur as a result of the body’s inflammatory response to toxins released by the MRSA infection. The inflammatory response of MRSA can cause potentially fatal damage to organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and intestines. Septic shock symptoms can include; hands and feet appearing pale and feel cool to the touch, because of the body’s redirection of blood flow away from the extremities, and to the internal organs. This body’s inflammatory response, septic shock, can result in cardiac or respiratory failure or death (CDC, 2011). Mild cases of MRSA infections may start with and look like a red rash or small red bumps similar to pimples, boils, or a spider bite, there could be a yellow, pus filled head on the bump. Some mild cases of MRSA may appear as a scabbed over bug or spider bite, or may also look like blisters, hard lesions or rashes. If the MRSA infection becomes more severe it may show as large pus filled boil that can be a number of different colors such as green or purple. These varying colors are a result of a mold like substance on the skin. One should never try to pop the boil as they would a pimple (CDC. 2012) and (MAYO Clinic, 1998-2012). More severe cases of the MRSA infection may show as whitish, green, very hard scaly bumps. Although this wound/bump......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5